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JOSBPBC SiLTSS, "hSL 33^ ancL HI. .^ TIX^I^KlNr* 







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Jotimals, &o., Beceived Since the Last Issue. 

Anna] de Ohimie, Paris. 

'BQHetin G^n^nle de Th^M)6iitidiiQ, Paris. 

AbeSUe M^cale, Paris. 

Bulletin de l*Acad^mie de Medicine, Paria 

Comptes Renders, Paris. 

Journal de Phannacie, Paris. 

Journal de Chimie M^dicale, Paris. 

Repertoire de Pharmacie, Paris. 

London Jjancet 

London Journal of Pharmacy. 

Chemist London. 

Chemical Gasette, London. 

Journal and Transactions of the Maryland College of Pharmacy. 

American Journal of Pharmacy, Philadelphia. 

The Druggist^ s Circular and Chemical Gazette, New York. 

British and Foreign Medlco-Chirurgical Review, New York. 

American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Philadelphia. 

Journal of the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. 

American Medical Gazette and Journal of Health, New York. 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 

The American Journal of Sciences and Arts, New Haven, Ct. 

The Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, Augusta, Ga. 

The Medical and Surgical Reporter, Philadelphia. 

Medical News and Library, Philadelphia. 

St Louis Medical and Surgical Journal. 

The Virginia Medical Journal, Richmond, Va, 

The American Medical Monthly, New York. 

Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 

Dental Cosmos. 

The Charleston Medical Journal and Review. 

The Cincinnati Lancet and Observei . 

The New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, New Orleans. 

The College Journal of Medical Sciences, Cincinnati. 

Now Orleans Medical News and Hospital Gazette, New Orleans. 

The Chicago Medical Journal, Chioago. 

The Pacific Medical Journal, San Francisco, Cal. 

Atlanta Medical and Surgical Journal, Atlanta, Ga. 

The Savannah Journal of Medicine. 

The Peninsular and Independent Medical Journal, Detroit, Mich. 

The Medical Journal of North Carolina, Edenton, N. C. 

Nashville Monthly Record of Medical and Physical Science. 

Semi-Monthly Medical News, Louisville, Ky. 

Cuicinnati Eclectic and Edinburgh Medical Journal, Cincinnati. 

The Druggist, Cincinnati. 

Belmont Medical Journal, Brid^port, Ohio. 

Eclectic Medical Journal of Philadelphia. 

Cleveland Medical Gazette. 

Cincinnati Medical News. 

Hunt^s Merchants' Magazine. 

The New York Medical Press. 

Oglethorpe's Medical and Surgical Jonmal, Savannah, Ga. 


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Vew] JAHUABY, 1859. [Seriet. 

Remarks on the Therapeutic Resources famished by the 
Indigemous Materia Medica of the United States. 


I propose to present to your readers a compreiiensive synopaii 
of the known indigenous medicinal plants of the United State^ 
with such details in regard to their practical uses as your limits 
may allow. My aim will be to aid in the development of a home ^ 
Materia Medica, having lopg been -satisfied that we are far more 
dependent on foreign countries for drugs than is necessary, and 
that the time is not remote when the American practitioner will 
be able to dispense with a great proportion of medicinal substances 
now imported firom abroad. No branch of medical science has 
been more zealously or successfully prosecuted within the last 
quarter of a century than the Materia Medica, and there is no de- 
partment of our science whose investigation promises more im- 
portant results, or which, at the present moment, employs so many 
ardent and enlightened cultivators as this. These researches pen- 
etrate and take hold of every department of nature, animal, vege- 
table, and mineral ; but as the vegetable kingdom furnishes the 
greatest portion of our therapeutic resources, it is to this source 
our attention is chiefly to be directed. Take our own great State 
of New York, for example : we number about fourteen hundred 
and fifky known species of flowering plants, of which two hundred 
are herbaceous — ^we have two hundred and fifty species of woody 
plants, including eighty that attain the size of trees — ^wehave over 


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2 Lee on Indigenous Materia Medica. 

one hundred and fifty species of plants that are known to possess 
medicinal properties, many of them of great value. Of exotics 
now naturalized we have one hundred and sixty species, many ©f 
which have been introduced, accidentally with grasses and other 
agricultural products from abroad. Of such, also, are nearly all 
the weeds that prove so troublesome to the fiirmer. To the same 
source we are also indebted for many of our useful species, as most 
of our grasses, which spring up spontaneously on every hand. 01 
Ferns we have about sixty species belonging to the flora of the 
State, some of which are known to be medicinal. Our Mosses^ 
Liverworts^ Lichens^ and Seaweeds^ have, as yet, been but very im-r 
perfectly investigated, though many of them would, undoubtedly, 
furnish valuable contributions to medicine. When these shall 
have been more carefully studied and more fiilly known, we shall 
no longer send to Iceland, Ireland and the East Indies for mucil- 
aginous mosses and other remedies of this dass. Our Fungi are 
extremely numerous, constituting, probably, at least three thousand 
species, but few of which have been thoroughly studied. Here, 
then, is a wide field for botanical and therapeutical research. At 
present our knowledge scarcely suffices to enable us to distinguish 
such as are poisonous irom. those which are edible and nutritious, 
and yet the botany of this State has, as yet, been but imperfectly 
explored. Thousands of cryptogamic plants yet remain undis- 
covered, besides many of the phenogambus order. The geological 
features of our State are greatly diversified, its range of tempera- 
ture is great, and the geographical distribution of plants is equally 
extensive, being governed by both these circumstances. Already 
we can number more species than are found in the whole of New 
England; but we have mountainous and alpine regions in the 
State of New York, elevated some six thousand feet above the 
ocean, which furnish an alpine vegetation almost unexplored. 
Many plants on our Atlantic border are found nowhere else in 
our State, and the same remark will apply to the Valley of the 
Hudson and to our mountainous, western and northern regions. 
On the borders of our northern lakes, as has been noticed by Prof. 
Torrey, there are marine plants growing, showing that these 
waters were formerly saline. Of the Dicotyledonous orders in the 
State of New York, the Eanunculacece constitute about one 
thirty-eighth of the flowering plants ; the Oructferce one forty-fifth ; 


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Lee on Indigenous Materia Medico, 3 

the Legumincsex one twenty-sixth ; the Rosacece one twenty-fifth ; 
UrnbdUfercB one thirtieth ; Coniferce one ninth ; Ericacece one thirty- 
fourth; LainaUB one thirty-second; Scrophulariaceoe one thirty- 
ninth. Of the monocotyledinons plants there are but three large 
orders, viz.: Orchidaceae^ forming about one thirty-ninth of our 
flowering plants ; Cyperaceoe one-ninth, and Oramineae one- twelfth, 
which proportions vary but little from the average of the whole 
flora of North America. The southern portion of our Union is 
still more fruitful in medicinal plants than the northern or middle 
section. This might have been expected from its different climatic 
conditions and geological and geographical features. 

A veiy slight acquaintance with the subject must satisfy every 
intelligent mind that the resources of the vegetable kingdom, so 
fiur from being exhausted, have hardly yet been called into exist- 
ence. Whatever may be the demerits of the so-called Eclectic^ 
Botanic, and Thomsonian schools, they at least deserve the praise 
•f having developed to a considerable extent the therapeutic 
properties of many of our indigenous plants, and by their experi- 
ments on the sick have enabled us to form some estimate, however 
imperfect, of their just value. Every departanent of nature, doubt- 
less, abounds in remedies of great value, as yet undiscovered, and 
there is great plausibility in the opinion advanced by some, that 
every country spontaneously furnishes remedies for those maladies 
to which the people of the soil are naturally subject, and that 
foreign drugs would soon oease to be imported, if the properties 
•four own plants were more thoroughly understood. It seems a 
very just remark of Lindley, that the heat of a country, its humid- 
ity, particular localities, food, and the social habits of a people, will 
predispose them to varieties of disease for which the drugs of Eu- 
rope offer no suflScient remedy, and will render that which is relied 
upon in one country unworthy of dependence in another. 
Emetic plants, for example, are more abundant in warm than in 
cold climates, and they are more frequently indicated in the former. 
Many similar examples might be given, were it necessary, furnish- 
ing weighty inducements for the inhabitants of any given country 
or locality for exploring diligently the therapeutic resources of 
their particular section. When we consider that more than one 
thousand plants of the United States are known to possess medi- 
cinal qualities of value, and that but very few of them have be«i 


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4 , Lee on Indigenous Materia Afediocu 

investigated with any considerable care, either as regards their 
physiological or therapeutical properties, we shall need no ad- 
ditional argument to urge the cultivators of medical science 
to enter with renewed energy upon this almost unexplored field. 
It may be urged that our Materia Medica is already too extensive, 
and needs abridgment rather than extension, but this superficial 
objection vanishes when we consider that the medicinal proper- 
ties of no two plants are 'precisely similar, and that the great 
object in view is not the multiplication of comparatively inert 
articles, but the ascertainment of the mast valuable of those 
which can fulfil certain indications with the greatest promptness 
and certainty. We are not of the modem school that deny that 
there is any such art as that of medicine, or who would make it 
to consist merely in watching the progTCss of disease, unmodified 
by remedies ; who believe that nature needs no assistance, or that her 
consei*vative efforts require no guidance, stimulus, or restraint 
Unless we have entirely mistaken the modus operandi of medicines 
and their therapeutic powers, they are capable in given conditions 
and under favorable circumstances, as set forth by Copland, of ac- 
complishing the following ends : — 

1. Restoring vital and nervous ix)wer when primarily deprassed, 
as by shock, mental and physical, sedative and noxious causes, 
etc., etc. 

2. Promoting the various secreting and excreting functions, in 
ether words, the function of depuration. 

3. Equalizing the vascular and vital actions throughout the 

4. Moderating exceasive secretion and excretion, or restraining 
excessive discharges. 

5. Allaying existing nervous excitement, unnatural function, or 
irregular action. 

6. Allaying or moderating increased vascular action, or remor- 
ing vascular disorder. 

7. Correcting or counteracting morbid states of the blood. 

8. Allaying morbid irritation. 

9. Altering, or more completely changing morbid states of in- 
dividual tissues, or the structures generally. 

10. Preventing or removing exhaustion in its various forms. 

11. Removing congestions of blood. 


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\ Arnica in Tinnitus Annum 6 


12. Enabling organic, nervous or vital power to resist the slow 
extension of disease, or overcome its more rapid advances, and to 
throw off parasitical and other formations. 

13. Kestoring, as far as may be restored, impaired or lost 

14. Palliating urgent or distressing symptoms, either when they 
cannot be removed, or in order to obtain time to ascertain their 
sources, and for the removal of these sources, or pathological 

16. . Exciting and directing the mental emotions so as to prevent 
the extension or aggravation of disease, and to insure or hasten 

It is not to be supposed that these special principles of thera- 
peutics are to be carried out and these indications fulfilled only 
by the administration of drugs, for they imply the judicious use 
of all known therapeutic agents, as loss of blood, baths, counter- 
irritants — all psychical as well as physical appliances. Still, most 
of them do require the employment of medicines proper, and no 
calm, unbiased observer can doubt that the latter are powerfully 
^cient in their accomplishment. A more particular consider- 
ation of this subject would lead us into a discussion of the various 
modes in which medicines affect the solids and fluids — ^the vital 
properties of the different organs of the body — but all this must 
be left till we come to speak of the individual articles of our in- 
digenous Materia Medica. 

-^« ^ 

Arnica in Tinnitus Anrinm. 


There seems to be an imperfect knowledge respecting the spe- 
cific energy of Arnica in this country. I find no notice, whatever, 
in all our medical literature, of the developments made by Mr. 
Wilde, in his ** Diseases on the Ear,"* on the use of Arnica for that 
very distressing complaint — ^buzzing and singing noises in the 

* Practical observations on Aural Surgery and the Nature and Treatment of 
Diseases of the Ear, by William R. Wilde, of Dublin. Reprinted in this country 
by Blanchard k Lea. 


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6 Amioa m T^mnitus Aurtum. 

ear. The remarkable energy of this plant on the oerebro-spinal 
system, and its specific power over ^ntft/^, should be made known 
to practitioners ; and I do this simply £rom the fact that it is used 
so little by the profession, and only, as our many publications say, 
" as a domestic remedy in sprains, bruises," &c. Mr. Wilde says 
(page 103): "The only medicine I know of which appears to ex- 
ercise an influence over tinnitus aurium^ is Leopard's-bane, — 
Arnica Montana^ — formerly much in use for rheumatic affections, 
and as an external application in sprains and bruises." On pages 
248-9, he says: "I have found the preparations of Arnica Mon- 
tana of decided benefit ; indeed, it is the only medicine which I 
am acquainted with that seems to possess a specific power over 
this annoying and usually most intractable complaint The pre- 
paration which I find to be the most efficacious, is the tincture,* of 
both flowers and leaves, which the patient should commence with 
by taking fifteen drops in a tablespoonful of the infusion of Ar- 
nica, with some cordial tincture, three times a day. After a few 
days the dose should be increased one or two drops daily till it 
reaches thirty, or even more, unless headache or giddiness be 
produced, when we should at once lessen the dose, or omit the 
medicine altogether for a short tima The state of the bowels 
should be carefully attended to during the administration of thig 

He well remarks, however, in order to secure the best effects^ 
that "the original disease which produced it" (the tinnitus), must 
be removed, or at least, a decided amelioration of any inflamma- 
tory action which may be going on. 

We have had patients with a most annoying tinnitus, and un- 
accompanied with deafiiess, in which we have found the Fluid 
Extract of Arnica (Tilden's) highly beneficial. We commenced 
with six drops, — ter de di^ — ^increasing one drop each day till the 
patient took thirty drops. The improvement was good, and is 
permanent to this day. We shall have occasion to refer tb this 
matter again soon. 

* To make the tincture, take one ounce and a half of the flowers to a pint ol 
rectified spirits of wine, macorate for fourteen days, and strain. 


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Hyoscyamus Niger. J 

Hyosoyanms Nigger. 

{Oontinued frcrm page 164.) 

OoRREcr definitions lie at the basis of the exact sciences, while 
in all other than the exact sciences, the classification must be more 
or less xinreliable, and subject to change from the inaccuracy of the 
terms employed, which is a necessary condition to an experimental 
science, one which advances, not by results flowing out from cer- 
tain fixed, established principles, but by having its principles 
modified and corrected by the development of facts, hitherto \m 
known, which must be accounted for, and which, in fact, consti 
tute the essence of its growth. In the science of mathematics all 
reasoning depends on the hypothesis employed. ' A certain defi 
nition given to a straight line or a circle, correct reasoning about 
the properties of either is true, not necessarily in fact, but accord- 
ing to the definition. It cannot be proved, neither is it asserted 
that either the straight line or circle exist The reasoning is 
purely hypothetical. But in physias and the natural sciences, the 
case stands entirely different ; the operation is the reverse. The 
ooUeotion of fects precedes the classification, and the definition of 
a thing or class of things is the defining, limiting, including all 
that should be included, and excluding all that should be excluded. 
Except when everything is known that can be known of a science, 
the definitions are, in a manner, arbitrary, and by no means easy 
to be made, and cannot be expected to be universally adopted 
The correct classification of articles in the Materia Medica has two 
difficulties to contend against ; inaccuracy in the definitions given 
to their general therapeutic properties ; the constant changes that 
are being made by the developments in the science of medicine, 
both in die rejection of old modes of application and the substitu- 
tion or addition of new. However, the latter difficulty could be 
more easily made way with, if what is meant by the use of the 
general terms, such as diaphoretic, sudorific, narcotic, anodyne, so- 
porific, anti-spasmodic, etc., was definitely fixed and universally 
acknowledged by authors and the profession at large. 

This whole difficulty may be aptly represented by noting the 
difference between the work of classifying any article of the vege- 
table Materia Medica botanically and therapeutically. In the for- 
mer case, with the plant in perfection, it is an eacy matter to de-* 


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8 Byoscyamus Niger. 

cide whether it is Phenogamous or Cryptogamoufl, Angiosperm 
or Gymnosperm^ Polypetalous, MonopetaloTis or Apetalous ; and 
80 on till it ifl generic«ally and specifically fixed ; but, on the other 
liand, to classify it therapeutically, there are needed years of care- 
ful experiment and observation under all possible conditions of 
place, constitution, form and amount, for facta necessary thereto. 

This inaccuracy, referable to both necessity and carelessness, 
has reacted on the profession to such an extent, that by want of 
a careful discrimination and limitation of these general terms, 
what would be of immense, nay, almost incalculable value, has 
been well nigh rejected and made a matter of inferior moment. 
The inquiry is not, when investigating a new remedy or the ad- 
vance of an old, what is the general range, when does it come into 
relation with others ; but to what particular cases is it applied, 
how is it used: useful, practical, labor*saving questions enough, 
but unscientific, and to the thinking, rational practitioners wholly 
nnsatisfactoiy. It may be well enough for the professedly scientific 
books to state that an article is at once cathartic, emetic, alterative, 
anthelmintic, hydragogue and sialogogue, but these books are not 
consulted to discover this as a matter of information, influencing 
practice, but to discover in what diseases it has proved successful 
and in what it maybe relied upon as pretty nearly a specific. The 
new books teach little else than certain collated fiwrts without 
any attempts at generalization, careful or otherwise. " What is 
writ, is writ "'in medicine. There is a morbid fear of change, and 
the dogmas of the past are clung to with an astonishing tenacity. 

CJoming within lie general scope of the foregoing remarks, but 
yasily less so than a multitude of others, is the agent imder con- 
mderation. Having in a previous article considered the Hyoscya- 
mus in its special application to particular diseases, let us now in- 
quire into the opinions that have been, and are now held, in regard 
to its general properties, then the various definitions of the terms 
employed, and seek to fix, by its physiological and medicinal proper- 
ties, its true place in the Materia Medica. 

Cullen classes it among the sedantia^ i. e. " those medicines whicli, 
directly and without evacuation, diminish the motions and powers 
of the nervous system." " This, like other narcotic substances, will 
sometimes moderate and restrain hemorrhage, but we are persuadc^l 
that except when the hemorrhage manifestly depends upon a par 


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Hyoscyamxjts Niger, ' 9 

ticular irritation, this, or any other narcotic may be very hurtfuL" 

" We have, indeed, found the hyoscyamus to be often an agree- 
able and soporiferons medicine, and we have frequently found it 
such in persons who, from particular circumstances, did not agree 
with opium, and particularly because it was less binding to the 
belly than opium. We must, however, remark here, that it is al- 
most only when the extract of henbane is employed in large doses, 
that its laxative effects are very remarkable." 

Pliny speaks of its virtues in various ways : — Suocus hyoscyami 
etiam sanguinem excreantibus, nidor quoque accenisi tussientibus. 
Succus hyoscyami cum axungia articulis. Hyoscyamum genitali- 
bus medetur. 

Forskahl mentions this medicine as being brought from Greece 
to Egypt in his day and administered to procure sleep ; adding, 
that it might with safety be given to children. 

According to Royle, it is narcotic, anodyne and soporific; 
available for a variety of cases where we wish to relieve pain, allay 
irritability, and procure sleep ; having the advantage of not con- 
stipating the bowels like opium, and hence it is frequently used 
with calomel, purgatives and anti-spasmodice. 

Mr. A. T. Thompson says, that united with colocynth, he has 
found hyoscyamus particularly useful in colica pictonum. 

Munay, in his App. Medic., Vol. 1, p. 655, has treated fiilly of 
hyoscyamus and its use in convulsions, palpitation, mania and 
melancholy. With regard to its anodyne properties, he says : — 
Opio ipso, in somno et quiete induoenda, aliquando potentius fuit. 

Bigelow speaks of it as having been given in colic, particularly 
colica pictonum, in rheumatism, hysteria, and some puerperal 
complaints; and externally, as forming a useful anodyne applica- 
tion in hemorrhoids, chordee, and painful ulcerations. 

Dunglison marks it as narcotic, anodyne, anti-spasmodic, anu 
slightly stimulant 

Pereira gives it as anodyne, soporific, anti-spasmodic and seda- 
tive, and in fomentations, as a topical sedative and anodyne. 

Dr. Good declares that hyoscyamus has a tendency to check the 
pulse, and sometimes ta put a total stop to the heart's action with 
a deadly shock, and to kill the patient in a moment ; classing it 
with digitiUis and prussic acid, as used expressly on account of this 


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10 SyodCj/amu8 Niger. 

Dr. Wood says it ranks among the narcotics, and, in its remedial 
operation, is anodyne and soporific. It is at present used to relieve 
pain, procure sleep, or quiet irregular nervous action ; and it is 
not supposed to exercise any specific curative influence over par- 
ticular diseases. The diseases to which it is applicable, it would 
be useless to enumerate, as there are few complaints in which cir- 
cimistances might not call for its employment 

According to the experiments of Orfila, the juice, or extract 
from the leaves, stems, and especially the root, produces in animals 
a state of sopor, much purer than that caused by opium ; most 
active when applied to the jugular vein, less so when applied to 
^he cellular tissue, and still less when introduced into the stomach. 

In a treatise on vegetable poisons, Mr. Wilmer has related the 
history of six persons in a family who were poisoned by eating at 
dinner the roots of hyoscyamus by mistake, instead of parsnips. 
Several were delirious and danced about the room like maniacs; 
one appeared as if he had got drunk, and a woman became pro- 
foundly and irrecoverably comatose, dying next morning. In her 
case, emetics, clysters, and external stimuli failed. 

Another author says: — It causes all the phenomena of narootio 
poisoning, such as results from other solanaceous plants, particu- 
larly congestion of the vessels of the brain with coma. 

The concurrent testimony of these writers is, that the chief 
property of hyoscyamus is narcotic ; where they differ, is in as- 
cribing to it other propertiea If, then, this term is appropriately 
applied, what is the meaning of the definitive word — narcotic? 
Assuredly, if hyoscyamus is a pure narcotic, all the efiects pro- 
duced on the animal organism, physiological and medicinal, by 
the administration of hyoscyamus, are, as a whole, narcotic, i. e. 
excluding none and including no others, in all the stages from the 
symptoms produced by small doses up to those produced in the 
last stages by poisonous doses. If all these are to be included, 
then it is a pure narcotic, and is the standard of the class ; but if 
it possesses certain properties universally manifesting themselves 
in the first stages of its operation, and has them in common with 
some other agents, with which its after operations do not coincide, 
then these first properties constitute the ground of the classifica- 
tion. In this case it is narcotic, but it has other properties in ad- 
dition. This, then, is a matter of classification on which there ought 
to be authoritative decision. — {lb be condnued.) 


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Indigenous versus Foreign Medicines. 11 

Indigenous verstiB Foreign Medicines. 


THiere are some practitioners who seem to value no medicine 
wWcli lias not oome across the great deeg, or at least been brought 
by some long route from a foreign clime — ^they have an especial 
choice for something from old England or France, esteeming the 
productions of these countries, as they do their people, a leeiie bet- 
ter than anything that can be grown on this democratic soil. 
Then, on the other hand, we have a class of philosophers who 
are so intensely American as to assume the position of know- 
nothings in regard to the productions of foreign countries ; they 
are so impressed with the value of our indigenous Materia Medica^ 
for instance, that they cannot imagine what is the use of import- 
ing such things from abroad. 

The doctrine that every locality produces medicines adapted t# 
the diseases to which it is subject suits the views of this latter 
class — a doctrine which would exclude us from the use of opium, 
Peruvian bark, the spices, and hundreds of invaluable remedies, 
many of which have no counterparts on our soU. 

Now, it seems to me, there is no philosophy in either of these 
viewa The obvious design of Providence in the distribution of 
natural objects over aU parts of the world is to promote commerce, 
that great dvilizer of mankind, and in proportion as our know- 
ledge extends and our views expand, we shall be led to avail our- 
selves of the resources which, by the imgrudging bounty of nature, 
are spread broadly over all lands for the promotion of human 
comfort and the cure of disease. In England, the idea that Great 
Britain is the imiverse, and especially that this barbarous land is 
scarcely worthy the notice of a gentleman or savant, though by 
no means universal, is certainly entertained by a considerable 
class, who are not without their prototype in America. 

It will be remarked, however, that the intense nationality of 
feeling here alluded to pertains chiefly to the productions of 
human skill and ingenuity. The idea of the natural superiority 
of our country over another is too repugnant to common sense to 
be intelligently entertained, but the prejudice spends itself chiefly 
in disparaging productions which display intellectual superiority 
or manual skill or taste. Here our toady is at home, and in his 


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12 Belladonna in Secretion of MiJk, 

ignorant self-sufficiency exposes himself to tlie ridicule of sensible 

The capabilities of mind are the same in all countries, though 
it is more tramelled in some than others. So universally diffused 
are its gifts that no civilized nation can claim that it is not greatly 
indebted to all others ; in this view, we, in America, must own 
ourselves as having less right to be boastful than our transatlantic 
brethren. In natural productions we can beat the world, but in 
the laborious cultivation of science, Europe has imjx)sed a debt 
upon us which many years of our material progreas will not suffice 
to repay. 

The scientific physician and pharmaceutist should be above the 
petty prejudices and rivalries of sects and nations, and being in 
the true sense of the word an eclectic, should own himself to be 
a citizen of the commonwealth of science — a servant of humanity. 
The true spirit of Americanism is universal and all-embracing, 
and when its zeal shall be moderated by experience, we may hope 
it will produce a liberality in science and practical life which will 
give it a deserved preeminence. 

Belladonna in Arresting the Secretion of Milk. 


I have read in your journal some very flattering notices of the 
eflect of Extract of Belladonna in arresting the secretion of milk ; 
but I have seen no c^ise where it has been tried on one mammary, 
allowing the other to secrete and be nursed from. 

I attended Mrs. M — a few days ago, and on account of large 
cicatrices formed by a previous ulceration, and the entire loss of 
the nipple from the left gland, she was very uneasy, fearing that 
she would have again to undergo all her former agony in having 
another abccas and ulcerations. Under this fear she early men- 
tioned the matter to me, and inquired if there was Jiny preven- 
tive. I must confess I did not encourage her much, but allaying 
her fear as much ag possible, I determined to try the eflect of tlie 
Nightshade, as I had seen it recommended. 

Accordingly, as soon as her child was born, I made a solntiijtn 
of Extract of Belladonna, about one scruple to an ounce of wufer. 


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Apocynum as an Anti- Periodic, 18 

and directed that this should be well applied to the aperture of 
the nipple, and around as far as the areola extends, once a daj, 
and if any hardness or swelling supervened, to apply it twice 
daily. On the third day, about two tablespoonfuls of milk were 
drawn from this breast with the pump, as there had been that 
morning a little hardness on one side. After this, nothing fur- 
ther was done, except the application once a day. The fifth' 
day this breast was soft and flabby — the other having an abund- 
ance of milk for the child. Then the gland had almost resumed 
a normal position, without milk, and without the least pain to the 
patient at any time. 

Ax>ooynuni Caimabinxim as an Anti-Periodic. 

The anti-periodic propertie.s of this valuable plant have rt.s3ent-' 
ly invited the attention of the medical profession. Dr. Trent, of 
Richmond, Virginia, in a communication to us, mentions his 
mode of using it to bo after the following formula ; 

Pulverized Apocynum Cannabinum - - - One Dram. 

CHI Nigri Piperiti Twelve Droj)**. 

Make into twelve pilb*. Dose, one pill every two hours before the expected 
ditll, until four pills are taken. 

Previous to the administiation of the Apocynum, he gives twa 
compound cathartic pills. He has reported to the Southern Med- 
ical and Surgical Journal some twelve cases of intermittento 
treated successfully, and having since then treated with equal suc- 
fcfis six cases, confirms his opinion of the valuable anti-periodic 
properties of this plant. 

The recorded experience of Dr. Joseph Parrish in an aggi-ava- 
ted case of ascites, is confirmed by Dr. Samuel C, Waite, of Gou- 
vemeur, St. Lawrence Co., N. Y., in the case of a lady sixty five 
years of age. % 

Dr. Knapp foimd it useful in dropsy, and Dr. Griscom published 
in the American Journal of Medical Science, xii. 55, a full report 
of his obeeiTations, confirming this opinion. 

Professor Merrill relates a case of ascites in a boy twelve years 
old, which was promptly relieved by Apocynum after other treat- 
ment had foiled, and the disease had progressed so fiir in spite of 
it, that a time had been fixed for the operation of tapping. 


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14 TrecUmerU of YeUow Fever by Veratrum, 

Bradycrote Treatment of Yellow Fever by Veratrum Viride. 

Drs. O. A. White and Wm. H. Ford, of Charleston, in a communioation ad- 
dremed to the Charleston Medical Journal and Review, state that the &talitj 
of the disease, especially the last season in Charleston, was the cause of their 
distrust in received modes of practice. Dr. Ford proposed to reduce the fre- 
quency of the pulse, '*at the febrile onset, as speedily as was prudent to a 
nuige ten beats below that peculiar to the person, and to maintain it fifteen or 
twenty beats below the same standard, according to the intensity of the access 
and subsequent symptoms. Veratrum was selected from the list of agents whkh 
lower the heart's action. 

The sygtem, therefore, upon which we decided, was diiefly as follows : — 

Ist In adults, when the bowels had not been moved for some days, a saline 
eaihartic was given, and if the headache was intense, five or six evacuations 
were procured. If the bowels had been tolerably regular or loose, and in deli- 
cate women and children, we gave an efiScient dose of calomel, alone or combined 
with some other gentle purgative. 

2d. As early as possible after the administration of the cathartic^ and odea 
during its action, we began with the veratrum for the primary reduction of 
the pulse, which was always effected within seven hours. To this end we 
prescribed five successive doses, the first four of which were given «very hour, 
and the last from an hour and a half to two hours afterwards, irrespectively of 
age or sex. The tincture was administered without combination, mixed in a 
little water, for adult males in doses of firom 8 to 10 drops ; («-4 or 6 minims;) 
for women, from 6 to 8 drops ; for children, between seven and fourteen years, 
from 4 to 6 drops ; for those between three and seven years, from 8 to 6 drops ; 
and for all under two years, 1 or 2 drops. The size of the doses was, moreover, 
regulated by the intensity of the symptoms, by temperament^ irritability of 
stomach, and the previous duration of the disease. By the administration of 
Veratrum in this nuumer, the pulse wassooner or later subdued, and as it sank, 
became somewhat irregular. The first doses of Veratrum were often vomited 
in severe cases, but the succeeding ones were oommonly retained, and the pa- 
tient did not again vomit until the pulse was reduced, when the effect of the 
remedy was occasionally marked by emesis. This vomiting was rarely severe, 
Masing of itself upon a temporary discontinuance of the medicine, or yielding 
readily to common restoratives. The reduction of the pulse was accompanied 
by a notable cooling of the body, by a well marked diminution of the headache, 
pain in the back and limbs, of the restlessness and anxiety, of the frequency of 
respiration, of the congestion of the skin, flushing of the fiice, tumefaction of 
&e tongue, and injection of the conjimctiva. The patient felt mudi relieved, 
and slept tranquilly as soon as the vomiting had ceased ; nor did thesjrmptoms 
tend to hecur for some hours, as they would always do, however, if the drug 
were not again prescribed. 

While, therefore, the patient was in this condition, the ooncurrent treatment 
was at once instituted. It consisted : — 


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TteaimerU of TeOcw Fever by Veratntm, 16 

3d. «w In a oontinued exhibition qf the Teratram, bj which the pulse was 
maintained throughout the disease, and until the tongue began to clean, fifteen 
beats or more below its natural range. To effect this, repeated doses half as 
large as those first given, but not unfrequentlj quite as large, or nearly so, 
were administered every second or third hour, suspended while the pulse was 
low, but promptly resumed as soon as it showed an upward tendency by a rise 
d ten beats or more. The patient was therefore seen every six hours, and 
much more frequently in urgent cases, for it was easy to control the pulse 
when once reduced, difiScult to reduce it a second or third time when by neg- 
lect it had risen beyond one hundred beats per minute. Careful watching was 
important, firom the consideration that every such rising of the pulse, tending 
to a complete retetablishment of the fever in a weakened condition, was re- 
garded as fblly as dangerous as a second or third paroxysm in bilious rcmit- 
tant ferer. If the pulse was small and frequent, the Teratrum was administered 
in small and frequent doses. If diarrhea occurred, as it rarely did, it was re- 
strained by mild counter-irritants and astringents, but the Ycratrum was on 
DO aoooont suspended, and the pulse was continuously influenced by small but 
adequate doses. If black vomit supervened and the pulse was slow the Vera- 
trom was plainly not required ; if, however, the pulse was rapid, the Yeratrum 
was oontinued in doses proportioned to its frequency, which were usuaUy 
mall, uid were repeated every two or three hours. Without regard, therefore, 
to die ordinary accidents of the disease, whenever it was required, and only 
then, the Yeratrum was uniformly or specially administered until convalescence 
was declared. 

(. In mercurialisation, whidi was invariably attempted, calomel, and in some 
iases hydrarg. cum. creta. was pushed in moderate doses without delay, at 
•OOQ as catharsis had been effected. Hie mercurial was discontinued when the 
gums were plainly touched. 

4> In the administration of a saline, (fiuretic and refrigerant mixture, specially 
directed towards the kidneys as soon as the intensity of the symptoms had been 

In pregnant women the Yeratrum was administered as nsoal, but in doses 
io regulated as to av(»d, if possible, any vomiting, the pulse being nevertheless 
•ontrolled. K symptoms of abortion had already set in, and during the first 
three days of the disease, they were in every case effectually arrested, and some- 
times did not again recur ; but after this period, if a general internal and exter- 
nal congestion had supervened — if the pulse had become quick and very gmall^ 
and if the oontractile efforts of the uterus were reestablished, as well as in cases 
teen late where they first presented themselves towards the termination of the 
disease — it was deemed iqjudicious to continue the Yeratrum, death, in such 
cases, having ensued after a short Ume. We have, therefore, observed that in 
aonvomitive, but bradycrote doses, the Yeratrum, in this disease, has appeared 
to possess anti-parturient properties. 

During convalescence, quinine, sulphuric acid and iron were conjointly pre- 
scribed. Quinine was strictly avoided in the commencement and progress oi 
the disease. Nareotics of every description were absolutely discarded, or only 


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Review of Dr. TxMt/s Materia JfecU'ca.. 

administered in moderation^ when convaleecence was fully established. Laxa- 
dyes were giTen by the mouth, if deemed requisite, at any period of the disease, 
but per anum during black vomit. Blisters were rarely required ; sinapisms 
were of advantage in aiding the retention of the Ycratrum when first adminis- 
tered, or when resorted to in consequence of a rise in the pulse ; and they were 
otherwise variously applied as in ordinary treatment. Strict abstinence was 
enjoined throughout the febrile stage. Stimulants were prescribed in very 
small quantities, and were rarely required, the Yeratrum being discontinued or 
alternated with them. Convalescence was almost invariably prompt and un- 
complicated. Relapses occurred in but two cases, in both of which quinine 
had been omitted during convalescence. Careful notes were taken at the bed- 
side, and at each visit, from which the following numbers have been evolved. 
Patients under fourteen years of age were classed as children. Total number 
treated by Veratrum, 117; recovered, 102; died, 15. Adults, 80; recovered, 
•6; died, 14. ChUdren, 87; recovered, 36; died, 1. 

The first case was treated with Veratrum Viride on August 17th. Th"e sub- 
joined table shows the mean ranges of the pulse under the Veratrum Viride^ as 
compared with its mean range before the Veratrum Viride was given. 

M«ftn frequency of Pakie. 

When V. v. first given 
Seven hours after - - 
Remainder of disease - 

Beats per Min. 

10^5 " 

Beata per. Min. 


Beats pr. Mio 



Wb have received the following communication, in answer to the Review 
published in the last number of our Journal. We give it place, that our 
readers may peruse both sides, then judge for themselves. 

Review of Dr. Tully's Materia Medioa. 
We like this Review as a whole. The author undertook a very difficult 
task, and the manner in which he has accomplished it, proves him to be, we 
think, one of oiu* ablest and most independent medical scholars. That it is difD- 
eult to review a work like Dr. "Tally's, is shown by the fact that not one of the 
editors of our medical journals has seen fit to imdertake it. Here is an original 
American medical work, written by one who is admitted to be a profound 
medical scholar, or, as our Reviewer expresses it, " one of the solid men of the 
profession." Many months have elapsed since the work was out, and yet the 
guardians of our medical literature are silent It would be preposterous to sup- 
pose that anything but the difficulty of the task has deterred them. In our 
oountry, where newspapers are free, journals are free, and men arc free ; where 
it is considered insulting to accuse any one of a want of independence ; where 
an editor, especially, would bo indignant, eve« were it hinted that he was afVaid 


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Rexneio of Dr. Tulh/'s Materia AfecUoa. 17 

to express his opinion ; — I say, that when such a state of things exists, wo 
mnet look in some other direction for a solution of the difSculty : nor can we 
suppose that our medical editors, the shepherds of the profession, have been 
wanting in yigilanoe. If the new work, in their opinion, is a wolf in sheep's 
dothing, they certainly would have sounded the alarm ; silence imder these 
drcumstances would be treason, and we cannot admit for a moment that so 
many respectable men could neglect a duty so important It is not, then, want 
of independence or want of Tigilance on the part of our medical shepherds. 
I cannot believe that an unworthy motive, a desire to kill by neglect, influencea 
them. No, it must be the difficulty of the task and nothing else. 

Although we like this Review as a whole, yet we do not agree with the Re- 
viewer in some things. He has doubts about the advantages of Dr. Tully*» 
nomenclature. To us this nomenclature is one of the. crowning excellencies of 
the work. In regard to the names of the classes being derived from ** ancient 
lia3sical Greek," it seems to us that the utility and propriety of such a deriva- 
tion was settled by Linnaeus a century ago. Is it not safe to follow such 
aathority ? 

Our Reviewer says ** new and additional names do not give new knowledge — 
do not enlarge our ideas, or render them clear or more accurate." Let us 
consider a few facts which have a bearing on this subject. Formerly an ar- 
ticle in common use by physicians was called white titrwl,; after the compo- 
sition of it was discovered, it received a new name — sulphate of zinc. Now, 
does not this new name give " new knowledge ? " Docs it not *' enlarge our 
ideas," and render them clear and more accurate ? No one acquainted with 
chemistry can hesitate a moment to answer this question in the affirmative, 
and large numbers of similar new names might be mentioned, which would go 
to prove that nomenclature was of primary rather than ** secondary " import- 
ance. Our Reviewer admits that where new ideas are to be classified for the 
first time, it is "highly proper" that they should be furnished with names, 
mnd that these names should be regularly and classically formed. With these 
exceptions, how many new names have been added by Dr. Tully ? We oan 
find none. 

We agree perfectly with the Reviewer, that ** we cannot allow that anybody 
has a right to coin " names, ** except on the gravest occasions and for the most 
argent reasons." We leave it for the profession to decide whether or not Dr. 
Tally is anybody ; and whether or not here is a ^rava occasion and a most 
it^rpent reoMn. 

In the latter part of the Review we have a little more about names ; and, by 
the way, our Reviewer seems to dislike new names quite as much as Dr. Tully 
diritkes the anti-phlogistic salts. He says, " we do not like the terms orof ! hetics 
and antisbestics. They are hard, uncouth. To the great rnHJon'ty of nn^^lical 
oien they are withoat special significance. What is more, they seem to us un- 
neeessary. Names when not needed are nnniitigated nuisances ; they stand 
in the way of knowledge, and it is well if they get pitched into the gutter. *• 
I^ us consider whether the new names or the anti-phlogistic salts deserve 
most to be pitdied into the guttfr; though Dr. Tully has not advised this 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

18 Revievj of Dr. TuU^s Materia Medico. 

summary proce&s in regard to the latter. In the paragraph above the one we 
quote from, in speaking of the three classes, euphrenics, oresthetics, and antiB- 
bestics, he sh}% *' I>r. Tully has shown three powere to exist where but one 
has been supposed." Here, then, by the admission of our Reviewer, we havei 
at least, two new cl&sses to be named, and in another place he says that 
•* where new ideas" are to be ** classified for the first time," it is "highly 
proper " that these cla.sses and powers should be furnished with names, and 
that these names should be regularly and classiodly formed. If it is ** highly 
proper " to do this, it seems to me not well if these names get pitched into the 
gutter. Our Reviewer seems to have a strong affection for the word stimulant^ 
and thinks it will not be "discarded." We presume he is right, and we always 
expect <o hear physicians talk about white vitriol, blue vitriol, and j^reen vitricJ; 
nervine, arterial and aend stimulants. We always expci't to hear sonic phy- 
sicians say that they *' bleed to invigorjtte," that tiirtar emetic and nitre are 
stimulants, (acrid, I suppose,) iMxause they sometimes produce infiaiamation 
of the stomach and intostincs. We^do not know a term in any of the depart- 
mev^U of nuidicinc which ha< produced as much confusion and bad pnvctice aa 
the term stimulant; it has been applied to articles of opposite powers as well 
as to those which resemble each other ; in a word, it is a term which we think 
should be discarded, and we think that the thruikK of the profession arc due to 
Dr. Tully for his efforts to rid us of it. 

Our Reviewer remarks that anli-phlogistics **are not fuvoi ite retiiedi«\s" with 
Dr. Tully. It is quite natural for one to dislike anythinp; which, in his opinion, 
docs injury or mischief. I once heard of -an eminent surj;«'un who always 
decried the use of rttd precipitate ointment, because he Iiud set»n a nund>cr of 
cases where the inappropriate use of it had done bunn. Dr. Tully only 
condc!un.« the use of anti-phlogistic.s during the prcvak'ux' of an Jisthenic dia- 
thesis ; and, admitting; the existence of this diathesis at the present time, few 
men of experience will disa?:rce with Dr. Tully. Ilcwtver, the practical qucft- 
tion to be dt cided Is, whether or not this chan;;e of diath' ^'.s luis taken pl.xoc ; 
and we are sorry tliat our Reviewer did not di.scuss this point. 

Let us consider a few lacts which «;o to prove tlmt such a chanjro has udien 
place. Whenever we have conversiMl with old practitIonei*s in re;raixl to the 
treatment of acute diseivses fifty years apjo, they all athnit that the antiphlo- 
gistic practice, which Wivs successful at that time, is now pcxitivcly injuriout?. 
Some account for this fact in one \say, and some in another. It is supposed 
by some that our fathers usodanti-phlogistics unnecessarily, and hence we find 
that about thirty yciirs ago a great deal was said in the Athens of Anierit^ 
about the erpc-ctant plan of treatment. It was found, then, that the anti-phlo- 
gistic plan did barm rather tlian good. Cases were left to nature and did well, 
at least much better than under the depleting system. This was the true 
origin of the homoeopathic system, 1 the expectant plan was known in 
Europe previous to this time. Subsequently, in the same place, much was said 
about 9e\f4imited dUeases^ and more recently about rational medicine; all, 
however, going to show that the anti-phlogistic plan was a pemk^ous one. Ne 
•tteoipt, 80 far as we know, was made to aooount for this failure of the anii- 


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EcUkmaL 19 

phlogistie plan to aire ifiseaae. Dr. Ttill j has grren us a philosophkal rsasott 
for this fiulure. If anj man can give us a better or more phiksophkal <amp 
let us hare it Until then^ we aocept the explanation of Dr. Tnllj, and belicff* 
it oonduciTe to rational and successftil practice. 

But we have already exceeded the limits we prescribed to oursehree, and wiB 
onljr add, that we hope all will read the Review, and what is better, read ani 
Stodj the book, and " master its principles.** 


The published proceedings of the last meeting of the American Pharmaoeo- 
tical Association furnish additional evidence of the real importance of tbt. 
Aflsociation to American science, and demonstrate the activity and zeal with 
wfcich its members are prosecuting their inquiries into the various departments 
eonnected with the science of pharmacy. Previous to the establishment of 
this Association as a distinct body, the members of the profession, pursuit^ 
their learned and untiring researches, had been, by no means, idle or lacking 
in zeal in cultivating an intimate acquaintance with pharmacy on an inde* 
pendent basis. The results of these investigations have been made known to tha 
public mainly through the medium of the American Journal of Pharmacy, » 
periodical devoted exclusively to the interests of this branch of medicine, whose 
pages, since the year 1832, have been adorned with many of the most valuable 
oontributions to medical literature ever published in this country. The object* 
that the Association has in view arc to encourage and foster a free spirit of 
inquiry and investigation, and to diffuse general pharmaceutical intelligence: 
No branch is in any degree slighted, and no predominance is given to any on* 
department to the neglect of another. Whatsoever relates to the general ro- 
tations of botany, chemistry, and the more specific indications in the prepara- 
tion of drugs, their analytical composition, their reactions and combinations, 
and in whatsoever direction there arc opportunities for research or improve- 
ment, there the investigations are carried. This body is composed of the 
druggists and apothecaries of the country, and meets annually to hear the re- 
ports of committees and individuals on the assigned Kubjects of the previous 
year, as also voluntary contributions on topics having reference to tho general 
aubject of pharmacy. 

One great object to be attained by the Association, is the general education 
of the dispensers of drugs, that those who deal in medicines may come to an 
accurate knowledge of their purity, and be educated into a thorough under- 
standing of the rationale of the many manipulations belonging to theur pro- 
fession, and necessary to be almost d'^!^^ practiced by all who are engaged in it 

Perhaps in no country in the worid is the proportion of apothecaries to the 
population so great as in ours ; hence the responsibility the apothecary incurs — 
not the lees to the community at large than to the medical profession. In the 
proMOutjon of his regular business, understanding his position, he should feel 


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20 Editorial 

' it a duty to the profession and the community to aTail himBelf of every means 
in his power to thoroughly qualify himself. It is not enough that he me- 
chanically discharges his daily dispensing duties, hut he should cultivate a taste 
for scientific investigation, understand the changes and reactions that occur, not 
only as a matter of desirable knowledge, but with a view to experiments and 
disoovery, and communicate his observations to the Association, that the pro- 
fession at large may be benefited, and new facts not previously comprehended, 
but of great value, be brought into notice, thus making himself an instrument 
of usefulness to the people, not less than the medical profession. 

It is true that we have not arrived at that point where the Association can 
irtsist on those qualifications, as is the case in some of the countries on the 
continent In no country is the practice or qualifications of the apothecary so 
little interfered with by legislative enactments as in this : he is left entirely to 
his own course, and subject only to the self imposed regulations of this efficient, en- 
ergetic, and self-educating association ; and our hope is that the intelligence it 
embodies, arid a healthful public sentiment will produce all ?i5^///>/Z regulations. 

The conditions for graduation at the Philadelphia and other Colleges of 
Pharmacy are much more severe than those for graduation at any medical 
school in the country ; and so far as the influence of those interested in this 
particular school is concerned, it Is a step in the right direction. It Is an un- 
doubted fact, however, that the graduates of this or of other schools of pharmacy 
constitute but a small proportion of those engaged in the sale and dispensino^ 
of drugs. The intelligent practitioners of medicine can but heartily sympa- 
thize with any movement whatsoever calculated to the skill of, and 
consequently their confidence in, the apothecaries and dispensors of dinigs, 
whether in the large cities or the provincial towns, and particularly will they 
be ready to encourage an association numbering on its roll of members the 
best pharmaceutists in the land, and which, hs it grows more mature, will be 
more and more chary of its interest and more and more discriminating in its 
admission to the ranks of membership. 

The revision of the Pharmacopoeia is a matter of interest to every apothecary in 
the country. It is a work that should embody a list of materia medica and mo- 
dicinal preparations suited to the wants of every section of the country ; and it 
is contended that intelligent i4)othecaries, daily supplying the wants of phy- 
sicians, necessarily be well informed of the wants of the medical profession. 
These facts communicated to the committee having this subject in charge will 
greatly assist them, and make it a complete and valuable work. 

In every number we shall publish extracts from the reports of the various 
committees, as far as our space will allow. 

** The Syllabus of a course of study, intended as an aid to students of pharmacy 
who cannot avail themselves of regular instruction," by Prof. Procter, is very 
comprehensive, and shoWs an appreciation of the young student's wants and 
position, which should oommend it to their especial attention, and should be 
studied until they master ltd plans and teachings. 


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EdOoriaL tt 

The {H^fiktory note is as follows : — 

'* The American Pharmaceutical Association, being aware of the limited op^ 
portunitics for theoretical instruction which appertain to the pursuit of phar- 
macy, as usually conducted out of the large cities of the United States, as well 
as in very many stores within those limits, have deemed it advisable to issuo 
this Syllabus of advices and studies for the aid of all those beginners or ap- 
prentices whose position renders such aid u^-cful and appropriate, in the hope 
that it will prove a valuable help to them in the prosecution of those studies so 
necessary to the pharmaceutist and druggist, and without which no dispensing 
^K>thecary is able to fully meet the rightful demands of the medical profession." 

EpinBuics AUD TUEiK Causes. — Dr. Southwood Smith, in a valuable series of 
lectures delivered by him in Edinburgh, on the subject oi' epidemics, dwelt with 
ooDsideraUo particularity on Uie fact that all epidemic diseases — the plague. 
Made death, sweating sickness, cholera, influenza, &c. — are fevers. Choler» 
WIS usually preceded, he stated, by influenza; and if the patient be saved thre* 
days, the fever and other symptoms are curable. He argued that very active 
animal and epidemic poisons are generated by the over-crowding of human be- 
ings, and when to this are added deficient electricity in the atmosphere, unu- 
snal prevalence of mist, haze or fog, stillness of the air, and augmented baro- 
metric pressure, then there existed an epidemio oonatitution of things, inducing 

We call the attentien of the profession to the treatment adopted by Dr. H. 
G. Davis, of 67 Union Place, New York City, ui Pottos and Hip Joint Disease, 
Lat«id Ckirvatnre of the Spine, A^, Ac. 

Our atteation has been called to the success of his treatment by a friend 
who has had a little boy under his care. The apparatus devised by Dr. Davis^ 
aims at retaining the parts in their natural pontion, thereby preventing 
deformity, and it allows the patient to take out-door exercise, which is indis- 
pensable for sustaining general health. The Doctor has, we are informed, the 
approbation of leading members of the prolesaion, and among others upon his 
circular, refers to Dr. Qurdon Buck, whose recommendation is sufiKcient to es- 
tablish his claims to the confidence of those requiring treatment 

Communications should be forwarded so as to reach us by the 10th of the 
preceeding month, to ensure their early insertion. 

Subscribers who have not received the Journal regularly will please write, 
and we will forward the missing numbers. 

Physictans who wish this Journal regularly will please notify us to that ef", 
Cect as soon as possible. > 

CoRKSsroHDEiiTa wiU oblige, by writing plainly their names, town, county , 
and state. 


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I flfmii •€ Ike I tiifc r irararraie of PoCMtlnm Mi Iron. Bj ioMvk R. Tomig. 
Being called upon io prepare a formula containing the rfd iodide of mcrcur/ 
and iodide of iron In solution, to be used in c«Be6 of secondary syphilid com- 
bined with Acrofula^ the following Huggested itself as being a good one, and an 
•legant mode of administering the iodides in combination. 

Iodine, 54 grains. 

Iron FilingH, 32 " 

Red Iodide of Mercury, - 3 ** 

Iodide of Potassium, li ** 

Sugar, 3i 036. avd. 

WaUr, 2 " 

Mix the iodine with three drachms of the water and add the iron ; wheD 
combined filter into the syrup, (which is made with an ounce and a half of the 
water ;) the red iodide of mercury and the io<b'de of potassium arc tritui*ated 
wHh the remaining drachm of water and added, the whole to measure four fluid 
ounces. A little orange flower water added makes it very agreeable. The 
dose recommended is about one teaspoonful, which is equivalent to one^ix- 
leenth grain of the rod iodide of mercury, and two and three-quarter grains of 
the iodide of iron. 
■tmala for CMnpevai Itailpter OtataMit. 

The following is the formula for the compound sulphur ointment, success- 
ftdly employed by Messrs. Startin & McWhinnie, at the Hospital for Diseases 
of the Skin, against scabies, fay us, and true ringworm, diseases which depend 
upon parasites which it is necessary to kill. 

Of sublimed sulphur, half a pound ; of the ammonia chloride of mercury, half 
an ounce ; and of Uie sulphuret of mercury, half an ounce ; to these, well nibbed 
together, add four ounces of oUyc oil, sixteen ounces of fresh lard, and twenty 
nunims of creosote. It wilt be seen that we have here in combination three 
different drug^ each possessing great efficiency in the destruction of insect and 
Aingus life. The object in view, that of obtaining a vigorous compound, which, 
at Uio same time, shall not be irritating to the skin, is, we believe, exceedingly 
well atUuned — Medical Times and Qazttte, 
Mlitve eCIMte«eMi mk Caster Oil la Sevfre Baras aal SeslSs. 

Several cases of severe scalds and bums arc reported by the surgeon of the 
Kings €V>nege Hospital, in which a mixture of collodeon, two parts ; caslor 
oil, oT)/Q part, was painted over the entire surface of the bum several times, so 
as to form a complete covering, and entirely exclude the atmosphere, withooi 
obscuring the surface of the sore from view. It hos a pleasing odor whidi 
counteracts the unpleasant emanation generally attendant upon burns, lessens 
pain, and when applied, the sloughs appear to be less deep than usual. 
mfeertae aai ftiaala > Sere Xlpfles. 

Dr. R K. Paine, of Jay, Maine, recommends glyc<*rin<j and tannic add, 
equal parts, as the be$t aj>plicatwn for $or« nipples arid e\'y>riationii of oher 
parts. The tannic acid readUy disf^]v«^ in the g*yr4»rine. 


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Pharmacy. 48 

It is very diflScult to pperent super-oxygenization of sulphate of iron ; whik, 
for various chemical and phannaoeuUcal purpofies, it is of importance to have 
a pure sulphate of the protoxide. 

11 Latour, chemist* recommends to dissolve two hundred parts of pure 
proto sulphate in one hundred of boiling distilled water, and fifty parts of sugar 
candy in thirty of boiling distilled water. Mix. Filter rapidly, and crys- 
tatise of from 95 to 100 degrees. The crystals are oblique, rhomboidal 
prisms ; should be dried on paper, and kept in dry bottles, 'closed ; are found to 
eoQsist of sulphate of the protoxide, 64.57 ; water, 32.60 ; sugar, 13.98. 
liaraBU fl»r aaklag a Symp of Pliospliatc of Iroa aa« AmmoBla. By Joscvli Roberto. 
Take of Sulphate of Iron, .... 278 Grains. 
Phosphate of Soda, - - - - 859 " 
Glacial Phosphoric Acid, - - 896 ** 

Liquor Ammonias. - - • q. s. 

Sugar, 5 1-2 Ounces. 

Water, q. s. 

Dissohre the phosphate of soda arid the sulphate of iron separately, mix thor- 
BohitionB, and wash well the resulting phosphate of iron ; then to one-half of ~ 
the phosphoric acid dissolved in one ounce of water, add liquor ammonia until 
R is saturated. To the other half of the phosphoric acid dissolved in a like 
quantify of water, add the moist phosphate of iron, and dissolve by a gentle 
heat Then add the solution of phosphate of ammonia and the sugar, and 
evaporate to seven fluid oimces. 

This gives a syrup containing thirty-six grains of phosphate of iron, thirty^ 
eight grains of phosphate of ammonia, and twenty-eight grains of phosphoric 
add to the fluid oimce, or four and a half grains of the iron salt, four and three- 
quarter gnuns of the ammoniacal salt, and three and a half grains of the acid 
to the teaspoonfuL 

The preparation seems to be a stable one, but whether it be a chemical com- 
pound in which the iron and ammoniacal salts exist as a double phosphate of 
iron and ammonia, or whether the mixture be merely mechanical, I am not pre- 
paredi to aay — but this I feel confident oi; that the addition of the phosphate of 
ammonia to the solution of the soluble phosphate of iron, adds greatly to the 
stability of the salt, and seems to counteract, in a remarkable degree, its prono- 
nees to pass into its insoluble state. 

- Of the therapeutic value of the preparation, of course, I can say nothing, 
but merely offer it as a syrup, holding in solution a large amount of phospha- 
tlcsalt-— ./bttr. and Tra7hs, Maryland (hi Pharm.^ June^ 1868. 
■l^rocyaaate of Itm Ib ffeuralgla. 

The preparations of iron have obtained great reputation for the cure of 
neuralgia, especially the hydrocyanate of iron, which has been. used by M. 
M. Dupay and Jdly, in the following form : — 

Hydcocyaaate of IcQB, • 18 grains. 

Snlph. Quinine, 18 *' 

Extract Opium, 1 •* 

Ocmserve Rose^ q. s. 

Make 12 PlUa 


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24 Vaairum Virick, 

Fluid Extract of Veratrum Viride. 

Tlie atrontion which has been given within the last three years to the the- 
rapeutic propcTtiox of Vcratrum Viride, has fully confirmed the obseryalions of 
Dr. Tally, as stattxl at length by Dr. Osgood in his very able paper upon this 
agent, published in the American Journal of Medical Sciences in 1835. Re- 
cent observations and a more general experience have extcndcKi its applica- 

Its properties arc a resin arid an aHiaiOidal princi])le, which are yielded to 
alcohol and diluted alcohol. 

Its therapeutic properties are stated to be an arterial sedative of great power — 
reducing the frequency of the pulso to forty per minute — expectorant, diapho- 
retic, alterative, deobstruent, emetic, nervine, somewhat narcotic, &c. These 
properties are published at length in a pamphlet upon its powers and proper- 

Having for some time prepared a fluid extract of this article, I state, in 
answer to the many inquiries made as to the strength and manner of preparing 
it, that each fluid ounce represents one ounce of the crude root, or dram for 
dram, calculating 60 minims or 120 drops to the fluid dram. £ach grain is re- 
presented by one minim or two drops. 

The root is digested in alcohol of 90** for ten days, then diluted alcohol is 
added until it is exhausted of all its medicinal properties. The solutions ar» 
evaporated in a vacuum at 100°, and alcohol again added of sufficient specifie 
gravity to hold its medicinal properties without deposition, and give one pint 
of fluid extract for every pound of root treated. 

In all oases the root should be collected in the fall, immediately as the leaves 
begin to wither. Such is taken as the standard, and all other roots are brougjit 
to this standard by careful analysis, that the preparation shall jipld an uniform 
or equal amount of active constituents. 

Prepared in this way, the dose is much less than that stated for the tinctisre^ 
assuming the minimum dose of the tincture to be four drops. The dose of this 
preparation should be two drops, as all the trials and obs^vstions we have msds 
show it to possess double the strength of the tincture as reoommended by Nor- 
wood. The opinion of physicians generally is that the minimum dose should 
be stated at one-half of that we have uniformly named. We have, therefixe^ 
reduced the dose to commence with to two drops^ increasing one drop everj 
portion given ; but for greater convenience and certainty of administration it is 
suggested to combine it with an equal measure of milk, simple syrup, or syrop 
of squill, and give, as the minimum dose, four drops, increasing each portion 
given one or two drops, according to circumstances. 

In combination with ipecac or compounds of cherry, &a, the dose is easily 
and accurately regulated. 

An over dose is promptly relieved by laudanum or brandy, or by a syrup 
of sulphate of morphia and tincture of ginger. In fact, morphia and laudnaum, 
in sufficient doses, are said to be perfect antidotes to the ill effects of an over 


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fbmmlot. 9^ 

ngOmAhiaW^ COKMAIi. 

Forniahed by Dr. Davis, Charleaton, DL 

Rhubarb Right Ounces. 

SafTron Two 

Oardamom Seeds, " 

Kutinegs " 

8oda,aC. " 

Eeeence Peppermint • " 

Sugar (refined) .' Two Pounda 

Bnmdj and water q. a. to obtain the strength. 

Doee — One to two teaspoonsfViL 


Furnished by Dr. Datis, Charleston, HI. 

Leptandria Bight Ounoeai 

Rhubarb Pour " 

Bayberry " " 

Oinger ; Two " 

OoYeB One Ounoe. 

Peppermint Two Ounce& 

Myrrh " " 

Soda, a C. " •« 

Akohol and watar ^ a. to obtain Ui6 strength. 

Dose— One to two teaspoonsfuL 

Purmshed by Dk. Datis, Charieston, DL 

wad Oheny Bark Sixteen OtmosA. 

Poplar Bark , «« •• 

Somach " " «« 

Peach ICeats " " 

Brandy (good) One Gallon. 

Sugar (refined) Eight Pounds. 

Dose— One to two teaspoonsfuL 

One ofthe most pleasant and efficient remedies ever got ixp for bowel oomplsinti^ 
leqoiring a tonic and astringent remedy. 

Furnished by Dr. Myers, South Bend, Ind. 

Pulv. Rhubarb Two Scruples. 

Podophyllin H Scruples. 

Leptandrin One Scruple. 

Extract Kux Vomica Twelve Grains. 

Extract Ilyoscyamus One Dram. 

Oil of Aniso Eight Drops. 

Syrup q. a 

M Make sixty pills. 


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36 Formuht. 

nrrvR AjfD agobpiul 

0a}ph*to of Qahiiiie One Grain. 

Leptandrin « Thr^e Grains 

FodopbylHn Qoaiter Grain. 

Dose — Od« pill two or three times per dej. Dr. Wtart. 


ftootve of StTfctinee Odo Ounce. 

M (Smioiftiga Two Ounoee. 

Huriate of Morphine Twelve Graina. 

Doee — Thirty to nzty dmpB, fovir timee per daj. Dr. Horim, 


Famiebed by Asa F. Patten, Warner, Merrimack Oa, N. H. 

Citrate of Iron, eol Half Dram. 

flolf^tiate of Iron Twenty G 

" of Quinino Two Scruplea 

Itople Syrup Four Ounoes. 

Oil of Saaiafras Ten Drops. 

Mix Take from one to three teaepoonfuls three or four timet a day. 


JKl AigmH Quarter Grain. 

SQlpb.MerphiDe , BSghth •* 

Pulverize with Gum Arabic — Small Pill. 

Doec — Ope pill two or three times per day. Dr. PrtdL 


Ferri et Ammonieo Sulpb Three Orain«. 

Kuid Sxtract (XmiciAsga Thirty Drops. 

•* Cokttnba " •• 

- Oabebe Fifteen " 

Vr, TerreH 


Take of Calieaya Bark Sixteen Oanoes. 

•* Orange Peel Two " 

* Cardamom Two DnutiA 

•* Cinnamon, (Ceylon,) One Ounce. 

•* Alcohol...... :.... 6iPinU. 

Water q. r. to difplaoe f*^ pinU) tinctsire, then add throe pints of nlmple gyrup and 
liall a piot of roee water. 


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S4RAT0OA Springs, i>#c. 10, 1858. — Db. Haiolton.— I am highly pleased 
with the December No. of your Journal It ought to be in the hands of crcry 
practitioner. Consider me a life subscriber. 

Utica, Dte, 7, l«6a— Db. M. M. Baoo.— Though I had read cursorily 
the previous No8. with interest and ptx>t)t, yet the improved appearance, and 
the additional promises of the la.<it (December) No. make me deAirouA to receive 
the work with regularity'. 

Skajteateles, N. Y., Dec, 9.— Dr. L. Babtlktt.— Encloeed pleane find sub- 
•cription to your e\(M?Uent Journal, from which T have derived many useful 

Fatbtte, N. Y., Dee, 9. — Dr. Flbckenoer. — It affords me great pteafiure to read 
the valuable information contained in your Journal 

Toronto, U. C, Be^ 9. — Dr. Williamson, Kducation OmcR. — Am quite 
pkased with the nature and character of the work. 

WerrB House, Hunterton Co., N. J., Dw. 17, 1858. — Db. Johicsoh.— I have 
perused your numbers with both pleasure and profit Your enterprise meets 
a desideratum in the wants of the profession. 

RrrciiiE C. H., Va., Dee, 12, 1858.— Dr. J. It Latbbop.— In the early pari 
o( the year T had not learned that they were worth preserving, but by giving 
them more attention I have become convinced of my mistake. 

Wasotwoton, N. C, Dec 14, 1858.-— Db. Joa. R. H. Oarmbr.— I am exceed- 
ingly obliged to you for furnishing me with your Journal for the past year. 
It is very valuable beyond a doubt, and I could in no way dispense with it, 
as I glean a great deal of information from it 

IfBMPnis, TEiTf., Dee, 17, 1858. — Db. Saxl. Qilbxrt. — (lents: — Yourvahia* 
ble Journal of Materia Medica was sent me by some friend, and I find it to 
be the work that the profession long have wanted. I prise it much, and wish 
to be a regular paying subscriber as long as I practice. 

Black Earth, Wis., Dee, 20, 1858. — ^Db. TnoiiAS Emmrrsoji.— ^Your Journal 
is invaluable in the practice of medicine, and it meets the wants of every n^ical 
man. Sir, I am an old physknan — hare practised over 40 years, and am not 
surprised at the great mardi of improvement in pharmacy and chemistry. We 
Kve in an age of science, and may you continue to improve until we can meet 
all the diseases that the human body is subject to, is my sincere hope and wish- 

New Castlb, Va., Dee, 10, 1858.— Dr. Thos. H. B. Dillard.— I would noi 
be without the little Monthly Visitor with its stores of varied and useful know- 
ledge (especially to the country practitioner), for double the amount of sub- 
scription price. 

West Libertt, Iowa, Def. 15, 1858 — Dr.. Albert Adv.— Send me your 
Jomnal of Materia Medica, as I intend to be a permanent subscriber. It is 
certainly one of the liest things out. 


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Medlclues* OIU, Puluts, (HoKSware, 

window Glaaa, Chemicals, Ac. 

One door below Greenwich RU, N. Y. 

A. c. evansTa, co~ 
Dru^s, Chemicals, Perfumery, 

8ol€ A^cnt* fop Oilena White Lpart \Vopk}i, 

No. 218 PKAliL ST. 


TPfatmsDt ofPottls aad Hip Joint Dheose, 
Utenil Curvature of tbe Bpln^ Ac, ^. 

Dr. H. G. DAVIS, 
67 Union Plaoe, 


Dr. Davla haa dcroted some yearf attention to 
the treatment of these disea«ie«, and owes his suc- 
ttm malnljr to improred mechanical appliances 
of bis own Invention, affording relief from pain, 
and contributing greatly to the comfort of pa- 
tients, and affording security against the perma- 
neai and iojorious coniMnienees of these diseases. 

Refers to:— Dr. Qurdon Buck, New York: 
Dr. E. Parker, Troy ; and patients In this city and 

Wkelesale and Retail Drof gislti, 


Koep oomtantly on hand a large and MMral 
■Mortment of fjreah and reUable 


They hare Jnsl recalved a large stock of Ti lmh 
4 Go's AlcohoUo and Fluid Extracts, Alkaloids 
and Reslnolds, Pharmacoatle Sugar-Coated Pills 
aod GranalM. 


Dubuque, Iowa. 

Pure Drugs, Chemicals, Medi- 
cines, &c. 

A fbll assortment of Tiu)iiii*« Fluid and Solid 
lUtraets, Concentrated Preparations, and Siutar 
Cfoated PharmaceuUc Pills. 

Orders ft-om Apothecaries, Merchants, and Phj- 
Bdans promptly aUeoded to. 

H. H. HAY &c CO., 


Fine Cbemieals, Perfumery, 


Drugs, Paints, Dye Stuffs, 


.Tiinclion of PVoe«fc TVruhllo StB, 


Tllden'a Fluid K\trftct«, Alkaloids niul llt-slnoifS, 

Pharmaceutic SuKar-Coatod Pills ami (rran- 

ules, con.Htnntly on hand. Phyyiciins and 

oUiera supplied at MHUiifacturers' 


II. H. HAY. 1). L. MITCHILIi. 

For Formula see Journil Materia Mcdlca. 

The gi-eat variety of iijiUciiriona fulfilled by the 
u*e of Opium, and it^ extensive applicability to 
the cure of dl-jense, have Incorporated it into al- 
most every practice of medicine. 

On some conslitutioii.i, ho«-ever. Opium pro- 
duces pecuKnr effects, widely different from its 
usual mode of operaliau. 

These general ill effects of Opium are owing to 
the presence of certiun dileterlous principles con- 
tained in it, and wblch^ when extracted from the 
drug, do not detract from its spcciflc and highly 
rem edisl<|uall ties. The Aqusouaiaia4r<if Opium 
is the pure exiract of Opium with those principles 
separated from it which ar» productive of tho in- 
jurious effects of its usual administration. 

The Elixir possesses all tbe anodyne, aedatlve, 
and anti-Fpaamodic effects of Opium, and of the 
various preparations of this well-known and ose^ 
fill medicine, this is superior to any before the 
public ; It Is the result ot many years* observa- 
tion and study of one of the most eminent phy- 
sicians In the country, and was used in a lenf 
and extensive practice. 

Xlldoi^ Sc Co., 

New Lebanon, N, T. 


Assafoetida Pills. 


This valuable agent in nervous diseases, la 

spasmodic pectoral affections, such as whooping* 
cough and asthma, has fallen greatly Into dlsosa 
f^om its repulsive odor, and the consequent dif- 
ficulty of administration. 

The repugnance which adults and children 
manlfiest to the use of this article is etattrely re- 
moved by the new process of coating the pills 
with sugar, inasmuch as all odor is perfectly con- 
cealed. Letters from physicians who had, to a 
great extent, been obliged to give up the use of 
it, congratulate themselves and the professioa 
upon being able to return to its use, and admin- 
ister it without inconvenience to themselves or 

Tilden Sc Co., 

New Lobaoon, N. Y. 


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lew] FEBBUABT, 1859. [Seriat. 

On the Medicmal, Naturalized Exotics and Indigenous 
Materia Medica of the United States. 



In the January number of this Journal I brieily alluded to a 
claflB of practitioners, of whom Sir John Forbes may stand as the 
type as well as the leader, who are not only sceptical as regards 
the utility of any active treatment of disease, but who question 
Ae power of medical art to exert any important ccmtrolKng influ- 
ence over its progress, unless in exceptional crises. This school, 
if we are to believe their statements, would resolve all treatm^^nt 
into a patient, do-nothing expectancy, as the must philosophical — 
the safest, surest, most successful method of managing diseases. 
They recognise, as we all dOy the autocracy of nature in the cure 
of many diseases; but when they claim that it is not only useless 
bat injurious to attempt to suppress or modify the morbid proces- 
ses by active measures, we find thtir position a mere assumption, 
unsustained by any reliable facts or established statistics. Dr. 
Forbes conoedes the whole ground in dispute when be says — *As 
some of the agents capable of permeating every part of the body 
are known to be possessed of powers capable of modifying vital 
action, both dynamically and chemically, it is impossible to avoid 
receiving the conception and entertaining the conjecture, that they 
may thus directly modify diseased states, whether functional or 
structural, and so relieve or cure diseas<*s in a direct and iq)ecific 
manner. It is even extremely probable that they do so, and it 


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Si Lee on Exotics and Indigenous Mcfleria Medi^. 

seems a most legitimate object of our tentative art to endeavor by 
direct experiment to ascertain whether this probability can be con- 
verted into certainty.'' — Nature and Art in Disease^ p. 221. 
- . We shall aim, then, in this series of articles to show that we 
have numerous naturalized exotics and indigenous medical plants 
possessing properties capable of modifying vital action, both in its 
healthy and diseased states, and in many cases, in what may be 
called "a direct and specific manner." Again says Dr. Forbes 
(Loc Cit^ jt>. 211), "There does not appear to be any sufficient rea- 
son, a priori^ why the same or similar results, which we sec taking 
place on the skin and mueous surfaces of the body, or in its cavi- 
ties or passages, on the direct application of medicinal and chem- 
ical agents, may not also take place in the intimate tissues of or- 
gans, on the same or analogous agents being conveyed to them by 
the blood; and still more, in the blood itself, in the cases where 
we believe the matei-ies morbi to exist primarily in the blood." 
Now, what seems so probable, a prion] we shall attempt to estab- 
lish by actual observation and experiment, and if we fail, then we 
shall feel disposed to recommend to the medical profession to re- 
aolve itself into a general hygienic and prophylactic lx)dy, confi- 
ning its efforts in future to the establishment of sanitory laws and 
regulations, public and private, for the prevention of disease. As 
a committee of the whole on public health, its functions would be 
iqiportant and valuable. We believe, however, that medical art 
embraces a far wider range of action, and a more extended sphere 
of usefulness, and that daily observation justifies the conclusion 
that medicinal agents have power, when properly used, to modify, 
control, and arrest disease. 

In treating of the various articles of our vegetable materia med- 
ica, three plans suggest themselves for our adoption, viz: 

1. An arrangement founded on their therapeutical properties. 

2. An arrangement based on their physiological effects. 
8. One derived from their natural historical affinities. 

In regard to the first, as the curative and remedial powers of 
medicines are only relative and conditional, never absolute and 
constant, it is evident that all such arrangements are wholly im- 
practicable. We have no specifics, no drugs, which will cure cer- 
tain diseases under all circumstances. As has been observed, such 
classification, if attempted, would be an arrangement of diseases 


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Lee on Exotics and Indigenous Materia Medico, 85 

and an enumeration of the medieinea which experience had found, 
frequently, though not invariably, beneficial for each. 

In regard to the second plan, it may well be doubted whether 
we are as yet sufficiently acquainted with the properties of our in- 
digenous plants to arrange them in a physiological classification: 
at any rate, such an attempt has never yet been made. It seems 
to me, however, that the time has come when such an arrange* 
ment may, at least, be attempted, however imperfectly carried out; 
and many reasons could be oflFered to show that it may be atten- 
ded with some important advantages. It is very evident that all 
our prominent indigenous articles can be thrown into groups and 
arranged on physiological principles, while, it must be confessed, 
there are many others, probably of equal medicinal value, whose 
place could not, at present, be readily assigned. They will, how- 
ever, easily fall into rank when their properties are more accurately 
asoerflained. It should be understood that, in a physiological ar- 
rangement, two principles are necessarily involved — first, as re- 
gards the organs or parts affected; ^second, the nature or quality 
of the action set up. As we are unable, however, to discrimi- 
nate in all cases between their primary and secondary effects, nei- 
ther principle can be adopted to the exclusion of the other. It is 
manifest that, in regard to the parte affected, most medicines oper- 
ate through the agency of the neiyous system ; and that, conaid* 
ering the nature or quality of their action, a majority, with great 
propriety, may be termed alteratives. 

With respect to a classification based on their natural affinities, 
a very slight actjuaintance with the subject must satisfy us of its 
disadvantages. It is a doctrine, however, which may be traced 
for beyond the age of Ca^salpinus, to whom it has usually beeii 
attributed, that those plante whidh ' resemble each other in their 
external appearances are endowed with analogous medicinal prop- 
erties. Adopted by Linnaeus, it has fouAd able supporters in 
Graelin, Jussieu, Barton, Decandolle, Diesbach, and others; white 
Pereira, the most distinguished writer on the mat?ria raedica of 
the present age, makes it the basis of his own arrangement. In- 
deed, it would seem that, as vegetable substances owe their pecu- 
liar qualities to the structure and consequent action of the organs 
producing them, differences in the structure of an oi^an might be 
expected to be attended with corresponding differences in the qual- 


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36 L^ 071 Exoii'^A and Indigenous Makria Mtdica, 

ities of its products. It would thus follow that the medicinal 
qualities of plants of the same natural order should be analogous; 
and that if , one vegetable species, for example, should be suitable 
for nutriment, other species of the same genus, or even of a dif- 
feropt genus, but of the same order, should also be adapted for a 
like use; while, on the other hand, if any particular species should 
be found injurious, neighboring species should also prove more or 
less so. Experience certainly proves that, in quite a large num- 
ber of instances, there does exist an analogy between the exterior 
fqrms and the medicinal properties of plants to such a degree that 
we can sometimes predict the active principle and mode of opera* 
tion of a given vegetable by merely knowing to what part of a 
natural arrangement it belongs. Thus Graminect^ Oiucifercey Me- 
lanOiaceiJe^ Coni/hw, Labiake, Malvacetv^ and Ranxmculacece^ are fa- 
miliar illustrations of the accuracy of these observations. But 
these, unfortunately, are only exceptions to a general rule. When 
we pass under review the plants belonging to the natural orders, 
Umbelliferae, Cucurbitacea3, Solanca?, &c., we find that some be- 
longing to the same order possess entirely different medicinal prop- 
erties; while plants of dissimilar structure and belonging to dif- 
ferent orders, are sometimes endowed with similar or analogous 
qualitiea Professor Lindley has greatly exaggerated the advan- 
tages of such botanical affinities to medical men; for while extol- 
ling the superiority of natural over artificial systems, he goes so 
far as to say that a knowledge of the properties of one plant is a 
guide to the practitioner, which enables him to substitute Qome 
pther with confidence which is naturally allied to it; and that phy- 
sicians in foreign stations may direct their enquiries, not empyri- 
gally, but upon fixed principles, into the qualities of the medici- 
nal plants which nature has provided in every region for the alle- 
yiation of the maladies peculiar to it. One great difficulty connec- 
]ted with this subject is, that the characters which vegetables ex- 
hibit are of such uncertain and variable degrees of importance that 
it is often tiifficult to say what value should be attached to any 
given modification of structure; though it is very obvious that 
characters which are purely physiological, that is, which depend 
fOn ditferences of internal anatomical structure, are of much more 
value than varieties of form, position^ number, &c., which are 
mere modifications of external organs. Another dificulty is, that 


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Pciygala Senega, ST 

as objects resemble each other more or less in a mnltiturle of dif- 
ferent respects, it is impossible to indicate all their affinities in a 
lineal arranorement, and yet no other can be practically employed. 
In fact, the difficulties connected with the subject of a natural 
classification are so numerous and great that it may well be doubt- 
ed whether they will ever be wholly overcome. Whoever at- 
tempts to adopt such a 5;ystem must be satisfied to grope his un- 
certain way with what light he has, hoping that ere long some 
second Linnseus may arise, if not to bring order out of confusion, 
at least to perfect those systems, called natural, but which nature, 
in their present conditions, refuses to own. We come then to the 
conclusion that natural history affinities are of no absolute value, 
as a general rule, as a means of ascertaining the medicinal powers 
of new and previously unemployed articles, though useful as aux- 
iliary to other means — ^that they may be often used advantageous- 
ly as a clue to guide us in our investigations, though too uncertain 
to be relied upon alone, or independent of other indications. 

Pciygala Senega. 

The root of this plant was first introduced into medicine as a 
remedy for the bites of venemous animals in the early part of last 
century by Dr. Tennent, a Scotch physician residing in Virginia. 

It has repeatedly been the subject of chemical investigation, 
and its virtues appear chiefly, if not exclusively, in the principle 
which Mr. Queveune csiWed poli/galic acid, and which resides in the 
cortical part of the root. 

Senega possesses acrid and stimulant properties. In small doses 
It is diaphoretic, diuretic, and expectorant ; in larger doses, emetic 
and purgative. It appeal's to excite more or less the vascular 
system ; to promote the secretions of the kidneys, skin, uterns, 
and bronchial membrane, and to exert some influence upon the 
nervous system. Its expectorant virtues are those for which it 
has been chiefly employed ; and as an expectorant, it is employed 
in cases not attended with acute inflammatory action, or in which 
the inflammation has been in a great measure subdued. It is re- 
commended as a local stimulant in relaxed sore throat, in chr mic 
catarrh, as a diuphoretico-diuretic in rheumatism, in secondary 


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/ s 

88 Polj/ffaia tienega. 

proup, &c. Pareira says: '* It is valuable in the latter stages of 
bronchial or pulmonary iDflammation, when this disease occurs in 
aged or debilitated and torpid constitutions ; and when the use of 
depletives is no longer admissible, it appears to re€»3tablish a 
healthy condition of the secreting organs, to promote the resolu- 
tion of the morbid deposits, and give strength to the system. I 
usually administer it with ammonia, which appears to promote its 
beneficial operation. Frequency of the pulse and a febrile con- 
dition of the system are by no means to be regarded as impedi- 
ments to the use of this medicine. It has also been used in clwonic 
catanh and humoral asthma ; as a stimulant and promoter of the 
secretions in the latter stage of low fever accompanied with tor- 
pidity ; as an emetic, purgative, and diaphoretic in rheumatism ; 
as a diuretic in dropsy^ and as an enmienagogue in amenorrhea." 
Dr. George D. Wheldon, of Rose Valley, N. Y., in a communi- 
cation to us, says : " I have been looking for some of your corres- 
pondents to call the attention of the profession to the value of 
senega as an alterative in certain cutaneous diseases. The cases 
in which I have tested it vary considerably in character. One 
class is almost peculiar to women at one or two years preceding 
or following the final cessation of the menses. In these cases a 
yellowish matter exudes from the hands and forearms which soon 
degenerates into a thick crust and drops ofl^, leaving the skin be- 
neath nearly sound as at first, but soon becoming fissured is fol- 
lowed by another crop like the first, the disease being prolonged 
until not unfrequontly the nails drop oflF and are renewed oiien 
more tban once, ffidema of the face is also a common symptom. 
Another class consists of dry scaly points over the entire trunk 
and extremities, attended with intolerable itching, which is greatly 
aggravated by lying in a warm bed. It is with us a frequent se- 
quel of the miasmatic fevers. In these disorders I have tried a 
variety of constitutional and local treatments with little success 
until I emplojed the senega after the following formula: 

5. Senega, 2 drams. 

Quassia, 1 " 

Rhubarb, 1 " 

BiCurb. Soda, U ** 

Warm water, 1 pint 

X)o6e — A tea.spoonful three times a day, before meals. 

« Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

JSyo0Cifam%u Niger. 99 

Many of the cases were attended with deranged digeHtion ; but 
the oompoond without the sen^ia has no beneficial effect upon 
the disease of the skin as described. I have used it in a variety 
of ways, but find the above formula the most satis&ctory. In . 
some thirty cases in which I have tested it, it has never failed to 
effect an immediate cure. We shall give in another number for- 
mula for the various preparations of senega. 

KoTK. — In this formula the fluid extnu^ of the same articles can be substi- 
tutec^ in the same quantities with same quantity g( water, or less by lesseniog- 

Hyoscyamus Niger. 

{Continued Jnmi page 10) 

Keeping in mind the physiological and therapeutical proper- 
ties of the agent under consideration, which were given in the 
last number of the Journal, as they have been described by va- 
rious writers and observers, we proceed to examine some of the 
definitions of the term narcotic^ and seo to what extent and how 
definitively it applies in this particular case. 

'' Narcotics are agents which, in moderate doses, cause a tem- 
porary action of the nervous and also of the muscular system, fol- 
lowed, more or less speedily, by a marked diminution, terminating 
generally in sleep. When the dose is large the excitement is 
scarcely perceptible, while the diminished power of the nervous- 
aystem is so manifest that an appearance of coma or apoplexy is 
induced." It is evident from this definition that we must be care- 
ful to distinguish between stimulants on tiie one hand, and seda* 
tives on the other; and this distinction ia the more necessary, be- 
cause in nature the narcotic principle is generally combined with 
one or the other of these, and hence the contradictory statements 
and unsatis&ctory reports of the value of different narcotic reme- 
dies by those who do not know why opium suits in one case and 
hyoscyamus in another: nor must they be confused with the 
terms hypnotic or soporific and anodyne, the one obtained from 
the power of producing sleep, and the other from alleviating pain 
and blunting the sensibility. If these properties are to be inclu- 
ded, then these terms are to be held as partial synonyms; if 
these properties are to be excluded, then these terms are distinct 
and mark distinct classes. 


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40 IlyosryaTUXis Niger, 

Dunglison styles the narcotics as "substances whicU have the 
property of stupefying" and narcotism, that is, the aggr^ate 
effects produced by narcotic agents, as **at times confined to a 
state of more or less profound stupor, and at others being a true 
poisoning, charticterized by vertigo, naxxsea, a state of intoxica- 
tion or apoplexy, constant deliriums, convulsive motions, &c." 

Orfila defines narcotisnd as " beginning with a sense of fulness 
in the head, then there succeed a sort of intoxication, dizziness, 
headache, loss of voluntary motion, almost amounting to paialysis, 
sometimes convulsions, and generally stupor and, coma; more 
gradual than apoplexy, less abrupt than epilepsy." 

Dr. Tully is far more minute, precise and definitive than any of 
these. He says: "Narcotics are articles yN\i\Qh^ in Oie fimt degree 
cf their operation^ direcily ollay morbid irritability and irritation, 
and irritative actions generally, morbid sensibility and sensation, 
morbid mobility, jactitation and wakefulness when they are con* 
nected with a non-phlogistic or a positively atonic condition of the 
system *> in tlte second degree of their rqteration^ they directly relieve 
pain ; in the tliird degree of their oiyeration^ they directly produce 
more or less somnolency, or even positive sleep ; in the fourth de- 
gree of their operaiimiy they prodtice vertigo, headache, iaintness, 
dimness of sight, the sensation of a cloud before the eyes, or some 
imperfection of vision, either with considerable dilatation, or great 
contraction, or an immovably fixed, but otherwise natural state of 
the pupils, nausea and retching, with epigastric uneasiness, espe- 
cially when the head is raised, or otherwise much moved, accom- 
panied with small and irregular pulse, cold extremities, cold, 
clanmiy and slippery sweats, delirium, convulsions, either clonic, 
tonio, or of some other sort, succeeded by coma, and sometimes 
death ; and when the narcotic has no other medicinal power con- 
joined, without any other accorhpanying operations." He says 
farther : " I believe that all narcotics of any material activity, if 
pushed to a certain extent, are capable of producing convulsions 
of some sort. Some produce convulsion^ of the common Hort, as 
hyoscy amus, papaver ; others of the epileptic sort. Some produce 
convulsions as a primary part of their operation, and some onlyx 
as a secondary part, as hyoscyamus and papaver ; " and still again 
that "hyoscyamus is a pure narcotic, entirely destitute of any 
true, proper and legitimate siimulating properties." 


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Aadepma Incamata. 41 

Beipg aware now of the precise effects that have been observed 
of the hyoscyami up to and daring the period of narcotism, we 
can, in view of the facts, decide it to l>e a simple narcotic, or pos- 
sessed of narcotic aad other propertie8. All that can be demand- 
ed of writers is that they shall affix some definite meaning to the 
terms they use, and use those terms in strict conformity with these 

Whether it be conceded or not that the hyoscyamus is a simple^ 
pure narcotic, its peculiar properties bring it into a varied use, 
whether administered alone or as an adjuvant to other medicines. 

Asclepias Inoarnata. 
{White Indian Hemp,) 

Of the six kincfa of asclepias, viz : Incamata^ Syriiica^ TuherosOy 
a CarassavicOy Oigantea^ and Vincetoxicum^ five of them appear to 
have been used at different times in the treatment of urinary and 
genital diseases. Scarcely can a physician be found who professes 
to have any knowledge of the plant in question. The asclepias 
incarnatu has a smooth, erect, downy stem, branched above, two 
or three feet high, and furnished with opposite, nearly se&sile, ob- 
long-lanceolate, somewhat downy leaves. They are also acute or 
pointed, obtuse at the base, on short petioles, and slightly tomen- 
tose. The flowers are red or reddish purph;, sweet-scented, and 
disposed in numerous crowded erect umbels, mostly terminal, which 
are generally in opposite pairs. The nectary is entire, with its 
horn exserted and subulate. The leaves are four to seven inches 
long, and from one half an inch 1# an inch and a half wide ; um- 
bels are from two to six, on a peduncle two inches long, and con- 
sist of from ten to twenty small flowers. There are several vari- 
eties of this plant, the A, PukhrUy which is more hairy, with 
broader and shorter petioled leaves; the A. Glabra^ which is al- 
most glabrous, with two opposite longitudinal hairy lines on the 
stem, and leaves glabrous, with rough margins, midrib glandular 
below; and the A. AOfa, which has white flowers. 

This plant grows in damp and wet soils throughout the United 
States, and bears red flow<irs from June to August It emits a 
milky juice on being wounded. The root is the oflicinal part, and 
the mwiical properties of that reside in the cortex. It varies in 


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42 Asclqnas IncarnaioL 

thickuesH from one to six lines, and is of a light yellowish or 
brownish color. It imparts its properties to water. 

Propertiks and Uses. — Its properties are similar to the A. 
Sgriaca. It is an anthelmintic, for whi^ purpose the powder may 
be used in doses of ten to twenty grains, three times a day ; or 
jthe decoction two to four ounces. Prof. TuUy recommends it in 
catarrh, asthma, syphilis, rheumatism, and worms. Dr. Griffith 
states that it has been employed by several physicians who speak 
of it as a useful emetic and cathartic. It has been found not only 
alterative, diaphoretic, and diuretic, but one of the finest aperients 
in the Materia Medica, Dr. Hauser has used it with the happiest 
results in many forms of fever, but chiefly as an adjuvant to other 
medicines. In the treatment of gonorrhea and syphilis there 
probably is nothing equal to it now known to the medical frater- 
nity. Dr. H. says : — " I have used, for many years, the tincture 
only, prepared in diluted alcohol, on account of the gum with 
which the root abounds. 

If. Asclepias Incamata, ► * - Jiv. 

Diluted Alcohol, .... OjL 

After about fourteen days maceration, as with most drug?, it is 
prepared for uee. I have generally prescribed it in a tabkspoon- 
ful dose three times a day ; i. e. before breakfast, dinner and sup- 
per. And this I have done, with very little regard to the stage of 
the disease, both in gonorrhea and syphilis, however heterodox 
and unscientific it may appear to those nice critics in the medical 
fraternity who can theorize learnedly, but fail in practice. 


Case 1st. Was afflicted with "running of the reins brought on 
by a strain," and it had afflicted him long and sorely, even to the 
extent of a change from white to greenish discharges. I put him 
on tr. of asclep. incarn. alone; but as his business required him to 
ride a great deal on horseback, thus keeping up the irritation in 
the genital region, I think it was two weeks before I succeeded 
in curing him. 

Case 2d. Was of intemperate habits as well as priaputic. A 
single bottle of 5 vjii cured him. 

Case 3d. Was badly off. His business required daily riding 
on horseback, but the tr. asclep. cured him in three days. 


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Odaeminum Sempervirens. 48 


B. N. had been looking badly for two or three months, seem* 
inglj afraul to call for help. I put him on my favorite tr. — blia* 
tered over his mammary glands several times during the course, 
and had large quantities of mercurial ointment rubbed into them 
after each removal of the cuticle. After three weeks perseve* 
ranee I had the happiness to see my patient restored to hope and 

If physicians will lay aside all indifference, and use the ascle- 
pias incamata, especially in gonorrhea and syphilis, I have no 
doubt that it will soon take rank in their estimation with the 
very foremost remedies in our Materia Medica. 

Ghelsemimun Sempervirens. 

( Ytlloiv Jessamine,) 

In the April and May number of this Journal we gave an ex^ 
tended article upon this plant Many enquiries have recently 
been made of us as to the most efficacious article to be used as an 
antidote for an overdose. We wish our readers would give us 
their experience upon this point for the benefit of the profession. 
It has been suggested that the same articles employed for an over 
dose of veratrum viride would be as equally efficacious, viz: — 
" Morphine or laudanum with brandy is a perfect antidote for an 
overdose of veratrum, or syrup of sulphate of morphine one part, 
fluid extmct of ginger two parts. Dose of this mixture for an 
adult male, sixty drops every fifteen minutes till relieved." 

Dr. Lungren, of Fj-anklin, North Carolina, mentions the use of 
aromatic spirit of ammonia as an antidote in two cases, as follows: 

I have lately had two cases under my own observation show- 
ing the effects of an over dose of the extract of yellow jessamine. 
I am anxious to ascertain the antidote in such cases. I will relate 
my cases, as they strikingly shpw the effect on different pe^ns. 

Mrs. L., aged 24, suffering from typhoid pneumonia. I had 
commenced treating her with quinine and veratrum viride, beside 
the usual remedies. Gave ber ten drops of gelseminum in sweet- 
ened water ; in an hour gave her eleven drops in water, and at 
the expiration of two hours gave twelve drops. Shortly after- 


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44 Oel^miinum S^m]x*rvf7r7)S, 

wards she said she could not see any one in the room, althoiigb I 
was within two feet of her. Her eyes were wide open, pupil? di- 
lated, pulse regular and fiill, skin natural and healthy in color, 
fi?et and hands cold. She seemed to know all that was going on, 
described her symptoms, said she felt faint, felt as though her 
blood had ceased circulating, and that her head felt very light. I 
gave her a teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia in water, 
and in fifteen minutes repeated the dose. At the expiration of 
half an hour she said she felt perfectly well; complained of no 
pain whatever; fever was subdued, and in four days she was able 
to rise from her bed, and is now well. This patient took in all 
thirty-three drops. 

Dr. B., a practising physician of one of the upper counties of 
Georgia called on me ; complained of a severe nervous toothache ; 
happened to see my bottle of fluid extract of gelseminum ; read 
the accompanying directions; applied the bottle to his mouth, 
and took, as he said, about what he thought to be twenty drops. 
In ten minutes time he said: "I cannot see you." I looked at 
him ; his eyes were wide open ; pupil dilated 5 pulse eighty or 
ninety. He attempted to walk, and staggered like one intoxicated. 
I immediately administered a dose of ipecac and went for assist- 
ance. On returning found partial paralysis of the glottis, tongue 
and eyelids. lie became very sick, and vomited but little. I 
•gave him pencil and paper, fpr he could not speak. He wrote: 
**Iam very sick; I wish to vomit but cannot." In a few mo- 
ments he vomited again, and the discharge passed through the 
no.strils. His hands and feet became icy cold ; pulse regular — 
eighty or ninety. We applied warm bricks to his feet and chaffed 
his hands and ankles; plac^ed strong aqua ammonia to his nose 
and chest. In an hour he was able to speak, and was removed to 
his father^s house. I visited him the next day, when he com- 
plained of being very faint and weak. I continued the use of 
aromatic spirits of ammonia, and next day he was able to ride 
home, a distance of twenty-three miles. He obtained an ounce 
bottle of gelseminum for trial. It is needless to say the tcx)thache 
left; him. 

Is there any quicker and surer antidote for an overdose of gel- 
seminum than anunonia? If so, please infonn me. 


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Treatment of Ydhw Fever by Oelseminuni, 


Bradycrote Treatment of Tellow Fever by Gelaeminum 


In view of the results obtained from a redaction of the pulse, in the treat- 
ment of the fever as observed under the veratrum, and in order to contrast 
with this drug another ronedy possessing similar powers, at the suggestion of 
Dr. White, we also used in the present epidemic the tincture of gelseminum 
sempervirens, which was prepared after the following formula: Q. Rad, 
gdsem. somp., % iv., aloohd (95 per cent) aq. com., aii ^ viij. M. And digest 
14 days, then filter. Th^ initial doses of this tincture were» for adults, from 
20 to 30 drops — and for children, from 5 to 20 drops, every hour for the first 
four boors, and as with the veratrum the secondary doses were half as large. 

Certain cases which had been seen lat«, or were characterised by notable ir- 
ritability of the stomach, as also some which showed no special malignity were 
treated by this agpent with marked advantage ; upon whose employment Dr. 
White decided in consequence of the statements of Dr. Cleveland, of Cincin- 
nati, and of Dr. Mayes, of South Carolina, in this journal, concerning its influ- 
ence upon the pulse and fi-eedom from irritant properties, &a From notes 
taken upon cases thus treated, we have deduced the foUowing numbers : 

Total number treated with gelseminum sempcrv irons, 24: ; all of which re- 
covered. Of these, 15 were males and 9 females. Adults, 12, and children, 
12; whites, 22; and blacks, 2; natives of Charleston, 10; South Carolina, 
6 ; Ireland, 7 ; Germany, 2. 

MeiA frequency offtake. 

When first g^iven - - - 
Twelve hours after - 

Bc»ta per MIn. 


Beftts per. Mki. 


BeftU pr. MIb 



Of the whole number treated, 2 vomited black vomit, 5 passed black vomit 
downwards. In 8 cases hfemorrhage occurred from tongue, gums or nasal 

One woman was in the sixth month of her pregnancy, and did not abort. 

Avera. duration of treatment 








No marked prostration was caused by this remedy. The pulse being, how- 
ever, much less quickly reduced than by the veratrum. In few cases was the 
heart's action fully lowered in leas than 12 hours, and it was well controlled 
throughout the rest of the disease in the majority of cases. Tlie concurrent 
treatmant was the same as with the veratrum. Mercurialization was complete 
in 10 cases; incomplete in 14 cases. In a few instances, a marked redness of 
the tongue was observed, a condition that was not distinctly noticed during the 
administration of the veratrum. The gelseminum appeared to produce a ge- 
neral calming influence even during the early period of its a«bainistration, but 


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46 Important Medicinal Preparation Tests. 

was not found to possess any marked narcotic properties. It seemed, also, 
to promote the action of the kidneys, and during its use only, in several cases, 
an erythema of the skin was noticed. This drug appeared to influence the 
volume of the pulse before it affected its frequency, and in most ca.«es for the 
rest of the disease to control both conditions in an equal manner — emcsis was 
not observed to ensue upon the administration of this medicine ; the gastric 
irritability peculiar to the disease being moreover to all appearance favorably 

The total number of cases of yellow fever treated with a slow pulse by th« 
veratrum viride and gelseminum sempervirens, was conjointly 141, of which 
16 died and 124 recovered 

Total number of cases treated by ordinary methods were 0, of which 3 re- 
covered and 8 died. These vomited black vomit and died. One was a preg- 
nant woman in her seventh month, who died without aborting. 

In conclusion, we beg leave to remark, that the confidence with which we 
\f ere inspired by the use of these drugs in the commencement of the epidemic 
has continued unabated : that we still continue to use them, and mtend to do 
so again, should our city be unfortunatly revisited by this obdurate and cal- 
amitous disease. With apologies for the length and statistical nature of this 
communication, we remain, respectfully yours, 

[From the New York Medical Journal.] 

Simple Tests for some Important Medical Preparations. 


TnEKE is no branch of commerce wherein the competition of trade is more 
rapidly and more certainly tending to deteriorate and debase the quality of 
manulactured products than that which deiJs in medicinal substances ; and 
there is none where the interests of the consumer are more remotely oonsido 
ered in manufiicturing, or where these interests are so difficult to guard and 
protect: whilst there is assuredly no branch whose operations and product- 
ions are of more vital importance to the community and the profession of 

An important collateral effect of this debasement of medicinal substanees^ 
which does not receive due cousideration in the profession generally, is that 
the effects of the uncertaiifty and bad quality of these substances are trans- 
mitted directly to the practice of medicine, and in failing to fulfill the indica- 
tions to their use they not only bring distrust and discredit upon both the 
science and art of medicine, but also tend directly to foster and uphold the 
quackeries and nostrums of the day in many ways. For instance, a physi- 
cian prescribes the compound cathartic pills of th«f pharmacopoeia : They 
either act drastically, inadequately, or they do not act at all. The patient 
says the doctor does not understand his business, and the next time buys 
** Brandreth*s Pills ** or some other nostrum, ancf is better satisfied with the 


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Important Medicinal Prepa^'atioyi Teats. 47 

result The circumstance th&t the compound cathartic pills were made of 
bad and deficient materials, and through competition in trade were unduly 
actire from the addition of some cheap drastic, or inert from consisting 
mainly of starch and gum, while the extracts from which the nostrum was 
made had been much more careljiHy prepared — is quite overlooked by both 
practitioner and patient to the lasting injury of the interests of both. It Is, 
however, a fact that a large proportion of the compound extract of ooloeyth 
sold is nuu^ufkctured from materials so cheap and so bad that it is rarely 
quoted in prices current at much above half the price of the crude materials 
from which it should be made ; while the writer has known of several hun- 
dred pounds having been made and sold within one year at a prk^ bek>w 
one^hird of that which the good materials directed by the pharmacopoeia 
would have cost 

Another fertile source of bad and imperfect medicinal substances lies in the 
use, in manu&cturing, of cheap substitutes and by-products, and in utilizing 
residues for improper purposes, so that, through many ways, the tendency is 
constantly increasing whereby the science of medicine is subsidized and radi- 
cally injured by the debasement of the agents upon which the success of the 
irt of medicine so much depends. 

The check or remedy for this evil tendency rests entirely and only with the 
profession, and may be found in various ways, but in no way more easily or 
more certainly — for such substances as admit of it — than in the application of 
simple and reliable tests. 

The writer having for some years past been engaged in manufacturing 
preparations of known character, for the navy, by the United States officinal 
standard, has had the opportunity of observing their properties pretty closely, 
and has collated and originated a few simple and easy tests of quality which 
it is the object of this paper to communicate to the profession. These tests 
require little time, skill, or apparatus, and are adapted to the extemporaneous 
use of the physician or apothecary, so that they may be convoiiently applied 
at the dispensary counter or at the office table. They consequently do not 
aim at critical accuracy, but at the more important point of practical discrim- 

A very important genen^ indication of quality in medicinal substances is 
the source from whence they come, and the channels through which they may 
have passed. The profession should obtain a better and more critical know- 
ledge of the various manufactures, that due weight might be given to the 
names associated with the preparations they use, and should then be more 
careful to observe that the authenticated Uibel of the manufacturer is affixid. 
In the common desire to be considered manufiicturers, and from the indispo- 
sition to circulate or publish others' cards or names in connection with prep- 
arations sold, it is becoming quite rare to find the name of the real manufac- 
turer upon the packages of medicinal preparations. They are commonly 
told widiout evidence of their source, and therefore without any real respon- 
sibility upon any one. The traditional or reputed character with which they 


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48 Important Medicinal Preparation Teits. 

commonly pa.<^s through the Various hands to tlie profession is too often» 
without other foundation than the disposition to buy cheaply and sell at a 
large profit From the circumstances that few apothecaries manufacture- 
even their more simple preparations, and that there can be no proper respon- 
sibility in a verbal character transmitted through several persons, the profes- 
sions bolh of medicine and pharmacy should be more careful that their pack- 
ages are duly authenticated from the desired sources, as general tests or evi- 
dences of quality. A very large proportion of medicinal substances must 
depend mainly upon some such evidences of quality until their therapeutic 
value is determined in practice, since they are beyond the easy reach of chem- 
istry, and since sensible properties are so often deceptive. Among those 
which are susceptible of easy practical discrimination by simple means the 
writer is at present able to offer the following : — 

Ethkk. — A strip of imsized paper, or a clean glass rod, dipped into the 
ether and allowed to dry for a moment or two, will by the odor it gives afford 
evidence of the less volatile impurities that it commonly contains. There 
usually remains a somewhat aromatic, slightly pungent odor, that is not 
hurtful in the more dilute ether used for common medicinal purposes, but the 
disagreeable oily odor oflen found is more objectionable, whilst really good 
ether should leave ' no odor whatever. The ether used for inhalation should 
leave upon the sponge, paper, or rod, no odor at all. 

The strength of ether is less easily ascertained except by a specific gravity 
instrument With a little practice, however, with some good specimen for 
comparison, a very satis&ctory estimate may be found by oljserving the slow- 
ness or rapidity with which any given specimen evaporates from the palm of 
the hand. Ether for inlialation should give off bubbles rapidly at the tem- 
perature of the palm of the hand. A thin test tube containing the specimen 
should l>e grasped firmly for a minute or two, and then the ether should be 
stirred at the time of observation. The bubbles arise from the points of con- 
tact between the tube and stirrer. 

CoMPorND SvRUP OF EraKK. — Uoffman's Anodynjc — Two drops of officinal 
spirit stirred into a pint of water give to the mixture a distinct oily 
surface, and the peculiar firuity, aromatic odor of the heavy oil of wine, free 
. from the odor of ether and alcohol Sixty drops in the pint renders the 
water decidedly turbid ; while, with four fluid drachms to the pint, a scanty 
precipitate of minute oil globulei^ occurs after a few minutes' standing. The 
fruity, apple-like odor is characteristic of the chief anodyne ingredient, the 
oil of wine, and is entirely wanting in the ordinary commercial article. With- 
out the oil of wine the preparation is a stimulant antispasmodic With the 
oil it is a highly valuable anodyne antispat^modic, particularly adapted to ner- 
vous irritation and hysteria. The liquid universally sold as Hofiman*s Ano- 
dyne is a residue of the earth-making process, containing varying pro|K>rtions 
of ether and alcohol with a little etherole or light oil of wine, but in bo single 
instance of the many examinations made by the writer has any true heavy 


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S!/aabj$8 of a Qmrse (^SUufy. 49 

•ft •f wine been found in it Heavy oil of wine, from being eJtpensive and 
Mmewfaat difficult to make, has finally been entirely omitted from the prep- 
avadon, and is now hardly to be met with in commerce ; while, as a conse> 
^aenoe, the prefMuration to which it belongs, from a fidlure to meet the proper 
indications to its u^ is become a stimulant, and slowly going out of use. 

{To be cotUintt^.) 

Syllabus of a Course of Study, intended as an Aid to 
Students of Pharmacy. 


(!«TRODCcnoN. — When a lad, or young man, has made up his mind to enter 
npon the business of a pharmaceutist or a druggist, he should be fully aware 
of the responsible offices it invokes, and of the two-fok) nature of the functions 
it requires to be performed, viz : those of a mechanical nature acquired by 
aumual practice, and those of a scientific character, to be learned only by stud^ 
in connection with that practice. * 

The phenomena which occur in the daily routine of the apprentice, though 
matter f<Mr wonder at the beginning, become fiuniliar by repetition, cease to 
excite thought or inquiry, and he rests satisfied in ignorance of their nature. 
But when, during his practical lessons, a course of study is pointed out to him, 
he soon gets a key to much that was hidden, becomes interested in what he is 
doing, and progresses rapidly in proportion. 

It often happens that the beginner does not enjoy the pririlege of a friend 
at his side, to explain difficulties as they arise, and employers are sometimes 
•6 ignorant in these regards as the ^>prentice himself. It is to point out to 
tliese seekers after knowledge the route to obtain it, that this Syllabus has been 

The sciences which are chiefly involved in the studies o( the young i4>othe- 
eary, are botany, chemistry, and physics. The Dispensatory is a treatise on 
drugs and medidnes, viewed in, relation to their origin, botanical, zoological or 
mineralogical, their mode of collection, preparation and introduction into com- 
merce, their commercial history, their sensible properties and chemical diarac^ 
teristics, their medical properties and pharmaceutical preparations and uses» 
The Dispensatory, therefore, contains the various knowledge required by the 
pharmaceutical student But extensive as such works usually are, there are 
many details necessarily omitted, «and much coUatehd information not com- 
prehended, which, to the student, is requisite to fully understand the scientific 
part of that work. 

In the shop, the beginner soon finds that the productions of almost every 
country are collected around him, and a laudable curiosity should lead him to 
inquire into their history, as well from a just desire to be able to explain it to 
others, as to enable him to convert them into preparations, with a full under- 
standing of their several qualities and uses. 

At the outset, therefore, the earnest pharmaceuHcal student should posse^^ft. 


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50 SifVahua of a Conrs^ of Stvchj, 

or have access to, elementary \vork5« on chemistrj, botany, and natural phi- 
losophy (unless his previous education should have included these branches;, 
because they will be needed to understand the language of the Dispensatory. 

Botany. — Almost any elementary work on botany will serve the begiimer, 
in reference to the terms used in the Dispensatory, but Dr. Gray^s " First 
lessons in Botany and Vegetable Physiology/' which contains a copioiLS dic- 
tionary of botanical terms, is to be preferred, as it was written as an intro- 
duction to the author's Manual of Botany, which is appropriate for the more 
advanced student. However slightly the Ix'ginner may acquaint himself with 
the principles of botany at first, he should aim at its systematic study during his 
term of service, as well for its intrinsic interest and usefulness, as for its ap- 
propriateness to the accomplished pharmaceutist. Indeed, the pleiii^ure deri- 
vable from the pursuit of botany is sufficient stimulus to many per.sons, inde- 
pendent of its usefulness ; and its tendency is to induce excursions into the 
country, which are gi*ateful as a relief from the confined atmosphere of the 

Chemixtrii. — ( )f chemistr}' it may be said that it is the foundation of all cor- 
rect pharmaceutical knowledge ; it is the key which unlocked those mysteries, 
which, tUu'ing many centuries, were hidden in the language of the alcliemists 
and philosophers of the middle ages — a language, the obscurity of which no 
doubt arose as much from ignorance of the real nature of the reactions they 
professed to describe, as from a dlsjjosition to give undue importance to the 
possession of the secrets. 

The student, therefore, if he has had no preliminary instruction in cliemistry, 
should be provided with a chemical dictionary, or glossary, and an elementary- 
work on that science, so as to be. able to enter a course of reading without watting 
until he can obtain instruction by lectures or otherwise. It is not to be ex- 
pected that the beginner can correctly* understand all the tenns used, even by 
aid of a dictionary, but very many he can thus master, and by study and ex- 
periment the most may be understood. It is better for him to progress slow- 
ly and really^ than rapidly but superficially, and hence each difficulty should 
be jnrestled with till cleared up, or set aside among *' work for future effort," 
that it may be returned to wiUi renewed vigor. 

'Mineralogy and Zoology are far less important to the pharmaceutist than 
chemistrj' and botany, and may be left to a laur period, and then only entered 
on so far a,s to get a proper idea of their classification and arrangement, and of 
the species chiefly contributing to medi«ine, unless desired by the student 

Every pharmaceutical student should, at the outset, endeavor to form a 
plan of stuffy. This plan will vary with the mental characteristics and kind 
of opportunity afforded to each. While one will have ample time and at stated 
periods ; another will need to employ the brief and irregular intervals, which 
almost constant engagement in the shop and laboratory permits ; but ais, in 
either case, a plan regularly adhered to will greatly aid progress, it is recom- 
mended that each student should adopt the best one of which his circumstan- 
ces admit. 


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SyllabiLs of a Churse of Study. 61 

This SylUbus will giTe a bird's-ej-e-view of what is to be studied, and the 
order in which it may be advantageously considered ; yet it may be well to 
bear in mind that whatever facilities it may present, it is only an aid or scaf- 
folding to get at the results of study, and not the thing itself, and when the 
sagacity of the student can adopt a better arrangement, he is free to do it. 
Where one student thus carves out his own pathway to the temple of knowl- 
edge, twenty will take the beaten track of others, and many more lack the 
energj- and perseverance to keep on this well marked route. If any of the 
latter class should fancy that this Syllabus is a substitute for that exertion 
which the acquisition of knowledge requires, they will be greatly disap- 

In thus speaking of the pharmaceutical student, as he nhould he^ it must 
not be supposed that it arises from a false idea of what he in. Jt is indeed 
true that study, properly so called, is often times the last thing the youjKj ap- 
prentice thinks of. Kt'pt on the go frbm morning till nij;lit, and sometimes 
all the evening in addition, when cessation of physical labor occurs he is 
naturally more disposed to court Somnus than the Muses, or more inclined to 
the newspaper than the Dispensatory. This disinclination for study often 
arises from not possessing a friend to point out where to begin and what to 
read. If employers would take more interest in their bo3's at first as regards 
their reading, endeavoring to get them interested in subjects pertaining to 
their business, the latter would be mucli more likely to get their ambition ex- 
cited to exertion. The value of a drug clerk in some positions is greatly en- 
hanced by the possession of a kind of knowledge, the result of experience and 
reading, which enables him to take the place of his employer, in coping with 
the emergencies of business. Now, it is true that there arc certain difficulties 
which recur so seldom that but one or two may happen during an apprentice- 
ship ; and if not learned then, no other opportunity may offer, until the ap- 
prentice, having become the clerk, finds himself compelled to act, or acknowl- 
edge his ignorance. It is therefore necessary for the apprentice, who desires 
to become a master in pharmacy, to be wide) awake to every incident of the 
counter, gaining information daily by what he sees and hears and handles, and 
never hesitating to ask where he is in doubt, under the idea that it will be 
showing ignorance. It is for want of this kind of training and earnestness, 
that so many drug clerks are found illy qualified to take charge of a store ; 
they are not equal to the numerous occasions where discretion and judgment 
are required ; and after going from one employer to aiiothcr, citker abandon 
the business in disgust, or settle down into a second rate position as confirmed 

It is to enable apprentices and others to avoid this humiliating result, and to 
stimulate thejn to honorable exertions in the pursuit of pharmaceutical knowl- 
edge, that the Association offers this Syllabus for their acceptance, believing 
that it will point out a practicable road to respectability, if not to eminence, in 
their profession. 


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62 Hdiiorial 

Ipecaonanha in Delirium Tremens. 

Dr. Paoli, physician to the ^ridewell city prison, in an article published in 
the Chicago Journal, speaks very favorably of the above named remedy in 
delirium tremens, as it presented itself in the prison under his care. He says: 
" Ipecacuanha, which I have tined in sixty cases, I found most remarkably 
successful, quieting the nervous system, exciting the appetite, acting on the 
secretions, and uniformly producing sleep. When a case is not of too long 
standing, I give it as an emetic the first dose, and afterwards T give from fifteen 
to eighteen grains every other hour. Connected with this remedy, I use 
shower baths, and let the patient frequently drink strong beef tea, without any 
alcoholic stimulants." This is an old method of treating mania-a potu. But 
delirium tremens, or what is so denominated, is a disease presenting such 
different pathological conditions, that no one remedy can be relied on to 
meet the indications in all ca^es. 



before us contains fivo hundred octavo pages — is full of interesting matter, and 
reflects much credit upon the association, as does the style and arrangement ^ 
upon the executive committee. 

This association was organized in Philadelphia, in September, 1853, for the 
advancement of pharmaceutical knowledge and the elevation of druggists and 
apothecaries as a profession. The seventh annual session was convened at the 
Smithsonian Institute at Washington, September 14, 1858. The convention 
was called to order by its president, Charles Ellis, of Philadelphia. After the 
appointment of the various committees incident to its organization, and the 
reports of the committees of last year, which will be noticed in another place, 
the president read his annual address, which is a detailed history of the fonn^ 
dation of the association — the causes and motives that induced its first organi- 
sation, with a review of the proceedings for the fast six years, with many 
valuable practical suggestions. 

John L. Ridwell, of Georgetown, was elected president, and E. R. Squibb, of 
New Yo^, James 0' Gallagher, of St. Louis, and Robert Battcy, of Rome, 
Georgia^ vice presidents. D. J. Browne, Esq., of the Patent Office, waa 
present by invitation, and made some interesting remarks concerning the 
efforts of the Patent Office in introducing Coreign plants into this country, as 
the olive, fig, prune, cork tree, verbena, opium poppy, Zante currant, raisin 
grape, liquorice, &c The cork oak {Qu&rcus suber) has been successfully cul> 
tiyated as far north as College Hill, near Cincinnati. He states that our im- 
portation of cork and corks, in 1857, exceeded $250,000, and which is 0(m- 
stan'ly increasing. This demand should be met by domestic production. 
Among other objects of investigation by Ihe Patent Office, may be mentioned 


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EdUarial 68 

ttie analysis of Tarious trees and plants, and of the soilB in which they grow, 
embracing cotton, tobacco, common potato, Chinese yam, Sorghum cane and 
Indian corn ; also a new principle, or red coloring matter, highly astringent, 
has been discovered in the hemlock bark {Abie* Oanadsn$is) ; and a substance 
analogous to lupulin in the samara of the wafer bush (Pto/ia trifoliata\ which 
has been successfully employed a<« a substitute for hops. 

The most interesting part of the proceedings are the reports of the commit- 

The report upon home adulteration of drugs we published in the December 
number of this Journal. 

Weiguts and Measures. — ^The committee on weights and measures, by Dr. 
Guthrie, favors the adoption of the decimal system, while the supplementary 
report, by John Meakim, of New York, dissents from the scale proposed by 
the New York Chamber of Commerce, and urges the adoption of the French 
decimal system with some modifications, extracts from which we shall pub- 
lish. It is quite time some new standard was decided upon, and that we were ' 
rid of the present conflicting systems. / 

Revision of the PnARMxcopcEiA. — The report of the committee on the pre- 
liminary revision of the Pharmacopoeia occupies forty-four pages, and is re- 
plete wi:h valuable suggestions and additions. It is no light undertaking to 
alter and revise this worlc. The committee have collected a large amount of 
matter which, if not wholly available to the pharmacopoeia convention or its 
committee, will be valuable to the apothecary and medical profession at large. 
That part devoted to Fluid Extracts by Mr. Steams is quite elaborate. Many 
decoctions and tinctures will probably be represented in the revised edition by 
Fluid Extracts, as being more convenient and better representing the me- 
^cinal properties of the article. 

Amend VENTS to the Drug Law. — ^The committee on amendments to the drug 
law recommend that the appointment of examiners of drugs in the important 
ports be made by the President and Senate, and that the applicant have the 
confidence of either the college of pharmacy of the port or a recommendation of 
the medi lal association, and that each of the important offices be supplied with 
all the ntx^ssary apparatus and means of testing and trying all drugs to ascer- 
tain their purity — that the salary or pay of the examiners be such as to command 
the services of competent, educated, and honest men ; also that the examiners 
be appraisers of value. 

Un-Officikal FoRMULiE. — The report on local un-officinal formulsd is from 
W. B. Chapman, of Cincinnati, and by practitioners of medicine in that city. 
We publish part in this number. 

Robert M. Battey oyC Arrowroot. — ^This reply is full of interesting 
matter touching its cultivation, and illustrates the mode of preparation, with 
the conclusion that an article equal to the best Bermuda arrowroot may be 
made on the sea board of Georgia; and the only reason why it is not had from 
that source he is unable to answer, except that its manufacture is not well 
suited to the genius of our people, taken as a mass. 


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54 Editorial. 

Report on the Procress of Pharmacy. — This report is divided under the 
following heads or divisions : Inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, practi- 
cal pharmacy, materia medica, toxicology, education, pharmaceutic assodations, 
legislation on the subject of the sale of poisons, and literature. It occupies 
forty-six pages — is a review in detail of the progress made during the year in 
the several departments or divisions. Under the head of literature is a list of 
books and periodicals issued during the year, bearing directly or indirectly upon 
matters relating to pharmacy in English, French or German languages. 

The Syllabus of a Course of Study, intended as an aid to students of phar- 
macy, being a special report by Prof. Procter, and occupies sixty-six pages. We 
publish the introduction on page forty-nine, and shall publish further extracts 
as our space will allow. 

Notes and Suggestions upon some of the processes of the United States 
phamiacopdiia, especially directed to the committee of revision, by Dr. Edward 
R. Squibb. This paper is one of the most important and practically useful con- 
tributions submitted to the association. Dr. S. was for many years connected 
with the United States naval laboratory at Brooklyn, and all his papers indicate 
a man of close observation, study and science. Our readers will find on page 
forty-six of this Journal an extract from his paper upon *' simple tests for 
some important medicinal preparations." 

Subjects fob Investigation. — The committee report over forty different 
subjects accepted by members of the association for investigation to be report- 
ed at the next meeting of the association. 

We have briefly noticed the various important reports, and shall in our 
next number notice the several " Essays." 

Those wishing to obtain the report can do so by communicating with S. S. 
Qarrigues, 108 North Front Street, Philadelphia. The price of the volume in 
paper, with postage, is $1.00, in board, $1.25, and is worth to every medical 
practitioner and apothecary many times its cost. 

We call the attention of those in want of pure wines and liquors for medici- 
nal purposes to the advertisement of Messrs. Bininger & De Witt This is an 
old established house, wlio have always sustained a reputation of dealing in 
articles of the first quality, and not in the poisonous adulterated stuff which 
floods the country. The value of pure liquors for medicinal purposes is fully 
appreciated by those who have been imposed upon by purchasing a worthless 

Surgical Instruments. — Physicians in want of Surgical Instruments, or any , 
articles enumerated in the advertisement of V. W. Brinkerhoff, will be certain 
of getting them of superior quality and workmanship. 

Correspondents will oblige by writing plainly their names, town, county and 
state. We have, in several instances, been unable to answer letters because 
these are omitted. 

Book of Formul-«. — Eight pages of this work will be appended to each 
number of the Journal hereafter. 

Subscribers will please notify us if they do not receive the Journal regularly. 


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Pharmacy, 55 

Various Formulse for the Oelatinization of Cod-liver Oil. 


I{ . Cod-liver oil 3 ij. 

Fresh spermaceti 3 ijss. 

Simple syrup 3 vj. 

Jamaica mm 3 vj. 

Beat the ingredients together with the aid of heat, and when the mixture 
has acquired some consistence, pour it into a wide-mouthed bottle. 


li . Pure gelatine §88. 

Water § iv. 

Simple syrup § iv. 

Cod-liver oil 3 viij. 

Aromatic essence q. s: 

Dussolvc the gelatine in the boiling water, and add successively the syrup, 
the oil, and the aromatic essence ; place the vessel containing the entire in a 
bath of cold water ; whip the jelly for five nn'nutes at most, and then pour it, 
while still fluid, into a wide-mouthed glass bottle, furnished with a cork, or 
witli a pewter cap, or if a bottle be not at hand, i^ito a» porcelain or earthen- 
ware |)ot, which should be carefully closed. 


IJ. Pucus crispus .....'. |ss. 

Water § xviij. 

Siaiplesyrup 5 ^• 

Cod-liver oil 5 viij. 

Aromatic q. v. 

Boil the carrageen in the water for twenty minutes ; pass the decoction 
through flannel ; concentrate it until it is reduced to four ounces by weight ; 
add the syi*up, the oil, and the aromatic ; whip the mixture briskly, having 
first placed it in a cold bath, and pour it, while still a little warm, into the 
vessel intended to receive it The syrup may be replaced by an equal quantity 
of Garus" elixir, mint or vanilla cream or rum, &c. 

M. Sauvan proposes to combine cod-liver oil with Iceland moss. 


TJ . Iceland moss jelly | iv. 

Gelatme 3 iv. 

Oydrocyanated cod-liver oil (to which two drops of es- 
sence of bitter almonds have been added) 3 vj. 

Prepare the Iceland moss jelly in the usual manner ; melt the gelatine and 
pass it into the vessel which is to hold it ; then add the cod-liver oil ; stir the 
entire with a spatula, until the mixture be homogeneous and the jelly begins 
to congeal. Dose — two or three spoonfuls daily. — Bull Gen, de Thenxp. — 
Ihiblin ffoHpifal (latette, Aug. 15, 1857,/?. 254. 


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56 Pharmacy. 


ProfottKor Willium Procter, Jr., in the March number (1858) of the AmcH- 
CMi Journal of Pharmacy says : — "In the American Journal of Pharmacy for 
1856, pages 805 and 4T8, I made some remarks, introducing to notice the 
AmmoniO'ferric Alum, or sulphate of ammonia and of sesquioxide of iron with 
a formula for its preparation. This combination having been since found bj* 
many physicians to answer the description given by Dr. W. Tyler Smith, of 
its advantages as an astringent tonic, the demand for it has occasioned the ne- 
cessity for repeatedly preparing it ; and, profiting by the suggestions of some 
of my friends, I have improved the process for its preparation, so as to make 
it much more readily, perfectly and economically, thus : — 

5- Ferri sulphaUs cryst § xxiv. 

Ammonise sulphatis 5 ^'^• 

Acidi sulphurici f 5 ^. f. 3 v. 

Acidi nitrici » £ | iij.vel. q. s. 

Aqu» q. 8. 

Mix f. 3 xxj. of the sulphuric acid, in a large mortar, with the sulphate of 
iron coarsely powdered ; then gradually add, with trituration, the nitric acid, till 
it ceases to produce effervescence. Transfer the mixtture to a porcelain capsule, 
and boil it with one quart of water, added in two or three portions successively. 
Then add the remaining f. | iij. of sulphuric acid, and the sulphate of ammonia; 
boU till the latter is entirely dissolved, and set aside in a cool place to crystal- 
ize. If the resulting crystals are not sufficiently pure and violet-colored, they 
must be re-dissolved by boiling in about a pint of water, acidulated with an 
ounce or two of sulphuric add, filtered or decanted, and again set aside to crys- 
talize. The crystals must then be drained, and dried in bibulous pM>er, before 
being bottled up. In this way we obtain very handsome, somewhat amethy- 
stine crystals. 


By M, Danneey, Pharmacien of Bordeaux. 

Some of the properties of stramonium and belladonna — which plants, when . 
smoked, justly enjoy the reputation of relieving asthma, and which are em- 
ployed vrith tiie most undoubted auceess in the treatment of neuralgia— ezial 
also in plants abounding in nitrates. Thus I have seen patients who had ex- 
perienced great relief from the use of the leaves of borage and pellitory i^ants 
containing, as is well known, much nitrate of lime. 

The fiiiult which almost all patients find with narcotic plants, smoked in 
pipes or in the form of cigarettes, is a copious production of smoke, which fa- 
tigues them, and sometimes excites cough — ^a symptom they are, on the con- 
trary, employed to allay. 

In order to obviate this inconvenience, I have added nitre to the leaves of 
belladonna and of stramonium, by watering these plants, dried and conveniently 
spread out, with a solution of nitrate of potash, in the proportion of throe 
ounees of the salt to rather more than two pounds avoirdupois of the plants. 


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Pharmacy. 57 

It will be easily understood, that as this solution penetrates the entire regeta- 
ble tissue, the latter will, when dry, bum completely, without the formation 
of the pyrogeneous products above alluded to. 

I have for many years prepared cigarettes according to this formula, and 
the benefit derived from their use by a great number of patients induces me to 
publish it, and to call the attention of practitioners to this mode of treatment, 
oonsisting in the smoking of narcotic plants combined with nitre. 

By Alfred B. Tbylar. 

3. Best calisaya bark l\r. 

Fresh orange peel 5 V- 

Ceylon cinnamon 

Coriander seed, ai. 5 j- 

Anise seed 

Caraway seed 

Cardamon seed 

Cochineal, a& 3 ij. 

Brandy Oiiss. 

Having bruised the articles well, and allowed them to macerate for twenty- 
four hours in sufficient of the brandy to moisten thoroughly, transfer to a dis- 
placement apparatus, and add the rest of the brandy ; then displace carefully 
with a mixture of three parts of water and one part of alcohol, until six and a 
half pints of tincture are obtained ; to this add two and one-half pints of simple 
syrup, and mix thcMroughly. — Amer. Jour, 0/ Pharmacy. 


Messrs. Demarquay and Custin consider that the action of this salt is more 
powerful than that of the chlorate of the same base, and that it has yielded ex- 
eellent results where the chlorate of potash had fiiiled. The dose varies from 
fire to twenty-two grains, and it has been used in diphtheritis, mercurial and 
gangrenous stomatitis, Ac From M. Millon^s directi(ms, the salt may be ob- 
tained as follows : — One part of iodine and one <^ chlorate of potash are brought 
fai contact with six parts of boiling water, acidulated with a few drops <^nitrio 
acid. When chlorine eo a s ea to be given off, a concentrated solution of chloride 
of barium is added to the liquor. The washed iodate of barytes is then da- 
eomposed by sulphuric acid, the sulphate e€ barytes is separated by filtration, 
and the fluid is slowly evaporated. The crystals of iodic acid are then wa^ied 
with distilled water, redissolved in boiling distilled water, and the solution 
saturated with bi-carbonate of potash. A great portion of the salt is deposited 
in little crystals on c6oling. — London Pharmaceutical Jour, 


This lotion is almost exclusively employed to remove lime from the eye. 
Its strength is half a drachm of distilled vinegar to an ounce of water. Of 
course the sooner it is resorted to after the accident the better. It should also 
be very freely used, the lids being everted, and well washed. 


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58 Formuke. 

[From the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Asaodation«] 

Cincinnati, August 26t7f, 1858. 
To the Chairman of Committee : — 

In compliance with the duty devolving on me as one of the above committee, 
I send you a few formulae which are much used in our city, both by practi- 
tioners of medicine and the public ; with a view of obtaining a greater uniformity 
in their preparation I forward them to you. If you should think them worthy, 
please present them to the Association. 

Yours Respectfully, 


(Richartl Eberle, M. D.) 

Kxtract Colocynth Compound .' One Dram. 

Pulverized Scammony ** '* 

Sub. Mur. Hydr., ** " 

Mix, and make into five grain pills. 


(Prof. John Klwrle.) 

Water Pepper , Eight Ounces. 

Diluted Alcohol Ten (Gallons. 

Macerate fourteen days and express. 

(Dr. Edwin A. Atlee.) 

Pulverized Gum Arabic Half Dram. 

Biborate of Soda , Ten Grains. 

Tincture of Myrrh One Dram,. 


(Dr. E. A. Atlee.) 
For a child from six months to 

1 year. Hydrocyanic Acid, One Drop ; Simple Syrup, (Jne Oimce. 

From 1 " to 2 " " Two " ** " ** 

" Three ** 

** ** Four " 

44 Six ** 

** " Seven ** 

" Eight" 

SiG. — "A teaspoonful two or three times a day. If there is much oppression 
give a dose of Antimonial Wine before taking the syrup ; and if castive, give a 
dose of Calomel and Rhubarb." 
This prescription is so designed that a teaspoonful shall bo a dose in each case. 


to 2 












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formulas. 69 


(Jackson's Cough Syrup.) 

Syrup of Morphia Three Ounces. 

** Ipecac and Senega One Ounce. 

Rhubarb, simple ** '* 


SiG. — A teaspoonful three times daily. 

Receipts for the Syrup Morphia and Ipecac and Senega used in the above 
preparation : — 


Miu*iate of Morphia One Grain. 

Simple S>Tup , One Ounce. 

Oil of Sa.ssafras Two Drops. 



Polygaia Senega Root Two Ounces. 

Pulverized Ipecac One Dram. 

Water Half Gallon. 

Boil the Senega root in the water until half consumed ; strain, then add the 
Ipecac, and sugar enough to form a syrup. 


(Huxley's Liniment) 

Tincture of Arnica Four-and-a-half Ounces. 

Oil of Camphor Half Ounce. 

Tincture of Opium One Ounce. 



Tincture of Hy oscyamas Four Ounces. 

** Digitalis. .^ Two Ounces. 

Syrup of SquUl Eight Ounces, 

Syrup of Balsam of Tolu Two Ounces. 


Dose — One teaspoonful on going to bed. 


(Presented by A. P. Sharp, of Baltimore.) 

Ext. Colo«ynth Comp One Dnun. 

Hyd. Proto-chlor. Twelve (trains. 

Tart Antim. and Pot Two Grains. 

Make into twelve pills. 


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. 60 Medicinal Extracts. 

Fltiid, Solid and Pilular Extracts, Alkaloids and Besinoids. 

Every plant in the materia medica possesses some specific or general medici- 
nal principle upon which its value, as a therapeutic agent, depends. The 
various forms in which modicincA arc prepared give evidence of difference of 
opinion in regard to the most appropriate and effective mode of administering 
them, and no one class of pharmaceutic preparations can be used exclusively 
in medica] practice to the rejection of all others. Their remedial p^opertie8 are 
due to some one or more^tctive principles. The preservation and presentatioa 
of these, in an unaltered state, in all preparations, should be the aim and pur- 
pose of the manipulator. The processes by which they .ire obtained, preserved 
and made available to fulfil the conditions of their administration, are im- 
portant points of consideration to the medical practitioner. 

The substance or crude material should in all cases be analyzed, and its re- 
lation to a standard quality ascertained, because it is a well ascertained fact 
that plants grown in different localities, upon moist or dry soils, lowlands or 
uplands, or collected early or late in the season, vary in their proximate prin- 

To overcome these contingencies as far as possible, we cultivate extensively 
the most important plants. By the analysis of a particular article, and the 
soil upon which it is proposed to grow it, the nutriment necessary to its per- 
fect development is determined. Principal among these are the narcotics, as 
hyoscyamus, belladonna, stramonium, digitalis, &c. All these are limited to a 
certain state or condition of growth for manufacturing purposes, and are used 
in the recent state. As many of the principles of plants are of a volatile and 
delicate nature, readily injured by heat, causing a conversion of fixed soluble 
principles into insoluble and inert compounds, we early adopted the process 
of evaporation at a low temperature in receivers from which the air is exhausted 
by an air pump. 

Solid ob Pilitlak Extbacts should represent all the active medicinal princi- 
ples of the plant from whence they are derived. These may be an alkaloid, resin- 
oid, acid, volatile or fixed oil, oleo-resin, or a neutral principle, (without acid 
w akaline reaction), separate or combined, and should be preserved in their 
natural relations, so that the therapeutical effect shall be the same as the crude 
material. By an accurate analysis of the plant, the menstruum and manipulation 
can be adapted to the peculiar characteristics of its active constituents, and 
their preservation by evaporation in a vacuum rendered more certain than by 
any other known process. They may be of the pilular consistence, or by ftir- 
ther drying, brought to a powdered state, and in that form present all the active 
medicinal or positive medical constituents of the plant in a very concentrated form. 

Inferior or sophisticated preparations consist chiefly in the employment of 
crude materials rejected as unfit for any other purpose, either old or worm-eaten 
— ^the admixture of gum and starch to give the required consistence, or keep up 
the general average of production^ or as one of many iastances, the use of 
cichorium intybus for leontodon taraxacum, or solanum nigrum for atropa bel- 


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Medicinal Extractg, 61 

Fluid Extbacts tmtj fh>m the preceding cbeg in degree of ooncentraiion* 
The general principles observed in their preparation are the same, but the pro- 
cess by which the medicinal properties of the plant are exhibited in the fluid 
form, admits of the preparation being made of any required standard of strength, 
definite and uniform as regards the amount of actiy^-medillinal principles repre- 
sented by any given quantity, held in solution so as to form clear preparations. 
Conceding fluid extracts to be made from materials of standard quality ^ and 
by processes calculated to exhibit the activity of the plant, they meet the re- 
quirements of the practitioner by supplying a strength of preparatioi^ inter- 
mediate between the solid extract and the tincture — avoid the unnecessary 
bulk of infusions — the uncertainty of decoctions — the stimulation modifying 
the therapeutical action of many tinctures — are with great facility taken into 
the system, requiring little or no digestion — act as soon as administered, and 
when immediate effect of medicine is desired, arc the best forms in which it can 
be employed. The physician is enabled to regulate the dose with greater case 
and certainty, and for convenience in calculating doses, they are generally made 
of the strength of one pound of the drug to one pint of fluid — ^are cai)able of 
ready combination, or of conversion into tinctures, syrups, and infusions, for 
purposes of further combination. 

ALKA.LOIDS AND Resinoios. — They purport to be the active principles of the 
plants, and have the same relation to the plants whence they are derived, that 
quinia does to the cinchonas, and morphia to opium. The alkaloids possess all 
and the same properties with the mineral alkalies ; they crystallize, turn red 
litmus-paper blue, and combining with adds form perfectly defined salts. The 
discovery of these principles, ordinarily designated resinoids, is more recent^ 
and only up to a certain point do they possess the peculiar characteristics of 
rmn», Jalapine forms an exception. Many of these agents, styled indiffer- 
ently alkaloids or resinoids, do not present any marked acid or alkaline charac- 
teristics, such as piperincy asparagins^ glyeyrrhigine, &c These substances 
are more numerous than the resins, properly so called. 

It is often necessary when these principles have been reduced, to combine 
with them sugar of milk or the powder of the same drug, to secure an impal- 
pable powder, because they are often oleaginous in their character. This fact, 
when it occurs, is distinctly stated upon the bottle, and the quantity always 
increased in proportion to the admixture, that each bottle shall contain one 
ounce of the active principle. 

These agents are subject to much adulteration, but the tests are simple and 
easy. Concentrated preparations proper^ or alkaloids and resinoids^ should 
be carefully distinguished from the alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extracts dri^ 
and pottderedy of which large quantities are being mfde and sold for them. 
However convenient and valuable they may be, as a class, they are preparations 
which should be sold at only a small advance from the cost of the solid extracts ; 
and it is due to the physician that he understands definitely, whether he is ad- 
ministering the medicinal principles of a drug in an isolated form, or in the 
form of a powdered solid ex u act — at the same time he should not be charged 
the price of the former when dispensing the latter. 


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No. 800 Arch Street, Phila- 

(Aatlkor of llie "Introduction to Practical 








OfFere to Phys«lcluns a general at*sortnient of Medi- 
cines and Medicinal Wares, of u hlcli the follow ing 
are specially recommended : — 

Ckmiponnd Syrup of the Phosphates of Lime, 
Iron, Soda and Potassa. 

(" Cliendcal Food,") 
Thi^ uduiirHble tonic U adaiited to Mipply the 
waste occnrring during the iirogre*!} of chronic 
diseases, and to build up the strength wa.sted 
by long continued ill health. Put up in 1 lb. 
bottles, at $!> per dtiz.. and in a smaller size, at 
$8.50 per dozen. 

Olycerole of the Hypophosphites, 

Used In the treatment of Pulmonary Consumpfuui, 
and as n tonic in cases of nervous and general 
debility. Sold with circulars giving its compoi-itlon, 
uses, Ac, at fS per dozen bottles. 


The attention of the Medical Proferalon, and 
the public is invited to the following prcpamtlons : 

Tarrant^s EfferTescent Seltzer 

, Prepared on an entirely new principle, from a 
j late analysis of the celebrated Ski.tzkr i^PRiNo In 
Germany, combining efficacy, econonjy and porta- 
bility, with Huch atlditions and lmprnvement« as 
will be found materially to lncreaj»e Its efficacy. 
This much-esteemed and highly \ aluable prepara- 
tion win not fail to effectually renmve Dyspepsia, 
or In<lige8tlon. Bilioua AtTections, Headache, 
Heartluirn, .Vci<lity of the Stomach, Co^tiveness, 
(Sout, Uheumati:»m, I^m)* of .\ppetlte, Oravel, 
Nervous Debility, Nau-^ea, or N omiting. Affect- 
ions of the \A\ er, &c., Ac. 

Tarrant's Cordial Elixir of Tnr- 
i liey Rhubarb. 

Takes its place as the best remedy for Dyspepsia 
or Indlg'-stion of the present day, and, for its 
I ellicacy and safety, deserves the ntiine of being. In 
truth, a Family Me«licine. Tliose who suffer f^om 
! excessive fati^i^ue, mental an.\i«'ly. or intellectual 
api>lication of whatsoever kind, "will find It to be 
. a medicine of extreme value. It is partlcularty 
' recommended to those sulTering from fiiliuus and 
Nervous Headache, Dlarrlura, Constipation, Plat- 
' ulency, ludigeslion, trammer Complaints, Cholera 
.Morbus, Ac, Ac. The utmost reliance can be 
Similar to the foregoing, though without the use i>lace<l on it, both as to lis innocent nature and 
of Cilycerin in its preparation. Price tG per doz. liighly curative qualities. 


Each containing.') grains ofSub.Carb. Iron, flavor- larrant'S lUiprOVed IndClllble 
ed with Vanilla, in boxes, at 1.75 per dozen. Ink. 

PHOSPHATIC LOZENCiES, ! For marking Linen, Muslin, Hilk, Ac, has been 

containing the ingredients of the "Chemical proved by many years' experience, to be the 

Food '" in solid form. $1.75 per dozen. best, most pennanent, and reliable preparation 

' i>iin«nii iTi.' HK 7f \r j ever offered to the public. The superiority of thlf 

PHUbl iiAifc ur />iAt, ^^j.^jp ^ acknowledged bv all; and purchaser! 

A new remedy in Epilepsy and other nervous and dealers will find It to their Interest to give it 

disea'ies. Dose '2 to 5 grains. a preference over all similar j)reparations. 

CiTBATROFTK(»SANnSTRVCiixiA. Dose, 3 grains. --, , j w^ > x ^ 

^visTAR s COUGH LOZENGES. , Tarrant's Compoond Extract of 

An old and very celebrated Philadelphia prepara- ,' CobebS and COpaiba^ 

tion. Price 75 c. per doien. ^ ^ Sanctioned by popular opinion and Idgh authority 

jACKiios's Cough Lozkxgk?, $1.76 per doien. ' of the most distinguished of the medical faculty. 

RESPIRATORS, for persons with weak lungs or • J' o^f «* *« t^® afflicted a remedy, whose success 
throat as a filter to the air, and a preventive , "** »" . every instance supported its desenred 
against cold on leaving heated rooms, and for use reputation. Being convenient and agreeable In 
In toggv and damp weather. IMces-of Cork, $i; its use, experience Inis proved that it retains In 
Silver Wire, $1.50: Gilt, $i each. ' every climate Its desirable and trulv valuable 

UZL . ;.,V,I , .1 • 1 ..^^,1 a Q - «^ ; character. It is In the form of a paste, I* tasteless, 

PESSARIES, elastic ring shape^l, S. S.. ?ind ^^^ d^,„ ^^^ ,^ j^ j,,^ digestioh. It Is prepare*! 

horse-shoe, GirrA Pkrcha, const ructeil on the | ^,1^ the greatest possible care, upon well-tested 

most approved principles, and so as to be worn i principles. To persons following the sea, or going 

for montlis without becoming offensive or losing ^^^^ voyages, this preparation possesses quiUiUes 

their perfect surface. ^ | far gurpassing any other— neat and portable In 

Phyiician^S Prescription Scales, form, speedy and efhcadous in its operation, sun- 

Of the best qualltv and accurate. We import i ^essful both In the earilest and worst stages of 

several kinds Worn $1 to $S.50 each. J^e severest disease, while the usual nauseous 

^ taste and unpleasant odor of Copaiba are wholly 

Pocket Cases for Medicines, | avoldel in this preparation. 

Containing 17 bottles, of 8 sizes, well corked, and Prepared and sold, wholesale and retail, by 

1 graduated glass, the whole of convenient sUe, | JOHN A. TARRANT k CO., 27S Greenwich, cor. 

and accompanied by a sheet of 4*^ labels, printed . of Warren Street, New York ; and for sale by all 

in bronze on steel blue paper, and ready gummed the principal Druggigts in the United States,- 

for use. Price $2 each. Sold and sent to any B ritish Provinces, West Indies, and South America. 

part of tl e country, as above. : ^^ Prices current sent by mall, when desired. 



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lew] MABCH, 1869. [Seriaik 

Remarks on some of the Pharmaceutic Preparations em- 
Xdoyed in Medicine, especially Solid and Fluid Extracts. 


The uncertainty of medicine has been vastly increased in mod- 
em times by the varying qualities or even inert nature of the 
medicines administered. Medical art has, in innumerable instan- 
ces, bieen held responsible for results of which it was wholly inno- 
cent, and for failures entirely xmexpected. To this cause much of 
the scepticism, both in and out of the profession, regarding the 
curative properties of drugs, is owing; so that many of the edu- 
cated and intelligent class have come to believe that there is no 
art and science of medicine — ^that it is fiir preferable to trust to 
nature or homeopathy than to rational medicine for a cure. It has 
been laid down as a self-evident proposition, as it is, that imder 
similar circumstances the same medicines will produce similar ef- 
fects; but as this can never be expected, so infinitely varying are 
the habits, constitutions, temperaments, &c., of individuals, it is 
not to be supposed that medicine can ever arrive at that certainty 
which we meet with in some of the other sciences. Still, much 
wiU be accomplished towards this end if we can only obtain med- 
icines of uniform strength and purity. Is this possible at the 
present time? Are the drugs now attainable in our market, either 
in their crude state or as products of the pharmaceutic art, gener- 
ally reliable in the treatment of disease? Is sufficient attention 
paid to the circumstances which are likely to cause a deterioration 
in their quality, or to the various processes by which their active 
principles are separated for the use of the practitioner? 


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66 " Let on Pharmojceuiic Preparations. 

When we consider the present relaxation in the enforcement of 
our drug-inspection laws in the port of New York — ^the conse- 
quent extensive importation of spurious and sophisticated drugs — 
their frequent adulteration in the home market — ^the frauds of the 
drug grinders, and the wholesale and retail dealers, as well as the 
imperfect and unscientific means of preparation adopted by many 
manu&cturers, we shall no longer wonder that medicine is regarded 
as a very uncertain science, and still more uncertain in its practi- 
cal applications for the relief of the sick. 

And yet the case is not hopeless, nor is the physician unable to 
obtain reliable medicines if he will \ise the necessary care and is 
willing to pay the necessary expense. Within a few years past, 
schools of pharmacy, requiring a four years apprenticeship to 
learn the details of the business, have been established in our 
principal cities, and they annually send out graduates properly 
instructed and experienced in every thing relating to the proper 
selection and preparation of drugs, as well as dispensing them to 
the sick; so that city practitioners can, if they choose, obtain pure 
medicines and have them scientifically dispensed, and so, also, 
there are wholesale dealers, who have a laudable pride in sustain- 
ing the credit of their establishments, who use every precaution 
to keep none but the purest drugs. The names of such houses 
can easily be obtained if the country practitioner chooses, and he 
can, in nearly every instance, rely with confidence on the gen- 
uineness of the articles he procures fix)m them. Such dealers 
know of but one quality of drugs, and that is the best, while oth- 
ers can supply all kinds, to suit the pockets and the wishes of cus- 
tomers. It is evident that much practical experience is necessary 
to convert pure drugs into safe and efficient medicines — ^that re- 
quisite skill in this department demands great study, extensive 
knowledge, and the utmost care; while it is a matter of common 
observation that the best drugs lose their medicinal virtues by un- 
skilful preparation, and that "compounds of safe and efficient 
powers may become poisonous and changed in character by care- 
less manipulation and ignorance." 

Again, it is a matter of congratulation to the profession that es- 
tablishments have been founded for the manufacture of solid and 
fluid extracts, in which greatly improved processes and apparatus 
have been introduced, such as the steam bath and vacuimi pan, in 


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Lee on PharmaceiUic Preparations. 67 

which, by removiBg atmospheric pressure, the boiling point is 
greatly lowered and evaporation much fecilitated, thus entirely 
guarding against those spontaneous changes in vegetable organic 
principles, which are unavoidable when exposed to the influence 
of the air. The narcotic inspissated juices or clarified extracts 
thus prepared, as conium, hyoscyamus, stramonium and beUadon- 
oa, we have found wholly reliable in the doses recommended. 
The green coloring principle and the inert and insoluble vegetable 
albumen beiug separated, they possess the odor of the imdried 
plant — ^are far stronger than those prepared according to the Uni- 
ted States Pharmacopoeia, and of course are to be administered in 
doses smaller than those recommended by the standard authorities. 
In the early part of our practice, nothing was more common than 
to meet with disappointment in regard to the effects of these nar- 
cotic extracts. Ten and even twenty grains, for example, of ex- 
tract of conium were given without the slightest fear of any dan- 
gerous effect, and we have known a physician to take ninety 
grains of the same in the course of a few hours without experi- 
encing the slightest narcotism. The same wiU hold true as re- 
gards the other narcotic extracts, whether prepared by the Sha- 
kers or by some private manufacturer. Now, however, great 
caution, if is well known, is necessary in the use of these prepar- 
ations — a single grain of extract of belladonna often causing tem- 
porary amaurosis, and two or three grains of the other extracts 
producing narcotism. The difference is chiefly accounted for by 
the fact that formerly evaporation was performed over a naked 
fire, when the heat was amply sufficient to decompose the active 
principles. I have never known insp. ext. of belladonna prepared in 
vacuo, applied around the eye in the form of a paste fail to dilate the 
pupil, which may be regarded as a positive test as to its efficacy ; nor 
extract of coniiun thus prepared, fail to yield its characteristic 
odor when softened into a paste with water and a solu- 
tion of potash added ; proving, beyond all question, the presence 
oicontaj its active principle. The same remarks are applicable to 
hydro-alcoholic and alcoholic extracts of the same plants. By 
submitting the dried leaves to the action of diluted alcohol, a grea^ 
proportion of the albuminous and extractive matters are left be- 
hind, while by an evaporation in vacuo the active principles are 
obtained in a still more concentrated form, than when the expressed 


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68 Lee on Pharmaceutic Preparations. 

juice, containing a portion of the cellular structure, is employed 
as in the former class. These extracts also possess the genuine 
odor of the plant, and are efficient in even less doses than the for- 
mer, so that one-half a grain of the extract of aconite, belladonna, 
or stramonium, will generally produce decided eflFects. Similar pre- 
parations of nux vomica and ignatia bean have never failed 
me in a single instance. They are both most invaluable agents 

• in the hands of an experienced practitioner. So, also, cathartic 
solid extracts, as of jalap, rhubarb, hellebore, butternut, podo- 
phyllum, and compound colocynth mass, have proved all that 
could be wished, or that was expected of them. If any fault can 
be found with them, it is from their too great, rather than their 
too little activity. But this can be easily obviated by combination, 
as with hyoscyamus, which prevents griping by lessening their 
irritant and drastic properties. Thus, your compound cathartic 
pill would, doubtless, be improved by diminishing the amount of 
podophyllin one-half, or lessening the size of the pUl; as it is it 
often acts powerfully as a hydragogue, especially in very suscep- 

* tible subjects. The latter, in doses half as large as the extract of 
jalap, will produce equal effects. 

No one, as I have ever heard, has called in question the efficiency 
of recent bitter extracts, as of gentian, qiiassia, Colombo, chamo- 
mile, eupatorium, horehound, &c., and the same is true of the 
astringent extracts, as geranium, blackberry, white oak, logwood, 
rhatany, &c., nor is there any reason to suppose that other 
solid extracts are less reliable than those above named. 

Fluid extracts, which were imnoticed in the United States Phar- 
macopoeia Tmtil the edition of 1850, were then directed to be pre- 
pared by maceration and percolation, evaporating over a 
sand bath. They are unnoticed in British and other European 
pharmacopoeias of the most recent date, and yet they possess ma- 
ny important advantages over the other preparations, especially 
when carefully prepared, as they now are in all first rate estab- 
lishments, by the improved steam apparatus, in vacuo. They 
consist of concentrated syrups, representing an equal quantity or 
half an equal quantity of the drug from which they are obtained, 
as the fluid extracts of senna, rhubarb, spigelia, and sarsapariUa, 
having the advantage of smallness of bulk, facility of administra- 


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Lee 071 Pharmaceutic Preparations. 69 

tion, miacibility with other fluids, and of not easily undergoing 
change by keeping, temperature, &c. 

In a second class, officinal alcohol only is employed as a sol- 
vent, as the fluid extract of valerian, one dram of which exceeds 
in strength double the quantity of the tincture, or thirty grains of 
Uie powdered root, while in a third class oleo-resins are held in so- 
lution by ether, as cubebs, black pepper, capsicum, male fern, car- 
damom, Canada snake root, ergot, &c., a few drops of each of 
which constitute a dose, and given in some saccharine or mucil- 
aginous solution, or added to other ingredients, in pill mass. The 
fluid extract of cubebs may be administered in gelatine capsules, 
whUe that of black pepper forms an excellent adjunct to quinine 
in form of pill. In a large majority of these preparations, alco- 
hol and water, or proof spirit, is the menstruimi employed, the 
alcohol being afterwards separated by distillation, except a suffi- 
cient quantity for due preservation. In looking over your long 
list of preparations, I find you now prepare no less than fifty-nine 
solid extracts, forty-four resinoids and alkaloids, and one hundred • 
and fifVy fluid extracts. Of these, twenty-three of the solid ex- 
tracts are from plants of indigenous growth, also forty-one of the 
resinoids and alkaloids, and eighty of the fluid extracts ; for the 
introduction of a majority of which, we are indebted to your 

Attempts have recently been made, however, to destroy the 
confidence of practitioners in the whole class of fluid extracts, and 
in a paper read before the New York Academy of Medicine a few 
months since, the writer in conclusion stated, that " they possess 
no positive value." His objections, which apply to all extracts 
however made, are, " that they are not, and cannot be uniform 
in strength, because the plants from which they are taken possess 
different amoimts of therapeutic properties ; that they are liable 
equally with the plant from which they are compounded, to de- 
structive alterations ; that each new parcel or preparation must 
be tested separately before its therapeutic value can be known." 
So that Prof. Wood's definition of fluid extracts, viz. : " that they 
are highly concentrated solutions of the active constituents of 
medicines, or the active constituents themselves extracted in the 
fluid state," will not, he thinks, hold true. The writer also states 
that he experimented, to what extent we are not informed, with 


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70 Lee 071 Pharmaceutic Preparations, 

the fluid extracts of veratrum, jaJap, Indian hemp, ergot, rhubarb, 
ipecac and cinchona, and found them of less strength than repre- 
sented. The fluid extract of ergot is condemned, because it would 
not produce uterine' pains in a non-pregnant female I Now, as a 
simple act of justice the name of the manufacturer of the samples 
experimented with, should have been stated. But as all such 
preparations are sweepingly condemned, perhaps, it was not 
deemed necessary; all solid extracts, also, being. included as 
equally untrustworthy. We submit that the conclusion of the 
writer is too broad for his premises, nor is it sustained by the ex- 
perience of the profession generally. It is absurd and incredible 
to suppose that fluid and solid extracts should have come into 
such general use and be so highly esteemed, if they did not pos- 
sess active medicinal properties. No fact has been more frequent- 
ly demonstrated in our own experience than this, nor has pro- 
fessionjd opinion ever been more uniform in regard to any matter 
of common interest than this. Had the writer stated that these 
preparations are not always of uniform strength, and that they 
sometimes, from accidental circumstances, are liable to deterioration, 
or " destructive alterations," he would only have affirmed what is 
welj known to every practitioner ; as it is, his exaggerations have 
nullified his statements, and made it unecessary to undertake 
their serious refutation. It is true, that " when a plant dies there 
is a retrogressive chemical change, which efiFects the decomposition 
of substances already formed," but the writer ought to know, that 
in fluid extracts especially, all chemical action is effectually pre- 
vented by the alcohol, or other substances added for this pur- 
pose. (All such preparations as well as solid extracts should be 
kept air tight, to prevent the escape of their volatile portions, 
and the influence of atmospheric changes. Very many solid ex- 
tracts will absorb moisture rapidly from the atmosphere, and 
should be kept in cool, dry places.) We might refer to many other 
statements wholly unsustained by proof. Thus it is remarked 
that " the dandelion root, when cultivated in our gardens almost 
ceases to produce an active principle, but is largely increased in 
starch, sugar, and gummy matters." Now, no fact is better 
known to manufacturers than that this plant when cultivated is 
much better than the wild, and the same is true of burdock, and 
yellow dock, both of which yield much stronger preparations, when 


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Lee on Pharmaceutic Preparations, 71 

cultivated, than when growing wild ; we are aware that climate, 
temperature, soil and moisture make great chaoges in the con- 
stituents of all vegetables ; but then their influences are by no 
means disregarded by the cultivators of medicinal plants ; we 
have never known any of them attempt to obtain an extract 
of cannabis indica, ftx)m the Indian hemp of our own country. 
Cultivators of medicinal plants, state that the variations of climate, 
and character of seasons, whether hot or cold, moist or dry, have a 
decided influence upon the development of the active princi- 
ples of plants. This is often observed in conium of sponta- 
neous growth — ^a dry season being favorable to a develop- 
ment of its active principle conia; while a moist season 
gives a succulent growth ; of course affecting the character, espec- 
ially of the inspissated extract made from the green plant, the dif- 
ference not being so great with the dried with the same mens- 
truum. Prof. Christison, the highest authority,^is of opinion that 
the influence of cultivation upon medicinal plants is altogether 
over rated, and he remarks that from "experiments made some 
years ago at the Eoyal Infirmary, in Edinburgh, the inferiority of 
cultivated plants, if it exists at all, seems not appreciable in practice," 
and in regard to the permanence of solid extracts, he observes " that 
the distrust entertained of this particular form rather depends on the 
negligence or ignorance with which it is usually prepared, than 
attaches absolutely to the form itself." — {Dispensatory^ p, 12.) 

Speaking also of the extracts prepared by steam, in vacuo, at a 
low temperature, he says " that they keep remarkably well," that 
he has specimens in his possession (1848) made in 1820, " which 
are still in excellent preservation." Of the extracts thus prepared, 
he adds, "they are of a paler color and finer odor than those ob- 
tained in the ordinary manner — ^their aroma is purer and stronger 
— ^they are more soluble — and undoubtedly their energy is greater," 
— {Loc, Oil. p. 14,) and this, be it remarked, refers to the solid 
and not fluid extracts, which latter, are far less liable to undergo 
change than the former. It is remarked by Prof. A. T. Thom- 
son, that "few plants which are medicinal admit of cidtivation" — 
(Mat Msdica, p. 65,) and yet it is now well ascertained to have no 
foundation in trutli. It is not borne out by the experience of 
cultivators and manufacturers in this country, nor at the extensive 
establishment at Mitcham, in England. Indeed, I am well assured 


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72 Iris Versicolor. 

that the contrary is the case, in regard to a large majority, if not all 
medicinal plants. It is so, especially with the narcotic class, and 
those that yield volatile oils. By an analysis of a plant we dis- 
cover its organic constituents, and by analyzing the soil we find 
the elements necessary to be introduced, in order for a full de- 
velopment of the plant This principle is now well understood 
and constantly acted on in practical agriculture, gardening, horti- 
culture, &a It has, also, been successfully carried out in the 
cultivation of medicinal plants ; as in using large quantities of the 
nitrates of postaasa and soda as well as guano, which abounds in 
nitrates, in raising narcotics ; hence, perhaps, the complaints we so 
often hear of the too greatstrength of recent extracts of hyoscyamus, 
belladonna, conium, stramonimn, &c., as compared with the foreign 
preparations of the same articles. 

This whole subject, however, of the influence of climate, culti- 
vatioD, soO, manures, &c., on the development of medicinal plants 
and their active principles, requires further careful observation 
and experiments, and the medical profession naturally look to the 
cultivators of such plants, for further light upon the matter. 

Iris Versicolor. 

{Blue Flag) 

Blue flag is foimd in most parts of the United States, in mead- 
ows, swamps, or wet situations. It blossoms in June ; has large 
blue flowers which are very conspicuous, and are familiar to most of 
our readers ; they afford a fine blue infusion, which serves as a test 
for acids and 'alkalies. 

The Iris tribe of plants is a very extensive one, and many 
species are used in medicine. In Europe, the /. FceOdessiTnaj 
L Fhreniina, I. Germamca, I, Pseudo-acorus, and /. Tuherosa^ have, 
at various times been in use in practice. The Jlorentina is the only 
one officinal in this country, although the pseudo-acorus is some- 
times used here. Of the numerous American species that most 
used is the versicolor. 

The roots of the whole family so far as examined are more or 
less acrid, and possessed of cathartic and emetic properties. The 
recent root of the versicolor has a nauseous, acrid taste, which is 


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Iris Versicolor. 78 

imparted partially to water and perfectly to alcohol ; the expressed 
juice ia very acrid, and is often used as a local application. The 
root is the medicinal portion, and its medicinal activity depends 
upon the period of its collection, which should be at the time its 
leaves begin to decay; earlier than this period, and particularly 
in the spring, or while in flower its powers are comparatively 

It possesses alterative, cathartic, and diuretic properties, and is 
highly recommended by some medical writers, while others reject 
it as being unsafe and dangerous. It is probable that it has at 
times been administered in over doses, and the prejudice alluded 
to has arisen fix)m this cause ; for the same reason we should re- 
ject very many valuable articles of the materia medica. Dr. 
Bigelow states that he found it very efficacious as a purgative, 
but apt to produce nausea and prostration of strength. Df. An- 
drews, of Michigan, uses it as a cathartic frequently, and when 
combined with cayenne pepper, or ginger, not less easy and ef- 
fectual in its operation than the ordinary, more active cathartics, 
and preferable on account of its less disagreeable taste. The ex- 
perience of others concur in the importance of combining stimu- 
lants, as xanthoxylin, camphor, or oil of peppermint, annis or 
fennel, to overcome all griping tendency. As a cathartic it is 
said to act on all parts of the canal, but more particularly on the 
upper portion. It acts as a stimulant to the liver and pancreas. 
When given either alone or in combination, in quantities insuf- 
ficient to produce catharsis it is a valuable alterative, exhibiting 
well marked influence over the entire glandular system. 

It increases the salivary flow, and is capable of producing well 
marked ptyalism, particularly if combined with podophyllum and 
xanthoxylum; which can be distinguished from that produced 
by mercury by the abscense of its peculiar fetor. Dr. King states 
that "equal parts of blue flag, podophyllum, and prickly ash 
bark, given in doses of ten grains every two hours, to fall short of 
catharsis, will act as a powerful alterative, frequently causing 
copious salivation without injury to the teeth or gums." 

In syphilis, either primary or secondary, it is highly recom- 
mended, " In eradicating the syphilitic virus and correcting the 
diathesis of the system," it is claimed to be not only powerful but 
positive and certain. It may be employed alone or in combination 


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74 Iris Versicolor. 

with other alteratives, as podohyllmn, phytolacca, stillingia, cimi- 
ciftiga, turkey corn, conium, or asclepias incamata. 

In scrofula, particularly those cases accompanied by hepatic 
derangement, given in small doses alone as an alterative, as well 
as in combination with other alteratives, is claimed to have few 
superiors. Also in rheumatism, glandular swellings, and indura- 
tions, eruptions of the skin, visceral engorgements and torpor, as 
of the liver and spleen. 

Dr. McBride prescribed it with great success in dropsy, com- 
bining it with com snake root, eryngium yuccefolium^ in proportion of 
blue flag two ounces ; button snake root two drams. Mention is 
also made of its use in a case of hydrothorax, and anasarca ; in 
some cases it may be combined with an equal quantity of the 
saturated tincture of euphorbia ipecacuanha; also with the apory- 
nura cannahinum^ which is highly recommended in dropsy. A 
combination of iridin, three grains ; leptandrin, six grains ; bi- 
tartrate potassa, two grains, has been suggested as a valuable hy- 
drogogue cathartic. 

The medicinal properties of blue flag are due to an oil or oleo 
resin which possesses, in a high degree, the taste and smell of the 
root, and to which has been given the name of irisin or iridin. 
When mixed with an equal portion of sugar of milk it forms a 
powder convenient for administration. Tlie preparations of blue 
flag are the alcoholic pilular extract, fluid extract, and the oko 
resin or iridin. We have often met with this preparation which did 
not possess its proper characteristics, and an examination satisfied us 
that it contained a very large proportion of magnesia, and that 
many of the so-called concentrated preparations contain a large 
admixture of either the powdered substance, salt or magnesia ; or 
that they may be simply a dried, aqueous or alcoholic extract 
powdered. It is extremely difficult to always detect this, par- 
ticularly so for the inexperienced — the tests, however, are simple. 

Treat the iridin with pure hot alcohol ; evaporate the soluble 
part to the consistence of a syrup ; to this add water, which will 
precipitate the oleo-resin^ which when dried and weighed will give 
the quantity of true iridin. Treat the insoluble part by water, 
which will dissolve any sugar of milk or salt it may contain ; di- 
vide this solution to one portion ; add nitrate of silver ; if it gives 
a white precipitate, soluble in ammonia, it is salt Evaporate the 


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Oompound JSxtract of Oohcynih, 75 

other to dryness ; if a white residium having a saccharine taste, it 
is sugar of milk. If the water leave an insoluble part, it is root 
or magnesia, or carbonate of magnesia. Treat the insoluble part 
by muriatic acid ; if xmdissolved it will be found to be root or 
some vegetable substance ; if dissolved it is magnesia, or carbon- 
ate of magnesia. Into this solution pour some phmphate of soda 
and ammonia ; if a white precipitate, it is magnesia ; effervescence 
when the acid is added indicates carbonate of magnesia. 

If an alcoholic extract powdered, it should be all soluble in alco- 
hol ; if an hydro-alcoholic extract, a part only should be soluble 
in alcohol. The quantity of iridin can be ascertained by the first 
process stated ; the insoluble part treated by water will dissolve 
in it, and will be found to contain the gum, sugar, coloring 
matter, &c. If an aqueous extract it will be soluble in water and 
not in alcohol. Any admixture should be stated upon the bottle 
of a piire preparation , an amount equal to one-half of the quantity 
stated should be soluble in hot alcohol. 

The alterative dose of Iridin is one half to two grains. Cathar- 
tic from two to five grains. 

Compound Extract of Colocynth, U. S. P. 


The consumption of this article is very large throughout the 
United States, and no one article of equal importance is subject 
to similar adidteration. It is difficult to find two articles of the 
same strength in market, showing that the formulae of the U. S. P. 
is not observed in its manufacture. If, indeed, some do observe 
the proportions, they do not its requirements ; as that formulae in 
all cases requires the very best material to be used. The scam- 
mony should contain the largest per cent, of resin procurable in 
market The aloes shoidd be the socotrine — colocynth, exhausted 
of its virtues by diluted alcohol. In the article upon scammony 
and its adulterations in your Journal of April and May, you gave 
a formula for making the commercial scammony, which explains 
one cause of the inertness and cheapness of much offered in mar- 
ket It is not unfrequently the case to have compound ext colo- 
cynth oflFered at a price less per pound, than the scammony it 


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76 Compound Extract of Oohcynth. 

should contain would cost; and yet it is labeled U. S. P., indi- 
cating that all the officinal formula demands has been observed in 
its preparation. 

I have, since my attention has been drawn to this adulteration 
ascertained that it is frequently made by using aloes, known as 
Barbadoes, or "horse " aloes — ^the cheapest in market and procured 
at ten cents per pound, while socotrine aloes costs from forty to 
fifty cents. Scammony of the commercial variety, procurable 
at $2 per pound, while virgin scammony costs $7.50 to $8.00 per 
pound. Colocynth, being seeds and pulp groimd and pow- 
dered together; giving, in this form, greater bulk or yield 
of extract Powdered cardamom, of cheap quality and badly 
mixed — the soap being the only article which enters the compound 
of officinal quality, that being too cheap to tempt the cupidity of 
the compounder. 

These articles are well mixed together with a little sweet oil, 
to give a good external appearance and make the preparation 
saleable. When exposed for a time in a jar with a loose cover, it 
becomes dry and mouldy, owing to the large quantity of powdered 
colocynth present in it ; this I have never seen occur in a well 
" dried" compound, prepared by exhausting the colocynth with di- 
luted alcohol, and adding it in the form of an extract The 
formula of the U. S. P. is as follows : — 

'• Take of Colocynth, deprived of seeds and sliced, - Six Ounces. 

Aloes in powder, Twelve Ounces. 

Scammony in powder, Four ** 

Cardamon seed in powder, One " 

Soap, Three '• 

Diluted alcohol, One Gallon. 

Macerate the colocynth in the diluted alcohol for four days ; 
express and filter the liquor, and add. to it the aloes, scammony 
and soap ; then evaporate to the proper consistence, and near the 
end of the process, mix the cardamon with the other ingredients." 
Prepared in large quantities after the above formula of good ma- 
terials I should estimate the cost at nearly $2 per pound, de- 
pending upon the market prices of the materials, and will afford 
to large manufacturers only a small profit at the price a prime article 
' is now sold at. 

Dr. Squibb estimates that the officinal article which he prepared 
at the U. S. Naval Laboratory, in a dry powdered state, to cost 


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(Jompound Extract of Cohcynih, 77 

much more ; the yield probably being very much less than when 
left of a pilular consistence. He says : " when made from good 
Bonarr gourd aloes and scanmiony, containing from sixty to sixty- 
seven per cent of resin, this preparation costs about $3 per poxmd, 
exclusive of labor and skill of manufecturing, or say $3 1-2 as the 
lowest entire nett cost of manufacture on a scale of twenty-five 
pounds — and yet it is confidently believed that some hundreds of 
pounds have been supplied to the New York market during the 
last^year, at prices varying from seventy -five cents to one dollar 
largely, as the price i# lower." He suggests in view of the vary- 
ing per centage of resin in the article sold as -virgin scammony, 
and the great adidteration of scammony, to substitute the rmn, 
which would make the preparation more uniform, provided the 
prescribed quantity was always used. 

Mr. Banvart proposes to substitute podophyllin for the 
scammony, using only one half the quantity of scanmiony, and 
that while the cost of the compound would remain unchanged, its 
strength would be more xmiform, inasmuch as podophyllin is 
readily procurable, of a pure quality, and proposes its substitution 
for extract jalap in the U. S. P. compound cathartic pill, using 
instead of the dram of extract of jalap, forty-five grains of podo- 

Dr. Stabler in an article upon podophyllin, published in the 
transactions of the Pharmaceutical Association, says: — 

" The price of scammony, together with the fact that it is near- 
ly always adulterated — ^indeed the pure article is seldom met with 
in the drug market, — ^renders it very desirable that we should find 
an efficient substitute : and if it can be obtained from this — one of 
our own indigenous plants — at a comparatively low price, and of 
uniform composition, it will enable us to dispense with an article 
of such xmcertain strength as commercial scammony now is. 

Podophyllin is an active hydragogue cathartic, fully equaling 
virgin scammony in eflfect, resembles it in the character of evacua- 
tions produced by it, and is applicable to similar diseased states of 
the system, and can, I think, be advantageously substituted in any 
of the preparations of the PhaiTnacopoeia, in which scammony 
forms an ingredient. 


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78 Important Medicinal Preparaiian Tests. 

[From the New York Medical JoamaL] 

Simple Tests for^ some Important Medicinal Preparations. 



Spirit of Nitric Ether. — Two or three fluid drains of good swoet 
spirit of nitre that is not more than seven or eight months old, and kept in 
the usual way, contained in an ordinary test tube, and plunged into water 
that has been previously heated to 164° will boil pretty actively; while if 
freshly made, or not more than two months old, or if well preserved from light 
and air, no matter what the age, it will boil actively when surrounded with 
water at a temperature of 156°. From the fact that this among other liquids 
may be heated far above its boiling point without ebullition, it becomes neces- 
sary to drop a few small fragments of broken glass into the test tube with the 
spirit after the latter has been heated and while still held in the water. 
Another precaution necessary in the application of this test is to discriminate 
between the mere formation of small gas bubbles around the fragments of glass 
and a true ebullition ; for, whilst the former will occur as a fine eflfervesccnce, 
at any temperature above 140° in any spirit of nitre that contains hyponitrous 
other at all, true ebullition, in which the vapor bubbles are much larger, and 
in which they roach the surface, and form by their succession a bead around 
the edge of the liquid, only occurs at the boiling points named. The prepara* 
tion should not bo quite coloress, but of a pale straw tint, and should efifervesce 
very slightly upon the addition of the carbonate of ammonia. When slightly 
acid, carbonate of ammonia is the best corrcgent, because the salts formed are 
therapeutically similar. The officinal preparation is a solution of five per 
cent, of h3rponitrous ether in alcohol. The ether is the medicinal agent, and 
the alcohol is necessary for its preservation and dilution only, the latter, in- 
deed, being oflen contra-indicated, as in some febrile conditions, where the for- 
mer would be useful. 

In commerce, however, it is rare to find the proportion^of the hyponitrous 
ether exceed three per cent. ; while in a great majority of cases it is below 
two per cent., and oflen in a proportion too small to be detected except by 
the odor. One of the largest manufacturers in the United States makes it of 
five different qualitie.^ to suit the market, and all these below the officinal 
standard. Another maker (and the two produce a very large proportion of 
all that is sold in the United States) sells but one kind, and that, though of 
varying strength, is commonly below two per cent The al>ove test alone will 
reject all such specimens. 

It thus happens that the physician who prescribes this preparation in view 
of its supposed diuretic and diaphoretic eficcts is disappointed, and obtains 
instead, to some degree, the opposite effect of so much alcohol. Ilcnce this 
preparation also is gradually falling into disfavor and disuse. In view of the 
circumstances mentioned in connection with these preparations, and the like 
tendency in many others, it Is well worth while for the profession to consider 


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ImpoTiani Medidiial Preparation Tests, 79 

bow fiir it is willing to sacrifice its valuable curative agents to the cupidity of 
manufitcturers, Fot detailed examinations of specimens of sweet spirits of 
nitre, Hofiman^s anodyne, &c., see Americary Journal of Pharmacy^ voL 28, 
p. 302 et 9eq., also vol. 29, p. 202 et aeq. 

Chloboform. — When equal volumes of chloroform and colorless concen- 
trated sulphuric acid (the strong commercial oil of vitriol answers very well) 
are shaken together in a glass stoppered vial there should be no color imparted 
to either liquid, or but a faint tinge of color, after twelve hours' standing 
together. Nor should there be any heat developed in the mixture at the time 
of shaking it first Any particles of dust, or cork, or other organic matter 
Uiat may have been in the vial used, or in the chloroform, will, by reaction of 
the acid, produce a tinge of color in the acid or its separation from the chlo- 
roform, corresponding to the quantity of such particles present, and therefore 
in the application of the test, care must be taken to avoid any such particles ; 
for, if the acid be only faintly tinged at the end of twelve hours* contact with 
the chloroform, it may be attributable to some such collateral accidental 
cause. But if, at the end of twelve hours or sooner, the acid becomes yellow 
or brown, or any darker color, it should be unhesitatingly rejected. If the 
mixture of acid and chloroform should become warm on shaking first, an 
admixture of alcohol would be indicated. One or two fluid drams of chlo- 
roform spontaneously evoporated from a clean surface of glass or porcelain, 
or from a piece of clean unsized paper, should leave no odor after it. Com- 
mercial chloroform will generally turn the acid brown within two or three 
hours, and will often render it black and tarry-looking within two or three 
days ; whilst with chemically pure chloroform there is absolutely no reaction 
within many days. 

Calomel — ^Tlie most common and injurious contamination of calomel is 
corrosive sublimate, whereby its otherwise mild action is rendered irritant 
This impurity is easily detected by shaking a dram or two of the calomel 
m a test tube with distilled water, and, when the water shall have become 
dcM", adding a drop or two of liquor ammonia. If corrosive sublimate be 
present the ammonia will precipitate it and render the water cloudy. 

Iodide of Mercury is often irritant and harsh in its action through con- • 
tamination with biniodide from faulty preparation. The writer has seen its 
use abandoned on the groimd of idiosyncrasy, when on examination, it was 
easily shown to contain a notable proportion of the irritant, harsh, red iodide. 

The red iodide may be easily detected in it by rubbing a little of the sus- 
pected iodide in a mortar with strong alcohol, and then allowing it a few mo- 
ments to dry. The evaporation of the alcohol leaves the red iodide along the 
pestle marks as a border to the iodide. A minute contamination becomes very 
easily seen in this way. 

Mbrctrt with CHAJ.X is of late very commonly found to be harsh and 
irritant in its action, producing or increasing intestinal limitation to such an 


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80 Important Medicinal Preparation Tests, 

extent that many practitioners have abandoned its use, while others are puz- 
zled by its effects. 

This also is a result of faulty preparation, wherein, through time and labor- 
saying expedients, or bad appliances, a portion of the mercury becomes oxyd- 
dized instead of being simple conmiinuted or divided. However well pre- 
pared, it almost always contains a very small proportion of suboxide, but this 
being one of the mild preparations of mercury, never produces the bad effects 
alluded to. To detect the peroxide, or irritating property, a dram or two 
of the mixture is treated with an excess of acetic acid, and the solution filtered 
off dear. A few drops of hydrochloric acid is then added to the clear solu- 
tion. If the preparation be good this will produce only a slight precipitation 
of insoluble subchloride from the small quantity of acetate of suboxide formed. 
If the preparation be old, or badly kept, having had free access of light and air, 
a pretty copious precipitate will be formed by the hydrochloric acid. The clear 
solution is again filtered or decanted off this precipitate, and liquor ammonia 
added to it If the preparation was contaminated with any peroxide it will 
now be precipitated by the ammonia as white precipitate. — See American 
Journal of Pharmacy^ voL 29, p. 388. 

Blue Pill is also liable to contain oxydes of mercury, and thus to lose its 
mild character and operation through faulty preparation. In this the oxydes 
ate detected in precisely the same way as in the case of mercury with chalk. 

Iodide op Potassium is occasionally contaminated with carbonate of potassa 
to the extent of impairing its medicinal effect This is easily detected by 
adding lime water to the solution of the iodide, when carbonate of lime will be 
precipitated and render the mixture cloudy. 

BiTARTRATE OP PoTAssA frequently contains much tartrate of lime. This 
may be detected by stirring a few drops of liquor ammonia into a mixture of a 
few grains of the specimen in two or three drams of cold water. The am- 
monia renders the otherwise insoluble potassa salt quite soluble, whilst it has 
no immediate effect on the tartrate of lime. If, then, a portion remains undis- 
solved after the application of the test, it may be regarded as an impurity. 

It is hoped that the simplicity of these tests for a few important substances 
may not only lead to their frequent adoption, but that the opening of the sub- 
ject may stimulate others to search for and publish better tests, and to extend 
the list of substances that may be easily and simply tested. 

Pbpsine Wine. — We find in V Union Medicate that the following pepeine 
wine is extremely agreeable and efficacious 

Take of starchy pepsine, (prepared according to Messrs. Corvisart & Bour- 
dault^s formula,) one and a half drams; distilled water, six drams; white 
wine (of Lunel,) fifteen drams ; white sugar, one ounce ; spirit of wine, three 
drams. Mix until the sugar is quite dissolved, and filter. One tablespoonful 
of this wine contains about fifteen grains of pepsine, and may be given after 
every meal 


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Meeting of the New York State Medical Society. 81 

Annnal Meeting of the New York State Medical Society. 

Toe fifty-second annual meeting of the New York State medical society con- 
rened in the Common Council Chamber, City Hall, on Tuesday morning, Feb- 
ruary Ist, at eleven o'clock. 

The society was called to order by Dr. Thomas C. Brinsmadc, of Troy, the 
president. He addressed the members at considerable length, thanking them 
for the honor conferred on him, in selecting him to preside over their delibera- 
tions. He congratulated the society upon its success, and the influence pos- 
sessed by it ; and referred to the value of its transactions as con^ring favorably 
with the transactions of the London medical society. Believing that a proper 
interest was not manifested by the physicians of the State in medical societies, 
the president addressed circulars to the societies of every county in the State, 
and received answers from twenty-eight counties. In these counties littl© 
more than one-half of the regular physicians were members of the societies, 
and not more than one-third of these attended meetings. He dwelt upon this 
apathy, and called the attention of the society to it, in the hope that it might 
be remedied. 

He recommends an interchange of transactions with other State societies. 
He approves of the institution of a second degree in the medical profession, 
and suggested that the first degree be styled doctor of medicine, and the second 
degree, bachelor of medicine. He alluded to the necessary steps to be taken 
to secure these degrees, and commented upon the justice and necessity of this 
course, believing that it would greatly elevate the profession. There are five 
medical journals published in the State, and three republished. The medical 
profession of this State now occupies a higher position than at any other time, 
lie recommends that a suitable delegation be sent to the meeting of the Ameri- 
can medical association, at Louisville. 

On motion of Dr. Alden March, a vote of thanks to the president for his in- 
augural address was adopted, and a copy requested for publication. 
The following committees were appointed by the president ; — 
On Credentials. — Drs. B. F. Barker, Alexander Thompson, S. B. Willard. 
On Nomi> atioxs. — First Dut. — Dr. S. C. Foster ; Second DUt — ^Dr. J. H. Par- 
ker; Third I>ist.— Dr. B. P. Staats ; Fourth Dist.—Dr. H. Corliss ; Fifth Dist^ 
Dr. N. H. Dering; Sixth DUt— Dr. F. Hyde; Seventh Diat.—Dr. H. Jewett; 
Eighth Dint.— Dr. F. H. Hamilton. 

Dr. A. H. Hoff moved the appointment of a committee to invite the Gover- 
nor and State ofScers, and the medical members of the Legislature, to tak« 
seats with the society during the session. Adopted, and Drs. Hofl^ Taylor and 
Sprague were appointed such committee. 

Dr. Sprague moved that so much of the president's address as relates to the , 
cefrablication of important papers in the earlier publications of the society, 
mnr mainly out of circulation, be referred to a select committee of three. 
Adopted, and Drs. Sprague, S. D. Willard and Th(M-n were appointed such 


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Meeting of the NeO) York State Medical Society, 

A communication was received from Dr. Thos. McCall, of Utica, regreting 
his inability to be present with the society, and enclosing a paper entitled " the 
Gonmiandment of Knowledge, in relation to medical doctrines and methods/^ 

Dr. Parker, of Dutchess county, read a paper on "the treatment of Veri- 
cose Ulcers," which was referred to the publishing committee. 

The committee on credentials presented their report, which was accepted. 

The following delegates then enrolled their names : — 

Tbofl. 0. BrlDsmade, Troy. 

Oeo. W. Bradford, Ilomer, Cortland Co. 

Jas. Thorn, Troy. 

B. P. Staats, Albany. 

Jas. V. Kendall, Clay, Onondaga Co, 

Alex. J. Dallas, Camillns, Onondaga Co. 

Edward H. Parker, Poughkeepele, Dutchess Co. 

0. V. W. Burton, Lanslngburgh, Rens. Co. 

Beth Storer, Kalonab, Westchester Co. 

A. L. Sanders, Brookfield, Madison Co. 
John Ball, Brooklyn. 

Wm. Bay, Albany. 

N. H. Bering, UUca. 

J. F. Trowbridge, Syracuse. 

Alex. H, Hoff, Albany. 

Samuel H. Freeman, Albany. 

Alden March, Albany. 

James H. Armsby, Albany. 

Alftred Wotkyns, Troy. 

J. S. Bpragne, Cooperstown, Otsego Co. 

B. Fordyoe Barker, New York. 
Biram Corliss, Greenwich, Wash. Co. 
Simeon Snow, Root, Montgomery Co. 
Jehiel Stevens, Pompey, Onondaga Co. 
Orson M, Allaben, Margaretvllle, Delalrare Co. 
J. N. Northrop, Decatur, Otsego Co. 

J. M. Stnrdevant, Rome, Oneida Co. 

William Taylor, Manlius, Onondaga Co. 

J. H. Pearse, Friendship, Allegany Co. 

8. W. French, Lisle, Broome Co. 

Frederick Hyde, Cortland. . 

Taylor L^wis, Troy. 

R. B. Bonticou, Troy. 

E. W. Carmlchael, Sandlake, Rens. Co. 

M. M. Marsh, Manlius. Onondaga Co. 

H. 8. Ghubbuok, Elmira, Chemung Co. 

Charles Barrows, Clinton, Oneida Co. 

Nelson Nivison, Hector, Schuyler Co. 

Wilson S. Bassett, Mt. Vision, Otsego Co. 

8. C. PettingUl, Hancock, Delaware Co. 

James Lee, Mechanlcsvllle, Saratoga Co. 

C. V. Bamett, Windham Centre, Qreene Co. 

Charles C. F. Gay, BuffUo, Erie Co. 

Levant B. Cotes, Batayia, Genessee Co. 

Chas. M. Kingham, McGrawrille, Cortland Co. 

Harvey Jewett, Canandaigua, Ontario Co. 

Daniel T. Jones, Baldwinsville, Onondaga Co. 

Mason F. Cogswell, Albany. 

U. G. Bigelow, Albany. 

8. Oakey Vanderpoel, Albany. 

Howard Townsend, Albany. 

J. V. P. Quackenbush, Albany. 

W. D. Purple, Greene, Chenango Co. 

Aug. Willard, Greene, Chenango Co. 

Dr. Vanderpoel, pf Albany, moved that the resolution adopted at the 
last meeting, appointing a committee to make arrangements for a dinner, be 
reconsidered, and the resolution laid upon the table. Adopted. 

Dr. George Cook, president of the Canandaigua lunatic asylum, was made 
an honorary member of the society. 

Dr. WillifCm Taylor, of Manlius, moved the appointment of a committee to 
consider what action on the part of the society can be taken best calculated to 
insure a more general vaccination throughout the State. Adopted. 

The committee to invite the Governor and others, to take seats with the 
society, reported that they had discharged that duty. Report accepted and 
committee discharged. 

Dr. March invited the members of the society to visit the hospital at one 
o'clock, to witness the operation of amputation ; the patient being Montgomery 
Bull, whose arm had been terribly lacerated by machinery. The invitation 
was accepted, and the members proceeded to the hospital, where the operation 
was performed by Dr. J. H. Armsby, of Albany ; the arm being amputated at 
the shoulder. The society then tool' a rec/'ss ttnt'd three o'clocl'. 


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Meeting of the New York State Medical Society, 88 


The society reconvened at three o* clock. 

Dr. Sprague mored the appointment of a committee of three to request of the 
Assembly the use of their chamber, in which the annual address may be de- 
livered ; and also to invite the Governor and the members of the Legislature 
to be present Adopted. 

Dr. J. S. Sprague, B. P. Staats and Ball, were appointed said committee. 

Drs. W. C. Rogers, of Green Island, Swinburne and Moore, of Albany, C. R. 
Agnew, of New York, and C. R. Millington, of Herkimer, were invited to take 
seats with the members of the society. 

The Chair announced the following committee on Dr. Taylor^s resolution on 
vaccination, adopted at the morning session ; Drs. Wm. Taylor, Blatchford and 
Alden March. 

A communication on the subject of ** Partial Dislocations, Consecutive and 
Muscular Affections of the Shoulder Joint,*' by Alfred Mercer, M. D., as read 
before the Onondaga Co. medical society, was presented, and referred to the 
publishing committee. 

^ Dr. March presented a sketch of the life of the late Dr. James A. Billings, as 
read before the Genesee medical society, which was referred to the publishing 

The Censors of the Southern district reported that they examined, June 29, 
1858, Carl August Ludwig Baiu*, and finding him qualified, recommended him 
to the president for a diploma. Report accepted. 

A communication was read from the agent of Messrs. Garmer, Lamoureuz 
Jb Co., which accompanied specimens of granules and drages, or sugar-coated 

A communication from Tilden & Co., was also read, accompanying which 
were a variety of medical preparations, consisting of fiuid extracts, granules 
or sugar-coated pills. They have also forwarded to Dr. Howard Townsend 
a large number of specimens for the cabinet of the Albany medical college. 

Dr. John Swinburne, of Albany, read a very interesting paper on ** the treat- 
ment of Fractures of the Femur," which was referred to the publishing com- 

Dr. Parker moved that the pharmaceutical preparations presented to the 
society be referred to a committee of three, to report at the next meeting. 

A brief discussion ensued, in which the impropriety of the society endorsing 
any<particular medicine, was urged by different members. 

Odier members urged that the society had already adopted a resolution en- 
dorsing certain preparations, the efficacy of which were very justly doubted, 
and the object of appointing the committee was to investigate the subject 

The resolution was adopted by a vote of twenty-four to twenty-one ; and 
Drs. £. H. Parker, Howard Townsend and Saunders were appointed the 

A resolution of thanks to Tilden & Co., and Garmer, Lamourcux & Co., for 
their specimens, was adopted. 


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Meeting of the New York iState Medical Society, 

Dr. Shove, of Westchester county, read a paper on " Congenial Tissure of 
the Soft Palate/* which was referred to the publishing committee. 

Dr. Cook, of Canandaigua, by invitation of the society, made a statement of 
the establishment and progress of the Brigham Ball lunatic asylum, at Ganandai- 
gua. An application has been made to the legislature to incorporate the institution. 

Dr. Alden March, of Albany, read a paper on the ** Displacement of the 
Heart.'* Referred to the publishing committee. 

Dr. Saunders, of Madison, read a paper on " Cerebro Spinal Menengitis," as 
it prevailed in Madison county. Referred to publishing committee. 

Dr. Gray, of the State lunatic asylum, and Dr. Bailey, of Albany, were in- 
vited to take seats with the society. 

Dr. S. D. Willard, frcwm the committee appointed at the last meeting " to pe- 
tition the legislature, asking them to amend the statute, that the State medical 
society may elect permanent memborQ, by senatorial districts, now or hereafter 
established ; " reported that the interests of the society would not be promoted 
by a change in the present statute. The committee believe that the intereste' 
of the society might be enhanced by increasing the number of its hononary 
members residing without this state, and they recommend a change of the 
bye-kiws. The report was adopted. 

The following delegates enrolled their names during the afternoon session : — 

i. H. Jerome, Trumansburg, Tompkins Go. 

Aler. Ayrfcs, Fort Plain, Montgomery Co. 

Thomas C. flnncU, New York. 

Samuel Averj, DaldwinsviUe, Onondaga Co. 

Elijah S. Lyman, Sherburne, Chenango Co. 

J. V. Cobb, Borne, Oneida Co. 

K. 0. Mnndjr, N. Shore, Cwtleton, Richmond Co. 

Sylvester D. Wlllard, Albany. 

Wm. Govan, North Harerstraw, Rockland Co. 

Thomas W. Blntcbford, Troy. 

Charles S. Wood, Oreene, Chenango Co. 

Wm. C Rogers, Green Island, Albany ik>. 

Darius Clark, Canton, St. I^iwrence Co. 

D. P. Blssel, Utlca. 

John D. Watkins, Liberty, SotUran Oo. 

]>rl Moore. Albany. 

J. M. Dclemater, Albany. 

John P. Gray, Utlca. 

George Cook, Canandaigua, Ontario Co. 

John Swinburne, Albany. 

The society then adjourned until Wednesday morning at ten o*clock. 

seconh bay. 

The society re-convened at ten o'clock Wednesday morning, when the 
minutes were read and approved. 

The following gentlemen enrolled their names : — 

J. Conant Foster, New York. 

Charles G. Bacon, Fulton, Oswego Co. 

FrankUn Ererts, Oswego City. 

A. B. Shipman, Syracuse, Onondaga Co. 

W. IL Bailey, Albany. 

Alexander Thompson, Anrora, Cayuga Co. 

A. E. Famoy, MiddlevlUe, Herkimer Co. 

William 0. Sands, Oxford, Chenango Co. 

J. S. Whallcy, Verona, Oneida Co. 

Charles 8. Goodrich. Brooklyn, Kings Co. 

0. J. Fisher, Sing Sing, Westchester Co. 

Morgan Snyder, Fort Plain, Montgomery Co. 

W. H. U. Parkhurst, Frankfort, Herkimer Co. 

James McNaoghton, Albany, 

Freeman Tartelot, Mld^tle Grore, Saratoga Co. 

H. K. Wlllard, Bern, Albany Co. 

J. H. Reynolds, Wilton, Saratoga Co. 

J. B. Reynolds, " " 

M. G. Peck, Olens Falls, Warren Co. 

Joseph' Lewis, Albany. ^ 

Lewis F. Pelton, New Castle, Westchester Co. 

Frank M. Hopkins, KeesevUle, Essex Co. 

Austin White, Parish, Oswego Co. 

Almlron Fitch, Delhi, Delaware Co. 

Joseph Bates, Lebanon Springs, Colombia Oo. 

John Davidson, Queens Co. 

H. B. Wilbur, Syracuse, Onondaga Oo. 

Philip T. Heartt,2d, Waterford, Saratoga Oo. 

W. F. Carter, Cohoes, Albany Co. 

Thos. J. Wheeler, Conewango, Ohenaago Oo. 

Amos Fowler, Albany. 

F. H. Hamilton, Buffalo. 


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Meeting of the New York State Medical *Society, 86 

Drs. J. H. Reynolds, of Saratoga, F. M. Hopkios, of Essex, M. R. Peck, of 
Glens Falls^ B. F. Ethridge, of Ilerkiincr, Thomas J. Wheeler, of Cattaraugus 
Oa and James Winn, of New York, were admitted as honorary members to 
take seats with the society. 

Dr. B. F. Barker moved to amend the bye- laws, so that the society may 
elect six honorary members annually, instead of two. Adopted. 

A comnHinication was received from the Herkimer coimty medical society, 
.oorering a ** Dissertation upon the Influence of Vegetation upon Animal Life 
and Health.^' Referred to publishing committee. 

An address read before the Sullivan county medical sociefy, by John D. 
Watkins, M. D., on *' Pneumonia; bilious and typhoid,'' waa presented and re- 
ferred to the publishing committee. 

' A communication was received from the Albany county medical society, 
covering a paper read before the society, by Dr. S. H. Freeman ; being a 
biographical sketch of the late Hon. Samuel Dickson, M. D. Referred to pub- 
lishing committee. 

An invitation from Gov. Morgan, to visit the executive mansion in the 
evening, was received and accepted. 

Dr. S. D. Willard, secretary, reported that he had exchanged transactions 
with the State medical societies of Connecticut, New Hampshire and California. 
Exchanges had also been made witli thirty-five foreign societies, and through 
the regents of the University had received several communications in return. 
He had also received letters from Dr. M. S. Perry, of I^ton, Mass., and Dr* 
S. Henry Dickson, of Charleston, S. C, acknowledging the rea»ipt of honorary 
diplomas. The secretary also stated that on looking over the papers of the 
society, he had found a number of volumes of the transactions of the society 
from 1832 to 1837, which he had caused to be bound. 

f A motion was made and adopted that each member .wishing copies of the 
volume, be charged seventy-five cents each. 

Dr. Mundy, of Staten Island, moved the appointment of a committee of three, 
to investigate the facts connected with the Quarantine. 

The resolution giving rise to a debate, which promised to be extended, Dr. 
Snow moved to lay it on the table, which motion was adopted. 

Dr. Allaben moved that the legislature be petitioned to pass a law authori- 
zing physicians and surgeons, when employed by coroners to make post mor- 
tem examinations in eases coming under their notice, to charge a fee oom- 
nensurate to the services rt ndered ; to be audited by the board of supervisors 
and paid by the county in which such services were obtained. 

After a brief debate, the resolution was l«d upon the table. 

Dr. Goodrich presented a report of the removal of a tumour from the upper 
aad posterior surfi^e of the cranium — ^result flital — by C. E. Isaacs, M. D., 
one of the surgeons of the Brooklyn city hospitol. Referred to the publishing 

Dr. F. H. Hamilton, of Buffalo, read a paper '* on Shortening in fractures, in 
the neck of the Femur." Referred to the publishing committee. 


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86 Meeting of Hie New York Slate Medical Society, 

Drs. Joseph Lewis, Babcock, Henry March, Adams and Fondey of Albany ; 
and Dr. Cullen, of Brooklyn, were admitted to seats with the society. 

Dr. James McNaughton, from the committtee to whom was referred the 
several essays, offered in competition for the prize offered by the society, for 
the best dissertation on scarlet fever, awarded the prize to Henry A. Carring- 
ton, of Hyde Park, N. Y. Report accepted. 

A communication was received from the Westchester county medical society, 
covering ** Biographical sketches of the deceased physicians of Westchester 
county." Referred to the publishing committee. 

Dr. A. Hofl^ of Albany, presented "an Address on the Registration of 
Diseases, by W. C. Rogers, M. D.,*' as read before the Albany county medical 
society. Referred to the publishing committee. 

Dr. S. D. Willard, of Albany, read a very interesting paper on " Diptherite," 
or the sore throat disease, so prevalent in Albany. 

Dr. J. V. P. Quackenbush, of Albany, read a report in accordance with a 
resolution passed at the last annual meeting, " Inversion of the Uterus,^* which 
elicited a very interesting discussion, after which it was referred to the pub- 
lishing committee. 

Dr. Taylor, from the committee to whom was referred the subject of vaccina- 
tion, reported that if vaccination can by any means become general, the loath- 
some, disgusting, and often fiital disease — ^the small pox, would be effectually 
eradicated from the land. The committee believe, however, that an action of 
the society would be inadequate to insure such a result. It is believed the 
small pox Ls more generally prevalent in this State at the present time, than 
at any former period since the introduction of vaccination ; and this is owing 
in a great measure to neglect on the part of the public as to vaccmation, and 
perhaps to some extent to the imperfect manner in which vaccination is per- 
formed. The committee recommend that application be made to the legislature 
for the passage of a law which shall authorize and empower the trustees of 
each of the several school districts in the State, to exclude from the benefits 
of public instruction, all who have not been vaccinateds A resolution directing 
the appointment of a committee to obtain the passage of a law by the present 
legislature in conformity to the plan above suggested was offered. 

The report of the committee was accepted, and the resolution adopted. 

Dr. Thompson moved that a special committee be appointed, to which shall 
be referred so much of the president's address, as relates to the conferring of 
the second degree. Adopted, and Drs. Howard Townsend, Alexander Thomp- 
son and Thomas W. Blatchford, were appointed such committee. 

The committee reported that the use of the assembly chamber had been 
granted to the society, for the delivery of the president's address, and that the 
governor and other State oflSoers, and the members of the legislature had been 
invited to attend. IUces$ until three o'clock, 


The society re-convened at three o'clock. 

Dr. Bly pres^ted to the society an Artificial Leg, and explained its 


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Meeting of the New York State Medical Society. 87 

Dr. Bacon read a paper on " Facial Paralysis." Referred to publishing conx- 
Dr. Foster, of New York, offered the following : — 

WkereaM^ it has erer been the pride and glory of the medical profession that Its Ainctlons are not 
lindted to the cure, but extend also to the prevention of disease ; and whereas, the causes of disease 
among crowded populations, are, to a great extent, under control, and susceptible of being avoided 
or remored by Judidoos sanitary regulations, as has been abundantly demonstrated in many in* 
stances where such measures have ^eeted great redaction in the bills of mcurtaHty ; and whereas, the 
flrst ot^ect of every civilised government should be to protect the health and lives of the dtixeot, 

iSatolvetf, that this sodety has seen with great satisfaction the progress which the sdence of pub- 
tto hygiene has made in the good opinion of the pi^llc, and looks forward to the time when, unMr 
the direction of those sUlled in this branch of medical sdence, the ratio may be reduced to a mlnlmon. 

BeaoU^d^ that this sodety warmly approves the action of his honor, the mayor of the dty of 
Mew York, in his efforts to place the control of the sanitary affkirs of that dty in the hands of 
medical men, who alone are competent to exercise it. 

Bs9olrsd, that the lei^slature of the State are eaMed upon by every moUve of policy and human- 
ity to suBtidn and promote all such laudable attempts to improve the health and save the Uves of the 
eommunity by the passage of such laws as may be necessary to give them immediate efficiency. 

The resolutions were adopted. ' 

Dr. Howard Townsend, of Albany, read a paper on ** Hypophosphites." 
Referred to the publishing committee. 

Dr. John Ball, of Brooklyn, read a paper on a case of ^^ Hydrops Sacci 
Lachrynialis.^^ Referred to the publishing committee. 

Dr. James Lee, of Saratoga county, presented a report of '^ the diseases of 
the county of Saratoga.*' Referred to the publishing committee. 

Dr. Parker, of New York, made an oral report on " Obstetrics," and requested 
the members of the society to furnish him statistical information. 

Dr. S. H. French, of Broome county, expressed himself gratified with the 
remarks of Dr. Parker. 

Dr. Seth Shove, of Westchester county, presented a " Biographical sketch 
of Dr. George C. French, of Westchester county, prepared and read before the 
Westchester county medical society. Referred 'to publishing committee. 

Dr. Horace AYillard, of Albany county, read a paper on "Rupture of the 
Cul de Sac of the Colon.'* Referred to the publishing committee. 

Dr. Bissell, of Utica, presented a paper on " Misplacement of the Uterus," 
which was referred to the publishing committee. 

The society then adjourned until ten o'clock, Thursday morning. 


The society re-convened at ten o'clock Thursday morning. Minutes reafl 
and approved. 

Dr. J. S. Sprague, from the committee on so much of the president's address 
as relateH to the re-publication of such of the transactions of the society, as are 
not in circulation, reported in favor of the re-publication of the addresses of the 
preeident's of the society, for the first twenty-five years of its existence. Re- 
port accepted. 

Dr. F. H. Hamilton presented the following papers: "Statistics of 758 Ob- 
stetrical Cases," by Dr, N. 0. Husted^ of the New York Academy of Medidne ; 


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88 Meeting of thn New York StaM Medical Society, 

also, " Death Rate in the State of New York, according to the last Census," 
by Dr. Stephen Smith, of the Academy. Referred to the publishing committee. 
. Dr. Goodrich, of Brooklyn, submitted a p^>er on *^ Vital Statistics of the 
city of Brooklyn. Referred to the publishing committee. 

Dr. Wynn, of New York, moved that the county medical societies be re- 
quested to furnish the next annual meeting of the State medical society with 
a complete list, so far as the facts can be ascertained, of the number of their 
' members in each*year, and of those who have died^ together with the ages tk 
which death took place. Adopted. 

Dr. Wynn, of New York, made a very interesting statement to the society, 
on the subject of mortality in the United States, and the mortality on aocount 
of Intemperance. 

* Dr. Edward Duffy, of Albany, was invited to take a seat with the members 
of the society. 

Dr. B. P. Staats, of Albany, moved that the publishing committee cause a^ 
many as may be practicable, of the addresses of former presidents of this so- 
ciety (which have not already been published,) to be published in the transac- 
tions ot this society. Adopted. 

Dr. Bissell, of Utica, moved that the committee on Statistics be continued, 
and that the legislature be requested to publish the usual number of blanks. 

Dr. Hamilton, of Bufiklo, moved that in the law enacted in the legislature of 
this State, during the session of 1857, permitting both parties to testify in all 
civil suits, our profession, in common, perhaps, with the public generally, have 
an important interest; and that we therefore earnestly recommend to the 
several members of the senate and assembly from their respective districts, 
that they resist all attempts for its repeal ; unless, indeed, it is fully proven 
that such repeal is demanded by the public good, whose interest ought cer- 
tainly to be considered as paramount to the interest of individuals or classes. 

Dr. Goodrich moved the appointment of a committee of three to inquire into 
the subject ot Anesthetic agency, in regard to its origin and its first intro- 
duction into medical and surgical practice in the United States, and that the 
committee report all facts in the premises, of interest to the medical profession, 
and report at the next annual meeting. Adopted, 12 to 14, and Drs. Goodrich, 
Jones and F. H. Hamilton were appointed such committee. 

Dr. B. P. Staats, of Albany, called attention to the fact, that at the hst 
meeting of the society, the physicians of Warren or Essex counties were re- 
quested to investigate the case of the woman, who, it was alleged lived with- 
out eating. 

Several gentlemen stated that it had been pretty well demonstrated that Uie 
case was an imposition. 

Dr. Ferguson, however, expressed an opposite opinion, and gave an aceomii 
of his visit to the woman in qu^sstion. 

The svk^ect was then dropped. 

Dr. Handy, of Staten Ishnd» offered Si resolution, that, in the opinion oCtfais 


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Meeting of the New York State Medical Society. 89 

societj, % Qoamntinc establLBhment, the object of which is to prevent the in- 
troduction of foreign pestilential and infectious diseases, should, in order to 
obtain the object desired, be located in an isolated place, and an institution of 
this character, situated in the midst of a dense population and near large cities, 
and where there is constant interchange and (communication between such 
place, and the places which it is designed to protect, fails to answer the pur- 
poses for which it was established. L|id on the table. 

Dr. Cotes, of Gencssce county, moved that a committee be appointed to re- 
port at the next meeting, the best method for securing the appointment of % 
** CoHuaissioB of Lunacy *' for the State of New York. Adopted, and Drs. 
Cotes, C/Oventry, Gray and Cook were appointed such committee. 

Dr. J. V. P. Qumckenbush, of Albany, treasurer, reported the receipts for 
the year, to have been $143.39, and the expenditures $88.49, leaving a balanoe 
in the huids of the treasurer of $54.80. Report accepted and referred to the 
usual committee, consisting of Drs. Sprague, Barnett and Sanders, to examine 
the accounts. 

Dr. Thompson, of Cayuga, offered a resolution that the committee to whom 
was referred so much of the president's address as relates to the institution of 
the second degree in the medical profession, be authorized to present the sub- 
ject to the convention of Professors, to be held at liOuisville, Ky., in May next, 
as it may think proper. Adopted. 

Dr. Saunders, of Onondaga, moved the appointment of a committee of three, 
to take into consideration the propriety of condensing, in such a manner the 
forms for the Registration of Medical and Surgical Statistics, for the use of 
county practitioners — as will ensure a better attention to the subject, and to 
report at the next annual meeting. Adopted, and l)rs.^ Saunders, Orlin, and 
Cogswell appointed such committee. 

The committee to examine the treasurer's report, reported they had dis- 
diarged that duty, and found the same correct 

The society then proceeded to an election of officers for the ensuing year, 
Drs. Sanders and Burton acting as Tellers. 

The fallowing officers were elected : — 

Prtnidtnt- Peok. B. Fobdtck Bakkkr, New York city. Vice Pfenident-Hn. Damki. T. Jo?ik8, 
OModaga. SecrtUiry—h^. Syi.vkhtkr D. Wilurd, Albany. 7V«i*iir«/— Dr. Joh.v V. P. Qt^iCE- 
tticsH, Albany. 

Permanent Menibertt—Drn. Franklin TutliUl, Uoitice K. Wlllard, «eth ghove, Uriah PotUfr, Henry 
N. Porter, C. M Crandall, A. J. Dallaa, P. II. Strong, John Ball, M. C. lUubrouck, .lames P. Boyd, 
R. L. AUeo, John PotnaD. Stephen llagadorn, J. P. Trowbridge, H. M. Conger. 

C^mmttitM o/PuMieaUon-^. D. WiUard, Howard Towntcnd, A. H. Hoff. 

7b h* rtcofMtundtd to th^ Regents of the UnUertity for the honorary ilegret of doctor ofnudi- 
«MM— Drt. B. P. Staata, of Albany ; M. H. Cash, of Orange ; J. M. SinrdeTant, of Oneida ; Richard 
Laimliig^, of Tonpkloii. 

For Honorary Memhern—lin, Sllaii Durkee, of Boston ; John M . De La Mater, of Ofclo. 

Sot^naUdfor Honorary Mentb^ra—Hn. Ernest Hart, London, Kngland ; John JeffHts, Botion ; 
Henry Bronson, New Haven; O. Mendenhall, Ohio; W. Fraaer, Montreal; Chas. I. Isaacs, U. 8. N. 

Cbmom. FirH DMriet—John Ball, Peter Van Buren, John McNulty. Sscomi DiittrUt-^. B. 
I^U^ 8-R. Fr«iu3h, George Barr. Third IMtirM^B. B. Staatr^T. W. ltatchfaff«VP. McNaogbton. 
Fbnrlh iK«Cr<e^Al«XMder Tbdnprnot O. W. Burwell, A. V«a fiyajk. 


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90 Editorial 

Delegates to the American medical association left to be designated on ap> 
plication to the secretary. 

Dr. Staats offered a resolution tendering a vote of thanks to the president 
for the impartial manner in which he had discharged the duties of his office. 

A vote of thanks was extended also to the common council of the city of 
Albany for the use of their chamber. 

The president, Dr. Brinsmade, then addressed the society in a few parting 
words, as follows : — 

» Gentlemen : — In retiring from this Chair, the duties of which I have so im- 
perfectly performed, I should do injustice to my feelings should I not mo6t 
heartily thank you over and over for the assistance, courtesies and kindness I 
have received from you all, and which will always be remembered with great 
pleasure. I hope you may all return to your homes, and ordinary arduous, 
but honorable duties, and have pleasant remembrances of this meeting, 

The society then adjourned &ine die. 


New York State Medical Society. — We are enabled to present to our 
readers this month, a very full report of the proceedings of this society, as 
published in the Albany Atlas. It convened on Tuesday, the Ist of February, 
and 'continued its sittings three days. Thirty-seven counties were represented ; 
one hundred and fifty members were in attendance. On Wednesday evening, 
the annual address was delivered at the Capitol in the Assembly Chamber, by 
Dr. Thomas C. Brinsmade, " upon the advantages arising from medical asso- 
ciations." He handled the subject in a masterly manner, and it was evident 
he had given it much study and thought ; it was listened to with marked at- 
tention, and was spoken of as able, interesting and instructive. After the ad- 
dress was concluded the members visited the executive mansion, and received 
the hospitalities of the (lovernor. 

By an examination of the minutes it will be seen that the society transacted 
a very large amount of business, and the proceedings which will be published 
as soon as the committee having this labor in charge can make them ready, 
will form an interesting and important volume. The reports and essays it 
will contain are from the most intelligent and able men of the State, and will 
be a valuable acquisition to the medical literature of the country. 

In point of numbers and influence this is the most important State organi- 
zation in our country, and the very full attendance of its members — ^the nu- 
merous essays and reports, are a very satisfactory and commendable evidence 
of the pride the physicians of this State feel in its growth, position, and of its 
importance to them as a profession. 

The Prize Essay on Scarlet Fever was awarded to Dr. Carrington, of Hyde 
Park, Dutchess county. 

The committee on vaccination state that : *^ it is believed that small pox is 
more prevalent in this State at the present time, ^lan at any former period 


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Pharmacy. 91 

since the introduction of yaccination," and recommend that children be excluded 
from priyileges of public instruction unless vaccinated ; reducing the matter 
to a school district organization, and vesting the responsibility with the trus- 
tees of each school district, which certainly ought fully to overcome the evil 
complained of. 

Dbath of Professor Tully, op Sprinofield, Mass. — It is with deep regret 
we announce the death of this distinguished man. The profession has lost 
one of its bri^test ornaments ; science one of its most valuable contributors, 
and ourselves a warm friend. Dr. Church writes us: ^*his illness was short 
Ten days ago he had a call on to the Green Mountains, some thirty-five or forty 
miles, and his illness was attributable to the journey he took in obedience to 
that call." He died on Monday, February 28, at 9 o'clock A. M., his funeral 
will take place on Friday, March 4, at 10 o'clock A. M., and his remains are to 
be taken to New Haven, Conn., for interment. 

Cofrespondents will oblige by ?mting plainly their names, town, county and 
state. We have, in several instances, been unable to answer letters because 
these are omitted. 



MM. Homolle and Quevenne have stated, as the result of their experience, 
that, in doses of one seventy-fifth of a grain, given three times a day,, this sub- 
stance acts as a diuretic in general dropsy, and with great speed and efficacy 
in reducing the effusion ; and that it is not rendered more certain by any ma- 
terial increase of the dose. They further found that, in about double this dose, 
»nd sometimes in the same dose, it reduces greatly the frequency of the heart's 
action ; and that the dose cannot reach the one-twelfth of a grain without pro- 
ducing nausea and symptoms of incipient poisoning. Dr. Christison, in the 
Monthly Journal of Medical Science, January, 1855, gives us the results of his 
experience of its use. He believes it to be an energetic diuretic and sedative. 
His first two trials of it were made in cases of extensive renal anasarca. In one 
case, diuresis commenced towards the close of the second day, and in the other 
a day later ; in both the flow was profuse, and. the oedema entirely disappeared. 
He commends strongly the use of such diuretics as digitalis, squill, and bi-tar- 
trate of potash, in renal dropsy. He has not found them, except in one in- 
stance, increase the albumen in the urine ; and believes they have been shunned 
on grounds purely theoretical and baseless. It is the same with digitaline. 
In the first of the two patients, the albumen quickly and greatly diminished ; 
in both it disappeared at last, but in one, after some days, reappeared, but in 
diminished proportion. In one instance, great depression of the hearf s action 
wag brought on, instead of a flow of urine. He thinks it very likely that the 
diuretic and sedative actions do not concur. He gave it in the doses recom- 
mended by Homolle and Quevenne. — Association Med. Journal^ June 15, 1855, 
p. 565. 


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92 Pharmacy. 


By Dr. Wm. Bayes^ hrighto)i, 

Piire glycerine dissolves nearly its own weight of tannin, affording a very 
powerful local astringent application. 

The solution of tannin in pure glycerine appears to me to supply a desidera- 
• turn long felt, and capable of a great variety of useful applications. 

The solvent property of glycerine over tannin allows us to form a lotion of 
any desirable strength, as the solution Is readily miscible with water. 

The solution of tannin in glycerine, in one or other of its strengths, is pecu- 
liarly applio4ible to many disorders of the mucous membrane, readily com- 
bining with mucous, and fanning a non-cvaporisable coating over dry mem- 
branes ; hence it may with benefit be applied to the mucous membranes of the 
eye and ear in many of its diseased conditions. It forms a most convenient 
'application to the vaginal, uterine, urethral, or rectal membranes, where a 
'Strong and non>irritant a.stringent lotion is desired. 

In local hemorrhages, where the bleeding surface qin easily be reached, it 
will prove very convenient, and may bo applied either with a sponge or small 

The solution must be kept in the dark, and should not be prepared for any 
great length of time before used, or decomposition will occur. 

It is singular that glycerine does not possess the same property towards 
gallic acid, — Amfeiation Med. Journal^ Sep. 29, 1854, p. 886. 

1)R.\«EES OF TAK. 

This substance lias long enjoyed a reputation a.s a valuable therapeutic agent, 
as a topical remedy, also as an active remedy in some urinary disorders. For 
the latter purpose it has usually been employed in the form of a solution in 
water. In this foim of exhibition we are able to obtain but a minute portion 
of its active principles, at the most not to exceed foiu'teen centigrammes to the 
litre of water. M. Dannecy (pharmacien) has recently overcome the difficulties 
encountered in the way of its exhibition as an internal medicament by com- 
bining it with magnesia. The Gazette Hehdomadaire^ July 23d, gives us the 
ibrmula for their preparation, as follows : — 

Take of cold Norwegian tar ad lib.^ and add to it one^fifteenlh its weight of 
calcined magnesia. After mixing, leave the substances to react upon them- 
eelves for five hours, in a cool place, as a cellar. The mixture, at this time, 
l^ecomcs easily manipulated, and may be formed into dragrees or other conve- 
nient forms, and, when covered with sugar aromatized, is divested of the re- 
pugnant qualities it previously possessed. 

Since this methed has been devised several physicians have advantageously, 
combined iron or quinine, as the condition of the patient may indicate ; the 
mixture is not incompatible with either. 


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Pharmacy. 98 


This class of syrups has not depreciated in public favor, when dispensed of 
good quality. But the* speedy decomposition which the cream is liable to 
undergo, and the trouble of procuring it at all times, is a difficulty which it is 
desirable to remedy by offering a substitute. Below is a recipe for Cream 
Syrup which has gained no little celebrity : — 

Take of 01. amygd. dulcis (recent) 2 f. 02. 

Pv. gum acaciie 2 oz. 

Aqnce fontanas 9 ol. 

M. ft. cmulsio, et adde, albumen ovi, No. 2, sacch. albi, 1 lb. 

M. Dissolve sugar by gentle heat, and strain ; fill small bottles and keep 
in a cool place well corked. This preparation is easily made in a few minutes, 
and will keep for a long time. For use, mix one part with eight of any of the 
ordinary syrups, or about a draclun to each, Jt forms an unequalcd 
orgeat by mixing two drachms or more with an ounce of simple sjTup, and' 
flaror with a mixture of bitter almond and orangc-flowcr water. 


The mixture has l>een tiscd of late with success in King's College Ho6;pital, 
as an application to bums and abrasions, to form a sort of artificial cuticle. It 
has been used at the suggestion of Dr. vSavage, at the Samaritan Hospital, in 
two cases of vesico-vaginal fistula, now there under the care of Mr. Spencer 
Wells. In one of these cases there is a recto-vaginal fistula also. In both the 
excoriation of the labia, perinium, and thiglis, from the constant dribbling of 
uriue and the consequent smarting, has been very distressing. Extreme clean- 
liness, careful drying of the parts, and the use of simple ointment, afforded but, 
little relief. The mixture of one part of collodion to two parts of castor-oil was 
•therefore used, and feavo the most marked relief. It causes some smarting for 
a few minutes after its application, but it then forms a smooth elastic coating 
or varnish, which resists the action of the urine for many hours, and effectually 
protects the exooriatedskin from the irritating fluid. — Medical Tim en and Oaz. 
Jan. 30, 1858,1^. 119. 

By Dr. Rouih. 
This is prepared by dissolving phosphate of iron and phosphate of lime in 
equal proportions in hot metaphosphoric acid, and adding sugar to the solution 
to make a syrup. Some years ago Dr. Routh recommended the syrup of the- 
supcrphospate of iron (elsewhere known as the biphosphate of iron) as a remedy 
for weakly children, and those weak adults with mental disorders. Its uses as 
such had been since amply proved. He now recommended this as an excel- 
lent remedy in rickets and weak children with deficient osseous development 
It was very pleasant to take, and did not bbckcn the stools. It was prepared 
by Mr. Greenish, of New Street, Dorset Square. Each ounce of the syrup con- 
tained five gruns of Iron and five of phosphate of lime. — Lancet^ March 6, 
1868, p. 260. 


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No. 800 Arch Street, Phila- 

(Author of the " Introdaction to Practical 



Offers to Physidans a general assortment of Medi- 
cines and Medicinal Wares, of which the following 
are specially recommended :— 

Compoimd Symp of tlie PhoiphAtai of Ume, 

Iron, Soda and Potaaia. 

(" Chemical Food,**) 

This admirable tonic is adapted to supply the 

waste occurring during the progress of chronic 

cUseases, and to build up the strength wastad 

by long continued 111 health. Put up In 1 lb. 

bottles, at $8 per doc, and in a smaller slse, at 

$8.50 per dosen. 

Olyoerolo of fhe Hypophoqphitei, 
Used in the treatment of Pulmonary Consumption, 
and as a tonic in cases of nenrous and general 
debility. Sold with circulars giving its composition, 
uses, Ac, at $8 per dozen bottles. 

Similar to the foregoing, though without the use 
of Glycerin in its preparation. Price $6 per doc. 

Each containing 5 grains of Sub. Carfo. Iron, flavor- 
ed with Vanilla, In boxes, at 1.75 per doxen. 

containing the ingredients of the "Chemical 
food,** in solid form. $1.75 per dosen. 

A new remedy in E|pilepsy and other nervous 
diseases. Dose 8 to 5 grains. 

CrrRATB OP laoir and Stktohmia. Dose, 8 grains. 
An old and very celebrated ntlladelphia prepara- 
tion. Price 75 c per dosen. 

Jack80M*8 Couqh Loskvobs, $1.75 per dosen. 

RESPIRATORS, for persons with weak lungs or 
throaty as a filter to the air, and a preventive 
against cold on leaving heated rooms, and for use 
In foggy and damp weather. Prices — of Cork, $1 ; 
SUver Wire, $1.50 ; Gitt, $2 each. 

PESSARIES, elastic ring shaped, S. 8., and 
horse-shoe, Gutta Pkscba, constructed on the 
most approved principles, and so as to be worn 
for months without becondng offensive or losing 
their perfect surface. 

Fhyiieian't Pretoriptioii Setloi, 
Of the best quality and accurate. We Import 
several kinds firom $1 to $8.50 each. 

Pookat OtM ftr Xedidnot, 

Containing 17 bottles, of 8 sixes, well corked, and 
1 graduated glass, the whole of convenient size, 
and accompanied by a sheet of 48 labels, printed 
in bronxe on steel blue paper, and ready gummed 
for use. Price $2 each. Sold and sent to any 
part of the country, as above. 

Tarrant's Effervescent 
Seltzer Aperient. 

This valuable and popular medidne, prepared 
in conformity with the analysis of the water of the 
celebrated seltser spring In Germany, In a most 
convenient and portable form, has universally 
received the most fkvorable recommendations of 
the medical profession and a discerning public, aa 
the most efficient and agreeable Saline Aperient 
In use, and as being entitled to special preference 
over the many mineral spring waters, seidlita 
powders, and other similar articles, both ft-om Its 
compactness and greater efficacy. It may be 
used with the best effect in all Bilious and Febrile 
diseases, sick Headache, Loss of Appetite, Indi- 
gestion, and all similar complaints, peculiarly in- 
cident to the spring and summer seasons. 

It is particularly adapted to the wants of travel- 
ers, by sea and land, residents In hot climates, 
persons of sedentary habits, invalids and conva- 
lescents, captains of vessels and planters will find 
it a valuable addition to their medicine chests. 
With those who have used It, It has hi|^ favor, 
and is deemed indispensable 

In a torpid wtaU qf 1h^ lifter It renders great 
service in restoring healthy action. In gout and 
rheumatUm it gives the best satbfactlon, allay- 
ing all Inflammatory symptoms, and in many 
cases effectually curing those aflOicted. It» suc- 
CMS in cases o/ gravely indigestion^ heartburn^ 
and coHtitentss proves It to be a medidne of the 
greatest utilitv. Acidity o/tAs stomachy and ths 
distressing sieknsse so usual during pregnancy 
yields speedily and with marked success under Its 
healthfkil influence. It affords the greatest reli^ 
to those afflicted with, or subject to ths Piles, 
acting gently on the bowels, neutraUsing all irri- 
tating secretions, and thereby removing all in- 
flammatory tendencies. In fact, it Is invaluable 
In all cases where a gentle aperient or purgative 
is required. 

It to in the form of a powder, careftilly put up 
In bottles, to keep in any climate, and merely re- 
quires water poured upon it to produce a deligbt- 
tol effervescent beverage. 

Taken In the morning, it never interferes with 
the avocations of the day, acting gently on the 
system, restoring the digestive powers, exciting a 
healthy and vigorous tone of the stomach, and 
creating an elastldty of mind and flow of spirits 
which give sest to every enjoyment. It also en- 
ables the invalid to enjoy many luxuries with im- 
punity, from which he must otherwtoe be debar- 
red, and without which life is irksome and dis- 

Numerous testlmoniato fh>m professional and 
other gentlemen of the highest standng throughout 
the country, and its steaUy increasing popularity 
for a series of years, strongly guarantee Its effica- 
cy and valuable character, and commend it to 
the favorable notice of an intelligent public. 

Prepared and sold wholesale and retail. 

Tarrait's Compoaid Extract of 
Cabebs ai4 Copaiba, 

Sanctioned by popular opinion and high authority 
of the most distinguished of the medical faculty. 
It offers to the afflicted a remedy, whose success 
has In every instance supported Its deserved 
reputation. Bdng convenient and agreeable in 
its use, experience has proved that it retains In 
every climate its desirable and truly valuable 
character. It is In the form of a paste, is tasteless, 
and does not impair the digestion. It to preparea 
with the greatest possible care, upon well-tested 


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ieirt APBIL, 1869. [Series. 

Bemaxks on the Influence of Climate^ Soil, and Cnltiyation 
on Medicinal Plants. 


SuOHT observation is sufficient to show that the nature of the 
T^getation on the earth's surface is greatly influenced by climate 
and localily. The organization of plants proves them fitted for 
different soils, and different amounts of light, heat, and moisture. 
From the tropics to the polar circle, the Flora is constantly chang 
ing fix)m the palms, bananas and orchids, to the larches, willows, 
mosses, lichens and grasses of the arctic and antarctic regions. The 
same is true of the lofty mountains at the equator ; different heights 
exhibiting the different Flora of different latitudes. Organic life 
and vigor in the vegetable kingdom, other things being equal, 
aeem directly proportioned to the increase of temperature. Heat, 
light and moisture are the efficient agents in the promotion of 
vegetable growth ; each species of plants can bear a definite range 
of temperature, and each species requires for the due performance 
of all its functions, and the development of its products, a certain 
amount of heat A plant may be said to suit a particular climate, 
when it not only lives and sends out leaves, but also produces 
flowers and seeds, and elaborates the peculiar products on which 
its properties depend. Plants, shrubs and trees which yield tropical 
spices, oils and resins, can not be expected to yield ike same pro- 
ducts in equal proportion in the temperate zones. Chmate does 
not depend on latitude ; isotherms are to be regarded. Plants, like 
animals, are fitted by their constitution for different climates. 


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130 Lee 07i Indigenous Plants, 

GEMEBAX REMEOIE3. \ Errhinos. 






General Stimulants. 














Astringents have been defined to be those substances that pro- 
duce constriction or condensation in the living animal fibre. It 
is no explanation of their modus operandi to say, that they produce 
these efiects by causing a peculiar excitement in the living con- 
tractile and irritable fibre ; and yet this, perhaps, is all that is 
known on the subject Headland thinks they do not necessarily 
act in the blood — ^that they do not pass from the blood to the 
nerves — that they do not always act by passing out of the body 
through the glands, but that their action is peculiar yet simple— 
that they act directly and especially on muscular fibre, whether 
of the voluntary or involuntary kind, and that they do this 
through the medium of the circulation. Some explain the opera- 
tion of astringents on physical, others on vital principles, through 
the modifications exerted on the living properties and actions of 
the secerning vessels, thus checking redundant secretions of blood 
and other fluids, in virtue of that change of vital action. This 
dynamic effect, however, may result from vital reactions, occasioned 
by their chemical properties. It is certain that most astringents 
have the power of coagulating or precipitating albumen ; and by 
virtue of this power to constrict many dead animal matters, as 
fibrinous tissues. That they are absorbed into the blood is abund- 
antly capable of demonstration — ^that they may pass through the 
walls of the capillaries to the muscular tissue, is highly probable ; 
and that this effect may follow independent of any influence on 
the^ervous system, is altogether probable, as they act on living 
vegetables. Their chemico-dynamic action is doubtless extended 
to all contractile tissues, and perhaps to all the soft solids of the 
body, as well a.s the blood. Over the unstriped, involuntary mXuB- 


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Lee on Indigenous Plants. 181 

calar fibres, their influence is slower and less strongly marked — 
but mere permanent and important in its results ; existing as these 
fibres do, in the coats of the stomach and intestines, the middle 
coat of arteries, the lining of the ducts of glands generally, in the 
stlbstance of the heart, and the walls of capillary vessels. In large 
doses they prove irritant and poisonous ; in small quantities they 
give tonicity to the capillary vessels — diminish their calibre — check 
hemorrhages and inordinate secretions, and give strength to muscu- 
lar contractions, thus counteracting a lax state of the system, 
and proving remedial in certain morbid conditions. 

As styptics, when applied to bleeding parts externally, they co- 
agulate the blood by their chemical action on albumen and fibrine, 
ihd at the same time cause constriction by influencing the vital 
properties of the walls of the vessels — ^witMn the blood vessels, 
chemical action to any extent, is prevented by their great dilution, 
and the successful resistance of the same vital properties. 

No class of remedies has been employed more empirically and 
injuriously than astringents. If prescribed without due regard to 
the pathological states they are designed to correot, they prove ex- 
tremely hazardous, and not unfrequently are followed by fetal 
effects. The discharge which they are given to check is often 
instituted by nature for the relief of congestion, or to eliminate 
morbid principles from the blood, and can not be suddenly ar- 
rested with impunity. The disease is overlooked, while a symptom 
is mistaken for it. Hemorrhagic effusions, when not copious, are 
the consequences of a secreting process, instituted by morbid 
states, and are analagous to menstruation. Of course, in such 
cases, they are not to be suddenly suppressed as a matter of 
course; we refer more particularly to h83matemesis, haemoptysis, 
and haemorrohidal discharges, as well as diarrhea, in all its forms; 
leucorrhea, gonorrhea, &c. Here, nature lays the foundation of 
the cure in tiiie effusion itself. Interference is only proper where 
it transcends the exigencies of the case, or the ability of the sys- 
tem to bear it. 

The indirect or remote effects of astringents are, by no means, 
to be lost sight of by the practitioner. Besides diminished exha- 
lation and secretion from all the mucous and serous membranes and 
of the skin, and the increased tonicity of muscular fibre ; we find 
the blood accumulated in the heart and larger blood vessels, from 


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Let on Indigenous Plants. 

the diminislied calibre of the smaller vessels and capillaries, in 
consequence of which plethora may ensue — ^reaction take place, 
with a full, hard pulse, and resulting, perhaps, in serious conges- 
tions or hemorrhages. Cerebral congestion, apoplexy and paralysis 
have, doubtless, resulted from such plethora, consequent on the 
check given to the secretions. The principal rules which should 
govern their internal administration are, to av&d their use in 
cases of febrile or inflammatory excitement ; where general pie 
thora exists ; where excessive secretion is dependent on active 
irritation ; or where there is much derangement of the digestive 
organs. To these rules there may be occasional exceptions, but 
in genei^ they will hold good. Locally they are applied to t^e 
akin, eye, ear, mouth, fauces, larynx, urethra, rectum, vagina, &c. 
To secuf e their remote effects they are to be introduced into the 
stomach. Tannic and gallic acids are the chief astringent princi- 
ples in vegetables ; other agents, as opium and sedatives generally, 
may indirectly prove astringent, by allaying morbid action, though 
not belonging to astringents proper. 

natural Orders of Plants, Indlsenovs to tJko United States, contain- 
ing Genera, bavins Astringent Properties* 







R. Glabra. 

Smooth Sumach. 



Stag Horn Sumach. 

Cashew tribe. 




R. Maculatum. 

Cranesbill, or Crowfoot 



Geranium tribe. 



Herb Robert 


1. Prunus. 

P. Americana. 

Red Plum— YeUow Plum. 



Chickasaw Plum. 

Roee tribe. 


Beach Plum— Sand Pium. 

2. Cerasus. 

C. Pumila. 

Sand Cherry. 


Bird Cherry— Wild Rof^ Cherry, 


Wild Cherry— Black Chetry. 


Choke Cherry. 



8. Spiraea. 

S. Opulifolia. 



Queen of the Meadow. 
Meadow Sweet 




i. Agrimonia. 

A. Eupatoria. 



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Zee on Indigenous Plants. 







5. Geiim. 





Water Arens. 
Yellow Avens. 
White Avens. 

6. Fragaria. 





Wild Strawberry, aearUL 
Alpine, or Wood Strawberry. 
Chili Strawberry. 

T. Potentilla. 



Mountain Potentilla. 
Common CinquefoiL 

Shrubby " 
Goose Grass. 


Anserina, &c 

8. Sangui8*ba. 



American Great Burnet 

9. Rubus. 

R. Villosus. 

High Blackberry. 






Wedge-leaved BUckberry. 


Flowering Raspberry. 


Red Wild 


Dwarf " 

10. Rosa. 


Setigcra, &c. 

Wild Rose. 
Shining Rose. 
Michigan " 


1. Vaccinium.;V. 


Black Whortleberry. 



Corymbosum Blue Bilberry. 




Blue Whortleberry. 


Com. Low Blueberry. 

2. Arbutus. 


Uva Ursi. 


3. Andromeda 



Bracted Cassandria. 

Polyfolia. j Wild Rosemary. 

Racemosa. ■ Clustered Zenobia. 

Arborea. i Sorrel Tree. 

4. Clethra. C. 

Alnifolia. i Sweet Pepper Bush, or 
1 White Alder. 

5. Epigaea. |E. 

Repens. ] Trailing Arbutus. 

6. Ledum. 



Labrador Tea. 

7. ChimaphilaC. Umbellata. 

Aquifoliaceae. 1. Prinos. 
{HbUytcorU.) I 

I Princes Pine — Pipsisa. 
; Spotted Wintergreen. 

8. Monotropa.!M. Uniflora. 1 1ndian Pipe. 

jP. Verticillatus. • Black Alder, or Winterberry. 


Ink Berry. 


Ebenacete. jl. Diospyrcs, :D. Virginiana. i Persimmon Tree. 
{EbonadM,) \ | 


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Zee on Indigenous Plants. 




S. Lunonum. 



I. Statice 

Marsh Rosemary. 



1. Orobanche. 

0. Uniflora. 

One flowered Broomrape. 



Squaw root — Cancer root 

2. Epiphegus. 

£. Virginiana. 

Beech Drops, " " 


1 Hamamelis. 

H. Virginica. 

Witch HazeL 


1 Qucrcus. 

Q. Alba. 

White Oak. 



Overcup " 




Mossy-cup Oak* 







Elongata, &c. 

Spanish '' 

2. Castanea. 

C. Vesca. 


Dwarf Chestnut 

3. Corylus. 

C. Americana. 

Hazel Nut 


Beaked Hazel. 

4. Fagus. 

F. Sylvatica. 

White Beech. 


1. Myrica. 

M. Gale. 

Sweet Gale. 


Bayberry—Wax Myrtle 

2. Oomptonia. 

C. Asplenifolla. 

Sweet Fern. 


1. Salix. 

S. Tristis. 

Sage Willow. 



White ** 


Black " 


Prinos leaved Willow^ 


Grey " 



U. Americana. 

Alum Root 





L. Salicaria. 

Loose Strife. 

iLooee Stripes.) 


1. Nymphaea. 

N. Odorata. 

Water Lily. 

{Water LllUs.) 

2. Nuphar. 

N. Advena. 

Yellow Pond Lilly. 



B. Peltata. 

Water Target 

{Water Shields.) 



H. Perforatum. 

St John's Wort 


Canadian '^ 


1. Aesculus. 

A. GUbra. 

Ohio Buckeye. 

[Buck Eyee.'\ 




SmaU " 



C. Americanus. 

Jersey Tear-Red Root. 


0. Ot^IIh. 

OTal leared Oeftaothni. 


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Lee on Indifjenous Plants. 






1. Hsematox. 



H. Campeach. 




Sanuncu]ac*8e! Hepatica. 

iCnnc/boU.) j 

H. Triloba. 



jHelianthem*m!H. Canadense. 

Frost plant— Rock Rose. 





B. Vulgari.s. 

Barberry Bush (fruit) 


[Elnt WortM.^ 



1 1 

U. Americana. 
< Fulva. ! 

American Elm (bark. > 
Slippery Elm 




|A. Canadensis. 1 

1 1 

Hemlock (bark.) 


1 1 

P. Rigida. . Pitch pine, (oleo resin.) 
! Resinosa. Norway pine, ** 
1 Variabilis. ! Yellow - 

Labiatae. h. Collin8onia.,C. Canadensis. Horse Balm— Rich weed 

lLabiaUplantry\ \ | 

2. Lycopus. jL. Virginkus. j Bugle Weed. 







Oleaceae. Ligustrum. 

BoraginacesB. Pulmonaria. 
[Borage tribt."] 


T. Pendulum. 


R. Crispus. 





P. Aviculare. 

£. Canadense. 

I American. 


S. Virga Aiu'ea. 

L. Vulgare. 

Drooping Trillium. 

Beth Root— Birth Root 
" ** Wake Robin. 

Yellow Dock. 

Water " 

Bloody Veined Dock, 
j British Water Dock. 
\ Blunt leayed Dock. 

Knot Grass. 

I Common Flea Bane. 
j Poor Robin*s Plantain. 
' Philadelphia Flea Bane, 
i White Weed. 
Sweet Scabious Daisy. 

Common Golden Root 

! Sweet Scented " 


Common Privet 
(Bark and Leaves.) 

L P. Virgin ica. ' Virginia Lungwort. 
2. C. Officinalii. 

Wild Comfrey. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Lee on Lidigenous Plants^ 

lUnibMi/, tribe,] 





C. Florida. 

S. Ternatum. 

C. Lanceolatum. 

Onopordoa |0. Acanthium. Cotton Thistle. 



Alternate leaved Dogwood. 

Round " ** 


Stone crop " 

House Leek. 
Thistle, common. 

Such are the principal natural orders and genera, including spe- 
cies of plants possessing astringent properties, indigenous to our 
country. There are some others, but of too little consequence to 
need particular mention ; some of them combine other valuable 
properties with astringent, as the different species of comus, uhnus, 
rumex, &c. Those in which a tonic principle predominates, will 
be classified hereafter. The above list, which might be considerably 
extended, will show, that however deficient our native materia 
medica may be in some classes of medicines, yet, that it abounds 
in those plants posseesng astringency, and to such extent, that W6 
may be wholly independent of foreign countries for our supply of 
articles of this class. In nearly all the above named articles the 
astringency is evidently due to tannic and gallic acids; although 
these are not claimed as the only astringent matters in the vegeta- 
ble kingdom, for we find that some of the alkaloids, neutrals, resin- 
oids, oleo-resins, &c., have also a styptic power as, quinia^ cinchonxia^ 
strychnia^ co^min^ gentianin, geramn, hematoxylin^ myridn^ pruning 
ergoiin^ turpentine^ &c. We are not, however, to confound all 
medicaments that restrain fluxes, with true astringents ; for in that 
case, blood-letting, demulcents, narcotics, sedatives, revulsives, Ac., 
would belong to that class. The per centage of tannic acid yielded 
by our different astringent plants varies extremely — ^from 2 to 40 
per cent, or more. Thus our common elm bark has about 6 per 
cent; inner bark of white oak, 26; uva ursi, 36; marsh rose- 
mary, 15 ; pomegranate, 18 ; sumach, 16 to 25 ; sweet fern, 80 ; 
willow, 8 to 10 per cent, &c. It is to be recollected that astringent 
barks, roots, &c., are to be collected in the spring, as they contain 
a much larger amount of tannin at that season than at any other. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Krameria Triandra, 137 

Erameria Triandra. 


We are indebted to Buiz, an eminent Spanish botanist, for our 
acquaintance with this remedy. He discovered its medical 
properties in 1784, but he did not publish the results of his ex- 
periments till 1796, and his work, inserted in the memoirs of the 
Bojal Academy of Madrid, was translated in 1808 ; soon i^r 
the attention of other European practitioners had been called to 
the astringent qualities of the drug. 

Ph^hffical action oj BhaUmy. — ^Taken in small doses the ex- 
tract of rhatany produces in the region of the stomach a distres- 
.sing sense of heaviness, and centimes of sharp, cutting pains ; 
digestion is more difficult and constipation ensues almost imme- 
diately. A short time after the exhibition of this remedy, the 
patient experienoes a general uneasiness, slightly pronoimced when 
the rhatany has been given to a man in health ; very marked, on 
the contrary, when it has been administered for the arrest of he- 
morrhage, and when the therapeutic end has been attained. This 
tmeasiness manifests itself especially by yawnings, by great efforts 
at respiration, and by very painful constrictions of the chest. 
These effects are common to timnin, to kino, to catechu, in fact to 
. all substances that contain a large proportion of taimin. 

Thempeutic action of Bhatany. — The extract of rhatany has 
formed a special use in the treatment of severe hemorrhages, being 
one of the most powerfiil hemostatics we possess. It is employed 
likewise, under the samecircumstanoes as tannin ; chronic diarrheas, 
chronic pulmonary catarrhs, uterine, vaginal, urethral, &c. ; topi- 
cally, in atonic ulcers, on relaxed tissues, such as the inguinal 
ring in hernia, in the naevi maiemi, in chronic oedema. 

Khatany has been highly lauded as a remedy in hemoiThages of 
an atonic character, when the blood flows away from the small 
vessels, because the tissues of which they form a part, have under- 
gcme a feeble degeneration, or are the seat of a congestion which 
holds them in a state of tume£Eiction, and when the relaxed, dilated 
vascular orifices offer less hindrance to the passage of the fluid 
than they receive. Its styptic influence has arrested the flow of 
.blood in hemoptyas, epistaxis, hematuria, dysentery, uterine 
flooding, tfc. 


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138 Krameria Triandra. 

It is recommended in cardialgia and nervous irritability, m 
connection with a camphorated mixture in typhus fever, in fluor 
albus and menorrhagia. When taken into the stomach it tinges 
the foecal evacuations of a red color, which coloration remains two, 
sometimes three days, and even more after the patient has ceased 
taking it. It does not materially aflfect the color of the urine,- 
though it duninishes the quantity of the secretion. The impression^ 
that the substance makes on the buccal cavity shows a very 
marked tonic property and this impression is continued through- 
out the entire digestive duct Wherever it is desired to effect the 
contraction of the tissues of an organ, to arouse or increase the 
tone, the vigor of the tissues, to combat atony or relaxation or 
any surfEuse or organic apparatus, the use of this agent can be re- 
curred to with confidence. 

In inflammation of the buccal membrane provoked by the use- 
of mercury, in certain ulcerated forms of inflammation of tiie gums,, 
for moderating and reducing the pain in idcerations of the mucous* 
membranes, and as an application to bums, ulcers and blisters on- 
the skin, rhatany effects a decrease of pain with a marvellous- 

Excellent results have been experienced fix)m its employment 
in hemorrhoidal and dysenteric tenesmus. In these cases, after 
each evacuation, the patient should raise himself fix)m his seat, re- 
sisting the efforts of expulsion and make inmiediate application of 
a lotion, or a tolerably free injection of a weak infusion of rhatany* 

That a substance which makes so lively a styptic impression ort 
the organs, should arrest morbid evacuations, bloody discharges^ 
is a result not at all surprising when its effects on the living tissue are 
understood. Rhatany always excites a contraction of unnaturally 
dilated openings in ihe tissues : its characteristic action is that of 
dissipating bloody congestions, when it exists on a surfiu^ and when 
the old, permanent congestion has brought about an atony of the 
capillary vessels. In this way it is able to decide the cicatrisation 
of supc^cial ulcers. An hemorrhage is always a symptomatic 
phenomenon, and it is to the lesions which occasion the passage 
of the blood out of the canals that attention must be directed be- 
fore determining whether this should be the remedy used. It is 
certain tiiat the effect of this substance will not be &vorable, when 
the bloody or humoral evacuations are occasioned by a violent 


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Krameria Tnandra, 189 

inflamation of the parts which furnish them ; or, indeed, when the 
hemorrhages are supported by a superabundance of blood or a 
state of plethora. It is as contrary to the pharmacologic doctrine 
as to the results of experience, to believe that this agent can never 
do harm — ^that its use ig never restrained by the prospect of trouble- 
some results. The danger offered to the employment of any 
remedy, badly applied, prescribed at an improper time, is in pro- 
portion always to its therapeutic energy. 

In softening of the tissues of the heart, in the dilatations of the 
ventricles of this viscus, this agent can be employed with confi- 
denca These lesions are very frequent and produce numerous 
symptoms. When there is no immediate irritation of this organ 
and no inflammation, the daily use of rhatany is beneficial. The 
repeated impression of the molecules of this substance on the tis- 
sues of the heart, corrects its morbid softness, produces a con- 
traction of the fibres which compose it, tending continually to 
bring back the dimensions to the natural size. With the same in- 
tention and with like effect it can be given in hemoptysis, pro- 
voked by a soft degeneration of the pulmonary tissue. 

When rhatany is administered in cases of looseness, diarrhea 
and the like, and when there is any irritation or inflammation in 
the intestinal canal, it produces, after ingestion, a sense of heat in 
the epigastrium, and in the abdomen, which spreads to the sides 
of the body and even to the limbs. The throat, the tongue, the 
mouth become dry ; there is thirst, cardialgia, vomiting, distress 
in the intestines, flatulence, cholic, &c. : the evacuations become 
more abxmdant If the irritation and inflammation are moderate, 
if they are of considerable continuance, these accidental effects are 
appeased uAev a few doses of the substance. The morbid sympt- 
oms that previously existed become less violent ; after an apparent 
augmentation of the malady, there is a decided improvement in 
the symptoms. There arc fewer evacuations, the stools are less 
liquid, they become thicker, and lose their fetidity ; there is more 
heat at the anus in evacuation, the cholic subsides, the belly is 
supple, the strength increases, there is more appetite, the complex- 
ion brightens, it is evident that the rhatany has proved salutary. 
There is no need of anxiety by the effects produced on the first 
administration of rhatany. This substance, in order to bring up 
the intestinal tissues to Iheir normal condition, has to combat and 
subdue the lesions with which it is affected. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

140 Krameria Triandra, 


M. Soubeirau made in 1834: an examination of this root, which 
he published in the Jour, de Pharm.^ in which he says : — 

" Vogel, Gmelin, Peschier and TromsdorflF, examined this root^ 
and if some points connected with its analysis are not completely 
elucidated, yet its chemico medical history has been fiill j developed. 
Bhatany contains tannin in three states: — 1st Pure; in which 
case it is colorless, and possesses all its peculiar properties. 2d. 
In a state insoluble in water, resulting £jx>m the alteration of the 
tannin by contact with the air; in this state it has lost its solu- 
bility and astringency. 3d. In the form of extractive, this is a 
soluble combination of pure tannin with No. 2, and gives to the 
fluid preparations of rhatany their characteristic red brown color. 
This root also contains a small proportion of gum, a little fecula, 
some jsaccharine matter, and an acid whose properties are not yet 
fully determined." 

The analyses referred to are imperfect and conflicting. In some 
cases the root was used, in others the watery extract, and again 
the bark of the root ; oon^ion arises where compa^rison is made, 
because the classification of the elements is not the same in each 
report. The tannic and gallic acids being included in the coloring 
matter and given as tannin, whUe in the annexed analysis we give 
all the constituent elements separately, and shall refer to the par- 
ticulars at another^ time. 


Organic matter, ... - 98.60 

Inorganic " 6.40 


Gum and Albumen, - - 1-257 

Sugar, 0.285 

Extractive matter, - - - 0.628 

Starch, 1.064 

Tannin, - - . . 8.928 

Coloring matter, (Resin) - - 20.578 

Soluble Salts, - - - 0.878 

Insoluble " .... 5.428 

Lignin, etc. .... 65.954 



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Frasera CaroHnensis, 141 

Fraaera Caroli2ieD8is.--(Fxasera Watteri.) 
{American Cbhimbo.) 


I wish to call Ae attention of the profession to the virtues of 
this plant ; it has not receiTed that attention from medical teach- 
ers and writers upon materia medica to which its rirtues entitle it 

It k a beantifiil and stately plant, growing west of the Alle- 
ghanies, in the middle and southern states, on the border of lakes 
and in rich soils; its peculiar habitat, however, is variously 
described by various botanists. It is found abunda&ily in the 
western part of North Carolma, upper part of Georgia, and eastern 

It is one of the tallest of our native herbaceous planla, growing 
from three to eight feet high ; is one of the first which appears in 
the spring — flowers in June and July; which, however, together 
with the stems are produced only in tiie third year, the radical 
leaves being the only part of the plant which previously appear 
above ground ; it deserves cultivation, if not for its medicinal 
properties at least as an ornament to our gardens. The generic 
name of Frasera was bestowed upon it by Walter, in commemora- 
tion of Mr. John Fraser, a botanical collector, to whose industry 
and exertions the gardens of England were indebted for numbers 
of rare plants. 

The roots are large and fleshy ; in drying it shrinks very much. 4 
The experiments I have frequenfly made in this respect, give 
upon an average eighteen or twenty ounces of dried to five pounds 
of green root. When collected the roots should be cut into 
transverse slices and dried rapidly in a drying room or in the sun; 
otherwise in a partially dried state, in damp weather it rapidly 
absorbs moisture and moulds, losing its rich yellow color, and 
hnparting its properties, as is the case with many of our native 
articles of the vegetable materia medica. Much diversity of opin- 
ion appears to have existed as to the value of the medicinal 
properties of this plantr-by some considered equal, if not su- 
perior to the foreign columbo, while others considered it of little 
Titilily ; although regarded by ikem as inferior in bitterness and 
tonic properties to the foreign ; it was acknowledged as an 


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142 Frasera Oarolinensis. 

efficacious bitter, capable of producing the usual eflfects of this 
class of remedies when properly administered ; and much allow- 
ance must be made for the opinions concerning its properties, as 
we are not informed whether in the experiments named it was used 
in the recent or dried state, for it should be noticed that its tonic 
properties are only developed when the root has been perfectly 
dried. In the recent state it proves both emetic and cathartic. 

Dr. ZoUickofFer states "as far as my experience goes, I am 
able to speak in favor of its medicinal operation. In several cases 
of a relaxed state of the stomach and bowels in which I have pre- 
scribed it, I have found it competent to restore the appetite and 
increase the digestive powers very considerably." 

Dr. Hildreth, of Ohio, states " that from tiie experiments he 
has made with it, he is induced to believe it fully equal, if not 
superior to the imported, and mentions a case of gangreen of the 
lower exta-emities, in which it had proved successful, after bark 
and other remedies had failed." 

My personal experience with this article has been very satis- 
factory, and has, I believe, been sustained by others in this im- 
mediate district, who have given it a fair trial and observed closely 
its effects. It was largely used by the Cherokee Indians prior to 
their removal from this country to Arksansas, and is very much 
used by the country people in " domestic practice" at the present 

As a tonic it is of unquestionable value in dyspepsia. I know 
of no remedy that excells it, either administered alone or in com- 
bination ; in complicated cases, as with other remedies if combined 
its efficiency is increased. Many persons in this section, troubled 
with dyspepsia or indigestion, chew the root daily with marked 
benefit. As a tonic and stomachic it is similar to gentian, and 
may be used in cases where gentian is indicated. 

It has proved valuable in my practice in dysentery, cholera 
morbus, cholera infantum, and bilious cholic. 

In sickness of the stomach, incident to pregnancy, it acts like 
a charm. I have never had a case when it not only immediately 
relieved all nausea and gickness, but So invigorated the system as 
to prevent a return of all the disagreeable symptoms. 

In bilious cholic I prepare a strong tincture of dried root, and 
give it in teaspoonful doses every half hour until the disease yields, 


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Remarks on Concentrated Preparations^ etc. 148 

and in severe cases combine with valerian and conium as follows : — 
Tincture Frasera, - - . . One Ounce. 

Fluid Extract Valerian, - - ... " 

" Conium, - - - - One Dram. 

Dose — ^A teaspooniul eyery half or every hourf according to circumstances. 

From the bruised root treated by ether, I have obtained a yel- 
low crystalizable substance, much resembling columbin. I hope, 
at another time to give in detail its use in a number of cases, and 
refer to the experiments of others in determining its active princi- 
ple. In the meantime it would be interesting if others having 
given this article any attention would conamunicate their ob- 

Bemarks on Concentrated Preparations, Simple Tests and 
Easy Method of Analysis. 


Without entering into the particulars of nutrition and the general 
subject of v^etation, I propose briefly as possible to consider the 
constituent elements of v^etablee, their properties, &c., and 
then pass to the consideration of the main subject of my articles. 

In considering the chemical properties of a vegetable, we will 
divide them into three classes. 

1st Indifferent or neutral principles. 

2d. Acid principles. 

3d. Alkaloid principles. 

Indifferent Princples — ^These principles are so-called be- 
cause they have no acid or alkaline properties, and combine with 
both ; these principles are numerous, the most important of them 
we shall only consider. 

1st. CkUuhse.'-'formtUa C." H.** 0.** is the substance which 
is left after the action upon any kind of vegetable tissue of 
such solvents as are fitted to dissolve out the matter deposited in 
its cavities and instertices; is a flexible mass, insoluble in water, 
alcohol, ether, alkalies, concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acid; 
destructive distillation convertEi it into coal, keeping the form of 
the cell ; sulphuric acid transforms it into dextrine ; boiling a long 
time in diluted sulphuric acid converts it into grape sugar ; iodine 
colors it a pale yellow. In the process of vegetable organization 


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144 liemarks on Cbncentrated Preparations, Ac 

cellulose is converted into wood or lignin and cork substance ; bj 
other chemical processes it is converted into starch. 

Lignin or woody substance constitutes the fibrous structure of al\ 
vegetable substances; is insoluble in alcohol, water, and the 
dilute acids. Soluble \A caustic potassa ; slightly soluble in con^ 
centrated sulphuric acid; by boiling for some time in diluted 
sulphuric acid it is converted into grape sugar; digested in nitric 
acid it is converted into oxalic acid. 

Cork substance is very similar to the lignin, it is insoluUe 
in suljdiuric acid, and not completely soluble in caustic 
potash. M. C!heyreul has extracted from it a greasy matter called 

2d. Starch.— G.'^ H.*' O." Starch is found in every vegetable^ 
and all parts of them; is quite insoluble in cold waier; solu* 
ble in hot water. When allowed to stand with water it ig, 
decomposed and converted first into dextrine, then into gn^ 
sugar, and la^ into acetic and lactic acids. Boiled in diluted sul- 
phuric acid it is converted into dextrine, and by further action 
into grape sugar; by boiling in nitric acid, it gives oxalic and 
mucic acids; with iodine it produces compounds of intense blue 
color, which is its most r^ouurkabie property. 

8d. Dextrine.— C.'* H." 0."» This substance is of a yellowv 
ish dark brown color, insoluble in alcohol and ether; solu- 
ble in water; diluted sulphuric acid transforms it into grape 

4th. Sugar is an abundant vegetable product existing in the 
juices of many plants. We meet with the varieties called oane , 
sugar, grape sugar, sugar of miZfe, Jruii sugar and treacle; their 
properties are quite familiar to every one. In analysis it is. 
frequently the practice to dispose of the sweet substance found in 
vegetables, as sugar, or include it in the extractive matter. I pro- 
pose to make a distinct dasnfioaAion, because the varieties are capa- 
ble of isolation and of being determined. Oane sugur digested in 
diluted sulphuric or muriatic acid is converted into grape sugar ; 
with stronger adds it is changed into two brown substances in- 
soluble in water, cme of them soluUe, the other insoluble in alka- 
line liquors ; with nitric aeid it is converted into oxalic acid; of 
the varieties, however, I shall tspesk at ancib^ time. 

5th. Bxtin or vegetable gelatine. — ^This substance which is to be , 


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Bemarhs on Concentrated Preparations^ Jcc. 145 

carefullj distinguished from animal jelly. Pectin is found in 
almost every kind of plant, and distributed through all their parts ; 
but more generally in the juice of fruits ; is an opaque substance 
when dried and powdered, if mixed with water, it swells up and 
forms a jelly. Diluted sulphuric acid transforms it into grape 
sogar ; if boiled in alkalies it is transformed into pectic acid. 

6th. Gum is a common proximate principle of vegetables, and 
is not confined to any particular part of plants. It exudes from 
natural or artificial cracks in the barks of some trees ; in the natu- 
ral state it is liquid, but becomes solid by exposure to the air. Is 
soluble in water and in alcohol diluted with its volume of water ; 
insoluble in concentrated alcohol and ether, forms a salt with 
oxide of lead ; formula of which is 2 (PbO.) C." H.'" 0.*' 

7th. Mucilage. — ^There is but little difference between gum and 
mucilage, they are usually classified as the same. Gum is entirely 
soluble in water, while mucilage swells up in it and does not 

8th. Mineral salts. — These salts are found in every vegetable, , 
in every part of it ; their composition varies according to the 
plant and the part in which it ifl foxmd; the soil upon which 
thf plant is grown ; the system of cultivation pursued. The study 
of these agents is interesting and instructive ; it is easy to judge 
of the circumstanoes which render a soil barren or productive^ 
for each kind of plant requires for its vigorous and healdiy growth, 
to be supplied with inorganic substances of a specific nature and 
in certain quantity. 

We could include in the class of indifferent o/ neutral princi- 
pals the fixed oils, volatile oils, uax^s^ resins^ coloring maUers^ ex- 
tractive matter j &c., but we prefer to take them up after the con- 
sideration of the two other classes. 

II. Vegetable Acids. — Those compounds are regarded as 
vegetable acids which possess the properties of an acid, and are 
derived from the vegetable kingdom. All vegetable acids have 
very strong reactions; they clumge the color of litmus from blue 
to red; exist in every vegetable, partly free, partly combined. 
The principle properties of the acids are to combine with the 
basis in different proportions, forming salts. Some of them possess 
medicinal properties. The tannic acid is the most used in a 
free state. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

146 Strychnia and its Uses. 

Vegetable Alkaloids. — They are found ready formed ia 
certain vegetables; are so named because they have identical 
properties with the mineral basis, restore the color of litmus red- 
dened by an add ; combine with acids and form definite salts ; 
their chemical reactions are precisely similar to tlie mineral base. 

Alkaloids are formed of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen. 
Some, but very few, contain an inorganic element like sulphur, 
&c. Usually alkaloids are not free in plants, but are combined 
with acids forming natural salts, slightly soluble in water; soluble 
in hot alcohol. They are the last of vegetable preparations to be 
decomposed by atmospheric action, and generaUy all alkaloids 
present very strong medical properties, and much is often gained 
by the administration of the active principle, -seperated from the 
plant in the^crude state. 

Such are the different principles found in vegetables. In the 
next article I shall consider those which axe neither acids or alka- 
loids, and which are largely used as remedial agents. 

Strychnia and its Uses. 

BT H. R. DB RICCI, BSq., ^ 

Swrg^on to Ihe BaUymahon HoepiUd and Dispensary. 

(In case of paralysis arising from lesions of the encephalon and in epilepsy, 
strychnia is absolutely injurious ; whilst in chorea and paralysis agitans, it is 
at hest useless.) 

The diseases in which I have found nux vomica and its preparations of most 
use are those where, from some cause or other, the nervous powers are not as 
vigorous as they should be, — where there is a lassitude and a want of tone in 
the system, — in short, in cases offunetumal derangement; whilst in lesion or 
disease of the nervous centres, its employment has always proved injurious 
in my hands. In every form of dyspepsia not arising ftx>m organic lesion, its 
use will be found advantageous, but most espedally in the dyspepsia of literary 
men, lawyers, and scholars, especially when accompanied by constipation. 
Also in that relaxation of the muscular fibre, total lassitude, and want of tone, 
for which the physician is so often consulted by ladies who go out much into 
society; a state almost invariably accompanied by leucorrhoea, indigestion, 
loss of appetite, and a certain amoimt of erethismus — ^here nux vomica 
and its preparations will be found of the greatest value. But it is in 
chlorosis that its efficacy will be really manifested, — for though chlorosis is 
ranked as a blood disease, it is more strictly speaking a disease of impaired in- 
nervation ; and the deficiency of red discs in the blood, which causes the pecu- 


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Strychnia ani its Uses. 147 

liar greenish yellow color of the patient, and firmn which resrj appearance the 
name of the disease is taken, is the effect of imperfect assimilation, the primarj 
cause being either an impaired or perverted action of the nenrous fonctions, a 
&ct which will be apparent to the most superficial observer: for how often 
will be found, out of a large and healthy &mily, one of the daughters, and one 
orUyy acquiring by degrees the paUid look of incipient chlorosis, while all the 
rest retain their wonted healthy aspect ; and yet the sickly one has all the 
while been exposed exactly to the same physical conditions, breathed the same 
air, dwelt in the same rooms, eaten the same food — ^why then should this one 
be deficient in blood-discs ? If now the careful physician searches into the 
cause, he will, in all]probability, find out by degrees that, some time previous 
to the setting in of the disease, the patient had suffered firom some strong 
mental emotion, a sudden fright, or sudden unexpected sorrow-r-and from that 
had dated the commencement of her illness. 

By fiur the greater number of chlorotic cases which I have met with in the 
upper classes had their origin in some such mental impression, and this &ct 
would of itself^ I think, be sufficient to charact^ise this disease as one of de- 
ranged nervous function, even if we had not the corroborative testimony 
derived from medical treatmenC Now, if a case such as I have supposed, is 
treated solely with chalybeates, but little progress will, in all probability, be 
made towards recovery ; in vain you will administer the metal so much needed 
by the system — ^the lacteals will fiul to discern and appropriate it It will pass 
away by the bowels, and there do mischief by increasing the constipation al- 
ready, most probably, existing. To remedy this the usual purgatives of aloes 
and otiier such drastics wiU be recurred to, probably in heroic doses, and then, 
by increasing the debility, the patient will be placed in a worse condition than 
before. Let, however, the iron be combined with quina, a medicine which I 
need not say acts especially on the nervous system, and the improvement will 
be manifest; but if for quina you substitute strychnia, then the effect will be 
truly surprising. Until lately I was in the habit of adding the strychnia in 
solution to a bitter vegetable infusion containing some preparation of iron, 
generally the citrate, but my friend Dr. Aldridge, having brought imder my 
notice a doable citrate of iron and strychnia, analagous to the well-known 
preparation of iron and quina, I have adopted its use with marked advantage 
and success. This salt contains, I am told, one grain of strychnia in every 
hundred. The dose I have been in the habit of oommenqng with, has been 
two grains twice a day, immediately l>efore or qfter a meal, selecting in prefer- 
ence break&st and lunch, and increasing its gradation to ten and fifteen grains 
twice a day. My prescription has generally been the following : — Citrate of 
iron and strychnia, forty-eight grains ; chloric ether and aromatic spirit of am- 
monia, of each a dram and a half; infusion of chiretta, suflicient to make a 
twelve ounce mixture : of this a table-spoonful at dinner and at lunch. By 
the use of this combination the troublesome constipation, frequently alterna- 
ting wiih diarrhea, so often accompanying chlorosis, will be entirely obviated ; 
the bowels will resume their healHiy action, in consequence of their peris- 


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148 Strychnia and its Uses, 

taltic motion being improved, and the lacteals and abeorbents being aroused 
to increai?ed action, will seize upon the metal and rapidly assimilate it. The 
combination of strychnia with iron will also tend to check that excitability 
which manifests itself under so many and varied forms in this disease, and 
will correct that lassitude which is one of the characteristics of this malady. 
In illustration of what I have been asserting, I shall subjoin the account of a 
case which I had ample opportunity of watching and absolute control over, 
trusting that the details may not prove uninteresting. 

The patient, a young lady aged seventeen, had been for some months de- 
clining in health ; she had a slight husky oough ; total loss of appetite; great 
palpitation of the heart on the smallest exertion ; and was pallid in the ex- 
treme ; but she had not the peculiar greenish yellow of chlrosis ; it was rather 
the washy look seen in cases of excessive hemorrhage, — with all this she was 
not at all emaciated, but, on the contrary, quite plump. Her fiunily were in 
great tribulntion about her, as some of her relatives had died of consumption, 
and the young lady herselT was convinced that she had disease of the heart, 
from the pain she suffered' almost incessantly in it, and the fearful palpitation 
which arose on the smallest exertion. Several physicians, both in Dublin and 
elsewhere, had examined her, and some flkred there was incipient valvular 
disease. Sir. H. Marsh, had, however, given a decided opinion that the de- 
rangement was solely functional ; and, after the most careful and repeated ex- 
aminations, I came to the same conclusion, although the following pecuHar 
symptom led me, for Some time, to fear a threatning of disease of the mitral 
valve. When the heart's action was at all excited, its sounij^ got so tumultu- 
ous and mixed up, that it was impossible to discriminate one t'roia the other ; 
but when it was comparatively tranquil, by placing the stethoscope over the 
apex of the heart, one could hear, amid the irregular pulsations and clicks of 
that organ, a prolonged musical note, apparently synchronal with the first 
sound. There were also marked venous murmurs in the jugulars, especially 
in the right one. But as the case progresed to a cure all these abnormal sounds 
first diminished, and then ceased altogether, thus proving them to have been 
only due to functional derangement. Before coming under my care this lady 
had been taking chalybcu^es abundantly, and in every variety of combination 
with tonics. She had t- ken, among others, a quantity of valerianate of iron, 
but without any apparent amendment I «t once put her on strychnia and 
iron, which, in this case, I employed as follows : — One grain of strychnia was 
dissolved in two minims of sulphuric acid, added to thirty ounces of water, in 
which one dram of ammonio-citrate of iron had been dissolved : the whole was 
then placed in a gazogene, and charged with carbonic acid. The dose was 
one wine-glassful daily, immediately before lunch. The amendment commenced 
before the end of the first fortnight ; the bowels, that had been always ob- 
stinately constipated, acted now of their own accord ; the want of appetite, 
which had actually amounted to a disgust for food, disappeared; the color re- 
turned to the face ; the heart ceased to beat irregularly, and at the end of three 
months, there was not a trace of the former delicate sickly appearance. — Dub- 
lin Qxutrterly Journal ^ Feb., 1858, p. 47. 


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Feeding Infants. 149 

Feeding Infants. 


Great mortality prevails among children from ii\judidous feeding. Some 
persons attempt to support them upon articles of food which contain little 
else than starch or gum, neither of which are capable of themselves of sus- 
taining animal life. Others confine them principally to the milk of the cow, 
the excess of casein in which they are unable to digest ; and to these other 
articles are added, which are either indigestible or innutritions. Hence the 
Urge amount of sickness and mortality firom disordered stomach and bowels, 
and which are generally attributed to teething, to worms, and to any and 
every other cause but the true one, errors in diet, producing indigestion. 

In the last July number of the American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 
there is a clever article on "Natural and Artificial Lactation,*' by Dr. Gum- 
ming, a brief abstract of the concluding portion of which I am tempted to pub- 
lish, for the information of. young and doubting mothers. He says, and suf- 
fidently proves by physiological and chemical argument^ that nothing but 
milk can with propriety be used as the food for intuits ; and even this is apt to 
fiul, and to give rise to fintal maladies, unless it be made to correspond veiy 
closely in its constituent elements with human milk. 

Cow*s milk differs from human milk in some important particulars, as has 
been accurately ascertained by chemical analysis. It contains nearly three 
times as much casein as human milk, but somewhat less than twice as much 
butter ; while human milk contains nearly one-third more sugar, and a little 
more water than cow*s milk. Merely diluting cow's milk by adding water, 
with the addition of sugar, therefore, as is commonly done, will not fit it for 
easy digestion by the infant stomach. There will in this case always be an 
excess of casein, and a deficiency of butter. But the proportions are ma- 
terially changed by permitting the cow's milk to rest undisturbed until the 
lighter particles rise toward the surface ; and nearly the same results arc ob- 
tained by using only the milk last taken from the cow. 

Dr. Gumming proposes, therefore, to have cow's milk at rest for four or five 
hours, and then to remove the upper third part for use ; or to take only the 
latter half as furnished by the cow. He then advises us to add for a child not 
more than ten days old, two and a half parts of water, and one-fourth part of 
sugar. This combination gives almost the exact proportions of human milk 
at that early period of lactiition. The exact proportions given, are — Milk 1000 
— Water 2643 — Sugar 243. The sugar and water are decreased as the child 
grows older, until, at fiv« months, the proportions are : Milk 1000 — Water 1000 
— Sugar 104. And at eighteen months, the proportions arc: Milk 1000 — 
Water 500 — Sugar OH. The child should take this food at a temperature of 
100 to 104 degrees, and by suction, An eight-ounce vial, with a quill rolled 
in a long strip of Swiss muslin for a stopper, is the best arrangement for 
cleanliness and coiivenitnce. TiiJ)es having naiTow passages cannot be readily 


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150 How to render Qnu's Milk more suitable for Children. 

A child ten years old will take about thirty-two ounces daily, m eight 
meals of four ounces each ; and the meals should increase in quantity and di- 
minish in number, as the child grows older, so that at three months seven 
meals of eight ounces each may be taken. The milk should be given at regu- 
lar intervals, except that the child should be early accustomed to pass six to 
eight hours at night without feeding. This regularity of feeding, with proper 
intervals, is in accordance with a physiological law of digestion applicable to 
all persons, namely, that the stomach should have time AiUy to digest its food 
before other food is taken into it 

How to render Cow's Milk more suitable for Children. 


Dr. Gimiprecht prefiftces his observations by remarking upon the fact that 
milk often disagrees with children, producing indigestion, acidity, flatulence^ 
cholic, diarrhea, &c, &c. In consequence of this, it has been proposed to im- 
prove it by the addition of water and sugar of milk, which experience has 
proved to have imperfectly attained the object in view. Reflecting on the 
effect of salt in rendering the food for adults not only more palatable, but also 
more digestible, increasing the activity of the glands of digestion, and render- 
ing the albuminous substance and fat soluble in the fluids of the stomach. 
Dr. Gumprecht was led to the idea of adding salt to milk, both for weaned and 
older children, with the result of not only preventing the derangement of diges- 
tion, but moreover of removing them in cases where they previously existed. 
No author who has written on the nutriment of weaned children has spoken 
of this most useful addition to milk ; but a Dutch physician mentioned to Dr. 
Gumprecht, in conversation, that in his practice in Holland he had frequently 
added a little salt to milk for weaned children, with most satisfactory con- 

In the rural districts of Holland, salt is firequently added to the fodder for 
pigs and cattle, for tlie purpose of preventing diarrhea, which so often exists 
in consequence of iniperfect digestion, and this suggested the adding salt to 
milk, not merely for healthy children, but for strumous children and such as 
are affected with wormsC Dr. Gumprecht quotes a passage from L. Nuss- 
dorff*s "Lehrbuch der Gesundheitspflege," 1856, on the importance of salt in 
the nutriment of man and animals. 

With regard to the quantity of salt which should be added to the milk, it 
must depend on the age of the child. To render cow*s milk like human milk, 
it should be boiled and skimmed, and a little sugar of milk and salt added. — 
Journal fur KinderJcranlheiten, and Dublin HoBpital Qaz.y from Ranking*^ 
Abstract of Med. Sciences, 


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Airopia in Epilepsy, — Indian Hemp in Tetanus, 151 

Atropla in Epilepsy. 


Dr. Max Maresch ( WienzUchr^) physician to the Vienna Hospital for the 
Insane, gives a favorable opinion in regard to the efficacy of atropia in ^ilepsy. 
He was induced to make this therapeutic application of the alkaloid in conse- 
quence of the known effects of belladonna upon the vagus, accessorius, sy mpa- 
theticus and trigeminus. We are inclined to think that this application of the 
atropia was an original suggestion — an idea — ^not a deduction wrung from 
certain fixed facts as premises. 

M. M. prescribed the atropia in eighteen cases; three were completely 
cured, and thirteen much improved, the attacks being less frequent and violent. 

The one-fiftieth of a grain was given every morning before breakfast for a 
period of from sixty to . ninety days — an intermission of thirty to forty-five 
days allowed to the patient, and then the medicine again prescribed. It is im- 
portant that the patient use neither cofifee or cocoa, as the active principles of 
these counteract the physiological effects of the atropia. 

In the above dose the usual symptoms of belladonna were produced — the 
dryness of the fauces, difficulty of speaking, dilatation of the pupils, and, in 
three cases, a roseoloid exanthem. 

Tetanus Relieved with Ext. of Indian Hemp. 

{Cannahis Indica,) 

Mr. E. W. Skues relates {Eding, Med, Jour.^ April, 1858,) a case of this. 
The subject of it was a healthy girl at Honduras, nine years of age, who was 
suddenly seized, April 9th, 1857, with a rigidity of the right arm and leg, ac- 
companied by pain, particularly in the arm. When Mr. S. first saw her, both 
1^ and arm were stiff*, the hand flexed on the forearm, the knee semi- flexed, 
and the right foot turned inward; the pulse eighty, soft; the tongue white ; 
bowels open ; the countenance cheerful ; and there was no difficulty in opening 
the mouth. 

The history of the case was, that a month previously she fell and cut her 
right wrist on some broken glass, and the wound healed quickly, without any 
btd symptom ; that a few days previous to her illness she complained of pain 
in her back, but of no uneasinees in the cicatrix. 

There was an irregularly triangular cicatrix on the ulnar border of the right 
wrist, over the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris. 

A purgative was ordered, and the next day she was better. Little change 
occuired until the fifth day, when some difficulty of opening the mouth was 
observed ; and by the sixth day the symptoms were well marked. There 
were frequent attacks of opisthotonos; the pulse was rapid and weak; the 
countenance was indicative of distress ; and the mouth could only be partly 
opened with difficulty. 


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152 Mitorial 

In consultation with Dr. Young, the public medical officer of the settlement, 
who kindly &Yored me with his valuable advice and assistance, it was deter- 
mined to use Indian Hemp. 

The medicine was first given in quarter- grain, and afterwards in two-grain 
doses, repeated hourly until narcotism was induced. Strong soup, wine, and 
arrowroot were fireely given. 

The medicine produced marked relief and was used freely — ^the quantity 
given daily varying from four to eighteen grains, and the child was kept al- 
most constantly narcotized. The attacks of tetanic spasm became gradually 
less severe; and after twelve days the medicine was discontinued, and the 
child recovered perfectly — ^though, after all symptoms of the general disease 
had disappeared, some stiffness of the arm remained for eight or ten days. 

The medicine was given dissolved in spirit, each dose being mixed with 
water at the time of administration. It appeared to act as a direct sedative, 
creating very little excitement, and did not induce constipation. 


We commence in connection with the article upon Krameria, the publication 
of an analysis of the various articles of the materia medica, which we shall 
take up from month to month ; intending to pursue this general plan until 
those which have not been the subject of analysis are treated upon, and an 
analysis given. Wc regard this as one of the most important subjects to 
which we can direct our attention ; instructive and useful to our readers as 
well as ourselves, and essential to the formation of correct opinions in the se- 
lection and use of remedies from the great variety offered by our vegetable 
materia medica. We are aware that a work of this kind to be well done re- 
quires much labor and investigation, and no little responsibility ; if we can 
develope anything of practical utility to the profession we shall be amply re- 
warded. The principles by which these results are determined are exceed- 
ingly elaborate and detailed, if there is sought merely a knowledge of the 
general nature of the substance, and are satisfied by the application of certain 
tests, we obtain evidence of the presence of those elements of which a com- 
pound is made up, we perform what is termed a qualitive analysis ; but if 
we desire to ascertain the nature and actual amount of the elements of a plant 
by separating the constituents completely from each other, we perform what 
is termed a quantitive analysis, which is the most essential to a correct esti- 
mation and comparison of the properties of a plant 

Numerous and diversified as are the forms and properties of bodies of vege- 
table origin — and complex as in general their composition, they are neverthe- 
less made up of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon, and a large number contain 
nitrogen ; distinct compounds of these which exist, ready formed in plants 
are called the immediate or proximate principle, and determine its peculiar 
medicinal characteristics ; these are distributed over the entire plant, some- 


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EdUmial 168 

timos ccHdfined to a part, and in «oaie cases mixed with each a variety of other 
elements that distinct prooessios are required for its separation. * 

To determine the formula of the rmn^ which may found, by organic 
analysis, that they may be properly classified will be our aim particuku-ly, as 
they are oomparatiTely new bodies which have been little investigated and 
studied ; indeed the subject presents a wide field for study and investigatioo. 
The analysis of soils — ^plants grown upon particular soils — all the oireum- 
stances connected with the growth of plants^ and the formation of their peculiar 
principles — the discovery of substances pteviouidy neglected or unknown — 
the alleviation of disease by new remedies whkh may be placed at the com- 
mand of the physician — improved processes of combination^ invests the subject 
with more than usual interest and commends it to especial consideration. 

Hydbocyanatb of Ikon. — We have many letters of enquiry relative to the 
success of this remedy in epilepsy ; thus &r all the reports we have had of its 
use are very favorable, varying, of course, with the condition of the case, 
whether of long standing or not No one wil) be more pleased with this 
statement than Dr. McGugin, who was the first, we believe, to call the atten- 
tion of the profession to it and give it a thorough trial in his private practice. 
He writes us under date of March 30th, that a patient who is under treatment 
with the article states in a letter to him : ^4t is now nearly four months since 
I have had even a symptom of a paroxysm*" Also a physician writes him he 
is highly pleased with the results of its use in a few cases of epilepsy, now and 
for some time past under his care. 

Dr. Daniel Holmes, of Canton, Bradford Co. Pa., states that he commenced the 
use of the hydrocyanate of iron, as recommended by Dr. McGugin in a case 
of epilepsy, where the patient had not sat up for six months previous — ^had 
frequent severe spasms, and had been afflicted for six or seven years — had 
taken various remedies and been treated by a number of physicians; he placed 
her under the use of the hydrocyanate of iron, and has persisted in it twice a 
day for nearly three months. His patient has so far recovered as to leave the 
house and visit her neighbors. Another case — a lad fourteen or fifteen years 
of age, badly afflicted, had been longer without a paroxysm than at any pre- 
vious period. Hoping these cases may be permanent cure's, he promises us 
the particulars at another time. 

Dr. R. J. Hemstreet, of Poland, Herkimer Co. N. Y. writes that he has 
used the aqueous solution of extract of belladonna, one scruple to one ounce 
of water, as an anti-lactescent, as recommended in the previous numbers of this 
Journal ; the effect was beyond his most sanguine expectations. 

Illinois State Medical Society meets at Springfield, 1st Tuesday in June 

ScAMMONT — PoDOPHYLLiN. — A pFoccss has been patented in England by Dr. 
Williamson, for extracting the pure resin directly from the root Dr. A. B. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

154 Mitorial 

Garrod, Professor of Materia Medica at University College, has made it the- 
especial ebject'of experiment to test its comparative cathariic powers with the 
best commercial resin, and has made a report which is published in detail in 
the March number of the London PharmaceuticalJoumal, by which it appears • 
that the resin is produced mudi cheaper than if obtained from scammony, 
containing the largest p^ centage of resin, and that the cathartic energy is 
somewhat greater. It appears from the large number of trials made, that 
twelve grains administered to a person, in many cases would produce only one 
action ; in others the same dose would produce four of five actions. From 
eight to ten grains appears to be the average doses of the pure resin necessary 
to produce the usual number of actions of cathartics generally. 

The large doses requhred suggest with much force the substitution of podo- 
phyllin for scammony, both as a simple remedy and in all compound prepara- 
tions — ^the dose being from one-half to two grains, diminishing the bulk of the 
pill, and if economy is the point is much cheaper, producing as good an effect, 
a desideratum unquestionably much desired. 

Dr. Stabler in an essay upon podophyllin, in the transactions of the Amer. 
Pharmaceutic Association, says: — ^^That podophyllin may be advantageously 
substituted for extract of jalap in the compound cathartic pill of the pharma- 
copoeia, we have abundant evidence to believe. The object of that preparation 
was to combine smallness of bulk with efficiency and comparative mildness of 
purgative action, and a peculiar tendency to the biliary organs.^' 

Medical and Literary Weekly is the title of a weekly paper just issued by 
Drs. Taliaferro and Thomas, of Atlanta, GJa. The introduction of the literary 
with the medical is a new feature in the journals of the day, and we think a 
very good one. Such a journal will have a wide circulation, and much good 
will be done if the objects they have stated in their introduction are steadily 
pressed upon the consideration of the public. They announce as a particular 
feature, that they intend to expose the mystery and secrecy of quackery and 
give the people such information as will cause them to avoid the indiscriminate 
use of the worthless panaceas and nostrums so extensively advertised over the 
country ; every physician will commend this plan, and we hope the editors 
will give it their attention. 

Correction. — The editors of the Journal of Materia Medica, &c., have at- 
tributed an article on Ammonio Ferric Aliun to our pen, which is due to that 
of W. Hodgson, Jr., of Philadelphia. The error has arisen from the article in 
question having been inserted in the editorial department. — Ameri4san Jowr^ 
of Pharmady. 

Correspondents will oblige by writing plainly their names, town, county and- 
state. We have in several instances, been unable to answer letters because 
these arc omitted. 

Book of Formula — Eight pages of this work will be appended to each* 
number of the Journal hereafter. 

Subscribers will please notify us if they do not receive the Journal regukrly.- 


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Pharmacy. 155 

Pharmacy, &o. 


Dr. A. Vogel reoomjneDds the uee of benzol for the purpose of extracting 
caffein from the berries. This substance dissolves both the caffein and the oil 
contained in the berries, but when the solution is eraporated to dryness and 
the residue is mixed with hot water, the cafifein alone is dissolved, and, after 
the separation of the oil that floats on its surfiuse, may be obtained as fine 
crystals by evaporating the solution. 



This material was introduced by Dr. James McGhie, of the Olasgow Royal 
Infirmary, and has been used with success in hospital practice. The follow- 
ing is the mode of preparing it ^ 

Having secured a paper of good texture, the next desideratum is the fluid 
or varnish by which it is to be coated and waterproofed. This is made by re- 
boiling boiled linseed oil with htharge, acetate of lead, sulphate of zinc, and 
burnt umber, an ounce or two of each to the gallon of oiL No artificial heat 
is employed in drying. A square board is now procured, several inches 
broader than the size of the sheet to be prepared. Upon this the sheet is 
^iread, and well covered by means of a broad brush, with the mixture. The 
first sheet should be brushed on both sides. On this a second sheet is placed, 
slightly projecting over the first, at one end, in order to facilitate the lifting of 
the sheets when they are to be hung up to dry. This is also to be coated ^ 
with the mixture. This process is to be repeated till a mass of sheets, from. 
twenty to fifty in number, is prepared. The board is then to be carried to 
some unoccupied i^Mrtment, across whidi cords have been stretched, and the 
sheets are to be lifted seriatim^ and attached by one end to the cords by means 
of bent slips of zinc or tinned iron. A very small space is sufficient to hold a 
hundred sheets or more. After twenty-four hours or more, it is ready to be 
taken down. As the sheets are found to be liable to stick to one another, 
they may be dusted with French chalk, whidi prevents adhesion. The ad- 
dition of a little wax and turpentine renders the dusting or any other measure 
mmeoessary. There is only one part in the above process where any manipu- 
latory difficulty may at first be encountered, and that is in spreading evenly 
and expeditiously, the dry sheet on the oiled one. This is easily overcome by 
woridng the brush freely firom the centre to the circumference of the sheet 

The following are its more obvious advantages : — 

1. Its extreme cheapness does away with any inducement which might 
otherwise exist to employ the same piece more than once. A ream, or 480 
sheets of paper costs from 7s. 6d. to 10s., and a gallon <^ the prepared oil about 
88., so that each sheet costs a fhu^on of a half-penny. This does not include 
the cost of manu&cture, which would slightly increase the expense. 


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156 Plw/nnacy. 

2. Its transparency. — When applied over the dressings of a stump, or any 
•cut surface, when hemorrhage may bs fbared, the danger can be seen at once 

and obviated; 

3. Its lightness. — It adds littfc to the weight of dressings, and it can cause 
IHtle or no pressure on a tender surface. It is particularly useful in this 
respect for covering large burnt surfaces. 

4. Its extreme adaptability. — ^It can be supplied with great niceness to any 
part, so as to give rise to littie or no inconvenience. When applied in any 
particular way, it retains the form impressed upon it. 

5. It can be torn easily in any direction. In this respect it contrasts favora- 
bly with oiled silk and gutta percha. 

(5. It can bo made of any required strength by folding it one, two, three, or 
more times, without becoming inconveniently thick. 

7. It possesses a certain amount of adhesiveness^ which is increased by the 
heat of the body, and thereby more effectually prevents evaporation from wet 
•applic|tionfi. — Land. Pharm. Jour. 


A bottle has been recently patented in England, to obviate the frequent re- 
currence of accidental poisoning, which has of late years excited so much pain- 
ful attention in that country. 

The object sought to be obtained was a bottle which should present so 
marked and sensible a difference in appearance, touch and use, to those em- 
ployed for ordinary purposes, that the possibility of mistake would be avoided. 
The Lan€$t gives the following description of the bottle : — " In shape the bottles 
arc hexagonicnl, with deep flutings or grooves running lengthways along the 
bottles. To si^t and touch they instantaneously present most striking points 
of difference from any other kind of bottle. Vessels of this description, made 
in blue glass, are intended to be used for external applications only. For 
poisonous or powerful medicines, prepared or not from prescriptions, the doso 
of which is a tea^spoonful and under — bottles similarly shaped and fluted, in 
white glass, are proposed to bo employed. The bottles are provided with an 
■entirely new contrivance, the effect of which is to make it impossible to pour 
out the contents otherwise than very slowly and gradually — almost drop by 
drop. This is accomplished by the simple and inexpensive plan of contracting 
the neck ot the bottle at the lower part of the shoulders, and the mouth being 
of the usual size^ the process of filling is but slightly affected by the contracting. 
The very deliberate and cautious action thus produced, will, it is believed, de- 
ter any one from taking over doses of medidne ; while it is difficult to imagine 
a case in which any one could pour out and take the whole contents of one of 
these bottles in mistake for something else. 

To illustrate the manner in which the patent bottle acts in comparison with 
ordinary ones, it may be mentioned that not more than a tea-spoonful would 
come out of the one, in the same time that an onlinary phial would take to 
discharge its contents. A person being about to take a wrong medicine, say 


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Pharmacy. 16T 

laudanum, contained in a paUnt bottle, and proceeding to pour it would be 
struck by finding tbat in&tead of the whole draught having run into the wine 
glass at once as usual, merely a teaspoonful would have left the bottle. This 
would naturally lead to an examination of the label and consequent discovery 
of the dangerotts error. 

Although to employ a two ounce bottle would tire the hand and arm of the 
holder, yet when only the proper dose is sought to bo withdrawn, the patience 
is not taxed in the slightest degree." — Med. and Surg, Reporter. 



By if. Carrie^ Pharmacein of Paris. 

The potassio-tarirate of iron being incapable of preservation in aqueous^ 
solution, on account of its tendency to rapid decomposition. M. Carrie, a. 
pharmacicn in Paris, has conceived the idea of insiunng its solubility, and par- 
tieulariy of preserving it, by the addition of ammonia, liie following is tho^ 
mode of preparation recommended by the author : — 

Take sixteen ounces of bi tartrate of potash ; dissolve one-half in three quarts; 
of warm distilled water ; saturate this solution with pure sesquicarbonate of 
ammonia; add the remainder of the bi tartrate; ndse to a moderate hoat^ ad- 
ding by degrees, and to exoess, recently precipitated and still moist peroxide 
of iron; afterwards filter, to separate the uncombined oxide; evaporate at the 
heat of a water-hath, until the cold liquor marks seven degrees on the sacchar- 
ometer ; add a few drops of liquid ammonia ; shake ; allow it tf deposit during; 
twenty-four hours ; filter again, and preserve for use. 

The preparation of tartrate of potash, ammonia, and peroxide of iron thu» 
obtained, is, according to M. Carrie, a liquid of an agreeable taste, possessing 
a reddish brown color, keeping for an indefinite period, tod containing one 
part of iron in nine of water. — Bui, Gen. de Thera, 15th July, 1858, p. 28,, 
and Dublin Hospital Gazette. 


N. Hynson Jennings {Journal of Maryland College of Pharmaey^) prepares 
a pla&ter of hard cerate of arnica, in the following way :— >Take of arnica 
flowers, four ounces ; olive oil, six ounces ; beeswax, ten ounces ; diluted alco- 
hol, sulph. ether, of each a sufBcient quantity.. Ha/fing reduced the flowers to 
a tolerably fine powder, moisten with diluted alcohol, and pack firmly in a 
glass funnel ; exhaust, and by means of a water bath, evaporate to about five 
fluid ounces, and mix with the oil and wax, previously heated togethor ; then 
bofi over a slow fire till all moisture is dissipated, and lastly steain. A little 
ether is required to dissolve the resin deposited on the sides of a porcelain dish. 

He states that it has been found to affi>rd great relief in tenderness of the 
feet, produced by exposure to intense cold. — Peninsular Journal, 


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J. W. N0BCB0S8 & CO. 


ItnparUrt qf 

£unor£/is FAtitcv ooops 


Fiue Toilet Articles, 




A ML fUMrtamit of ArtielM in this Use, 
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Oar long experience in erery department of 
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who is In lorope mdoh of the time, enable os to 
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The trade are respeetlnUj incited to examine 
our stock before making purchases. 


Successor to Baj k Baldwin, 


Drugs, Medlelnes, Chemicals, 




A complete and tnH. assortment of Tilmh's oele- 


FMd and SoUd SmtraeU, CkmemUraUd Pr*^ 

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Orders from Merchants, Phjsldans, and others 

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Chemists k Class Nanvfactirers, 

Ko. 188 ABCH 8IBXBT, Phfladftlphla, 
Manufacturers of Bi-OAKBOMAra or Soda, Soda- 
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pectfully solicit orders, with the assurance that 
all articles manufaotured by us will be of stand- 
ard quality. 

Tarrant's Effervescent 
Seltzer Aperient. 

This yaluable and popular medldne, pr^ared 
In conformity with the analysis of the water of the 
celebrated seltser spring in Germany, in a moat 
conyenient and portable form, has nniyersalliy 
received the most favorable recommendations of 
the medical profession and a discerning public, as 
the most efficient and agreeable Saline Aperient 
in use. and as being enUtled to special preference 
over the many mueral spring waters, seidlita 
powders, and other similar articles, both fkrom Its 
compactness and greater efficacy. It may be 
used with the best effect in all BOious and Febrile 
diseases, sick Headache, Loss of Appetite, Indi- 
gestion, and all similar complaints, peculiarly In- 
cident to the spring and summer seasons. 

It Li particuiariy adapted to the wants of trarel- 
ers, by sea and land, residents in hot dimatas, 
persons of sedentanr habits, invalids and conra- 
lescents, captains of vessels and planters will find 
it a valuable addition to their medicine cheats. 
With those who have used it, it has high fSTor, 
and is deemed Indispensable 

In a torpid tUOe qf the Meer it renders praaft 
service in restoring healthy action. In gout and 
rhtumaUmn It gives the best satisfaction, allay- 
ing all inflammatory symptoms, and in manj 
cases effectually curinc those afBlcted. Jtt avo- 
OMS iti oa9t8 e/grctvUt indigutUm^ h^arUmn^ 
and oosWre w sss proves It to be a medicine of tha 
greatest utUitT. Aoidilff«^t/Uttomaoli,andth4 
dMru9ingHoins9i9oui%tal during prtffnanejf 
yields speedily and with marked suocess imder na 
healthftU influence. ItqfbrdstksgreaUitrelisf 
to thoM aJUeted vUh, or mO^oet to tko JHioa^ 
acting gently on the bowels, neutralising all Ini- 
tating secretions, and thereby renmvlng all in- 
flammatory tendencies. In fact, it is InvaluaM* 
in all cases where a gentle iH>erient or pnrgatlTa 
is required. 

It is in the form of a powder, eareftaUy put up 
In bottles, to keep in any climate, and merely re- 
quires water poured upon It to produce a deUghi- 
txd effervescent beverage. 

Taken in the morning, it never interferes wHh 
the fi^---.** T- -f tTie (lay, acting gently on tha 
Bj'Ai'Ui, Tt^iunng ihth di^eitlv« j^o^crs, escltlQ^ ^ 
henkhy A&4 vt^ormu tooifi oT ibe frtamadht and 
cr^-iitlDg 4D eliisiidty of mlmd end Q^3tt of spMla 
wlil.'h iJTe *tBi lo uTtfy tojoyonjijt, I| also as^ 
Abli'» the InrnUd to Qn^oftnuas ltiicarl»ft wttb Im- 
puiiltj, ft-Ciia which bt! inujl othenrUe b« det}ai> 
reel, 1,11 d wiih<}ii< whldi Uf'c^ ii irksome and dls- 

N'qjotroi^ tcstliDoaliiifl ttom profesitonal and 
f^iher £^nL]erai!& of Uhf Mfh ^t ^ttftDdng tbrougbout 
till! coaatry I Had Jta lieadliy ider^faslcif popularity 
f.vr & eedi» of f ti&rs, tstrofiK^y jniaJ^^nret iu efflca- 
Qj and TuIuBtr})^ ebaritiCttirt hwX CDimmend It to 
the fELvor^iblis ["dU^:^ of aa lidticfJiigeut pul^Uc 

Tarrant's C«Bpeu4 Extract ef 
Cttkete aii4 Copalka, 

Sanctioned by popular opinion and hi^ anthoiHy 
of the most distinguished of the me<ttcal fkcuHy. 
It offers to the aiBleted a remedy, whose W iceesi 
has in every Imttance supported Its deserved 
reputation. Being oonvenient and agraeabla Ib 
Its use, experience has proved that it retains In 
every clfanate its desirable and truly yaluahla 
character. It is in the form of a paste, is tsstel es i . 
and does not impair the Agestion. It Is prepared 
with the greatest possible care, upon welHestad 


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lew] JUNE, 1859. [Serief. 

Farther Remarks on- Indigenous Astringent Plants. 



We liave seen that tannic and gallic acids are the chief as- 
tringent principles pontained in plants; and it may, perhaps, be 
safely assumed that these acids, in an isolated form, are capable 
of ftifilling the purely astringent indication with greater prompt- 
ness, cerUunty and success, than the crude articles containing them 
in any of their forms of exhibition. Being more concentrated, 
ihey may be given in smaller doses, and are, therefore, less liable 
to derange the digestive organs. As they are more readily ab- 
sorbed, they are, consequently, more speedy in their action. 
Moreover, they are less unpleasant to the taste, and being freed 
from other matters which might modify their effects, greater re- 
liance can be placed on their fulfilling the astringent indication. 
We are not, however, to suppose that these agents used alone, 
can produce all the therapeutic effects attainable by the employ- 
ment of other preparations of the plants containing them, or, in 
whicb they predominate, as the solid or fluid extracts. This 
might be expected, from the fact that they are often associated 
with other important principles, as rhvharharic acid in rhubarb, 
oounteractong the astringency and rendering it cathartic ; a tonic 
principle in cinchona, gentian, comus, wild cherry, &c. As a 
well-known example of this modifying power we may instance 
the combination of tannic acid with quinia; a small quantity of 


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162 Lee on Indigenous Plants, 

the former adding greatly to the antiperiodic power of this alka- 
loid. In most cases of atonic hemorrhage, whether uterine, gas- 
tric, pulmonary or cistic, pure tannic or gallic acid will accom- 
plish all that is desired ; but in cases of great relaxation of the 
tissues, with debility of the digestive organs, consequent on pro- 
tracted illness, or the result of diminished nervous energy, and 
especially if complicated with proftise serous, cutaneous or mu- 
cous discharges, a judicious combination of tonic, astringent, and 
in some cases, laxative principles, will best meet the exigencies of 
the case. As a general rule, then, it will probably be found that 
the extracts of astringent plants, prepared in vacuo, combining, 
as they do*, astringent, tonic, laxative, or other important princi- 
ples are best adapted to a majority of cases — perhaps, all, except 
where the purely astringent influence is wanted. Most of the 
valuable tonic barks and roots contain a greater or less quantity 
of tannic and gallic acids, which, doubtless, greatly add to their 
efficacy. These natural combinations may be imitated, but they 
cannot often be improved by art. Though the isolation of the active 
proximate principles of plants has, in several instances, been at- 
tended with strikingly beneficial results ; it may well be doubted 
whether the practice has not been carried, in some instances, too 
far ; and whether greater curative power would not be exerted 
by such preparations as contain all the active principles of the 
plant separated from inert matters. Conceding much that is 
claimed for the vegetable alkaloids, acids, fixed and essential oils, 

NoTB. — ^It is now generally conceded that the alkaloids of barks (quinia, cinchona^ 
eta,) are not the only constituents which give these barks their medicinal properties, 
hut that their antiperiodic power depends, in part, on other ingredients, and especially 
upon the combination in which the alkaloids are found in the natural state of the bark. 
In consequence of this fact Mr. Donovan, of Dublin, introduced, a few years sinoe, an 
improved ayrup of har\ obtained by repeated percolations with proof spirits and sub- 
sequent concentration by evaporation, and the addition of refined sugar. The fluid 
extract of harkj prepared in vacuo, is however, a superior preparation, as it contains 
all the virtues of this important drug in a state of perfect jureservation, and it, more- 
over presents tlie active ^lg^edient6 .exactly in their natural state, which is essential, 
when we require its antiperiodio effect. The evaporation being conducted in vacuo, 
the proximate principles have undergone no change whatever; we have found it suit- 
ed to many cases where quinine seemed to disagree or to fail of the desired effect A 
good plan to exhibit it^ is to combine it with some aromatic, as fennel or anise, which 
perfectly mask the bitterness of quinine, and simple syrup. Cinnamon water with 
lemon syrup are ako good vehicles. ^ 


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Lee en Indigerums PJants. 168 

resins, kc.j when given uncombined, we must still maintain that 
equal if not greater advantages may often be obtained by combi* 
nation ; for as Paine has well observed, if we enter nature's la- 
boratory and examine her prescriptions, we shall soon be satisfied 
that several of her more potent remedies do not owe their valuable 
powers to any one specific ingredient, but to the combined or 
modified energies of various, and sometimes opposite principles. 
We see this truth well illustrated in the various articles usually 
ranked in the class of tonics ; beginning with those that are 
simply bitter, we proceed through different species combining 
aromatic properties with bitterness, till we reach a third class, 
which add to these the prineiple of astringency, as in cinchona^ 
cinnamon, wild cherry, the tulip tree, kc. Thus, by adding a 
small quantity of tannin and some aromatic, as cinnamon or 
cloves to quinine, we add much to its efficacy ; opium will check 
diarrhea and mucous discharges, procure sleep and excite p^spi- 
ration, when morphia would fail to produce these effects; and if 
all the virtues of this drug were contained in its morphia, it 
ought to have ten times the power which it is known to possess. 
The great superiority of the hop in the manufacture of malt 
liquors, consists in its combining aromatic, tonic, and astringent 
properties. The union of tonic and astringent powers in the 
rhubarb has been already alluded to; we might also refer to the 
sedative and cathartic virtues in colchicum ; and to that perfect 
alimentary compound — ^milk, combining the four great staminal 
principles of nutrition, viz: water, sugar, albumen and oiL We 
do not pretend to question the advantages of correct analyses of 
the compound productions of nature, for it is obviously from a 
knowledge of their respective elements, and from a study of the 
influence which each exerts in the combination, that we may ex- 
pect to derive important aid in improving the arrangements of 
art ; while art in return may thus be enabled to modify and 
adapt to particular purposes the products of nature. 

In regard to the action of astringents, varied and multiplied ex- 
periments have ftdly established the benefits resulting from their 
combination with other agents. With tonicsj in senile cough and 
humoral asthma, as sulphate of zinc with quinine ; or passive he- 
morrhage, where the haetoorhagic diathesis is to be corrected, 
while die bleeding vessels are constricted ; with diaphoretics^ where 


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164 Lee on Indigenous Plants. 

it is necessary to relax the cutaneous vessels, while we astringe 
those of the intestinal canal ; with antacidsj where we wish to 
neutralize acids, and at the same time check the abdominal secre- 
tions, as by the pulvis creioe compositus; with narcotics, where 
diarrhea is dependent on, or associated with acrid fluids in the 
intestines ; wheti we allay irritability by a narcotic^ restrain the 
inordinate secretion by an astringent, and neutralize the acrid and 
acid matters by an absorbent These instances will suffice to 
show the advantages 'arising from a combination of astringent 
with other virtues in the same prescription ; and these we have 
in a great variety of forms, naturally existing in the same plant 
Indeed, a careful examination of our indigenous astringent vege- 
tables will result in the conviction that no two of them possess 
the same identical properties, but that each has qualities peculiar 
to itself and that these depend on other principles variously as- 
sociated in the same substance, by which the astringent effect is 
differently modified, so that although the several virtues act as a 
whole, that which is most predominant gives the greatest determi- 
nation to the nature of the impression that may be produced. 
Even no two species of the same genus have precisely similar 
properties; each has a range of application peculiar to itself. 
This is well illustrated in the different species of rhus, comus, 
salix, Tubus, trillium, erigeron, quercus, ulmus, &c.; some of the 
species of which differ more widely in regard to their physiological 
and therapeutical properties than many genera. It is this variety 
which adapts these agents to so many different pathological con- 
ditions; and the &ct that each species has specific powers best 
adapted to certain forms of morbid action, justifies more extended 
trials and experiments than have hitherto been made. The idea 
then, of substituting tannin or gallic acid in place of the extracts 
of these different plants is neither founded in just and correct 
theory, nor accurate clinical observation. 

When we speak of tannic acid, we refer, of course, to that va- 
riety obtained fix)m gall-nuts and oak bark, and which precipi- 
tates the sesquisalts of iron of a bluish black color. In these it is 
associated with gallic acid ; but the other varieties of tannin, such 
as are found for example, in kino, catechu, cinchona, and rhatany 
are not associated with it, except in minute quantities. Nor are 
iheir infusions converted into it on standing, or exposure to at- 


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Lee on Indigenous Plants. 166 

moepheric air, while they precipitate the salts of iron of a green- 
ish black or greyish black color. Indeed, the varieties of tannin 
are so nnmerous, that it has been supposed by some chemists to 
be merely an association of resinous matters with an acid--often 
the gallic, which is supposed to render them soluble in water. 
What lends some probability to this view is, that it has hitherto 
been foimd impossible to obtain tannin &ee &om acid, and more- 
over by treating any resin or charcoal with nitric acid, or by act- 
ing on camphor, the resins or some of the gum resins by sul- 
phuric acid, an artificial tannin may be obtained, possessing all 
the properties of the tannin of gall-nuts or oak bark. Besides^ 
the presence of the acid employed in its preparation may always 
be detected in artificial tannin, as long as it retains its character- 
istic property. Supposing, then, that tannin is essentially nothing 
more than a mixture of some acid with a resinous substance, it 
must not only partake of the specific properties of each of its 
elements, but it may also contain either bases or other foreign 
substances, which will give it accessory characters, in addition to 
those that are essential to it Thus the acid combinations of 'the 
tannin of cinchona bark are more soluble in water than- those of 
the tannin of oak ; the tannin of catechu is less soluble in ether 
than that of cinchona ; the tannin of kino is red, and very little 
soluble in cold water, insoluble in ether, and gives no precipitate 
with carbonate of potash or tartrate of antimony and potash ; the 
tannin of the gall-nut is insoluble in alcohol; as, then, these sub- 
stances differ in so many important respects, it has been suggested 
that they should be distinguished from the tannic acid of gall- 
nuts and oak bark by designative epithets derived from the medi- 
cine. Thus, that variety obtained from kino may be called JcinO'. 
tannic^ or kinoic acid ; that fix)m catechu, catechu-tannic, or caiechuic 
acid; that from rhatany, krameric acid; from cinchona bark, 
cinchonatannic acid, &c. Were such a nomenclature adopted, it 
would evidently lead to more definite ideas regarding the nature 
and proper use of this class of substances. 

One feet in regard to the chemical history of tannin is too often 
lost sight of by the practitioner, namely, that though it possesses 
acid properties, it is precipitated by various acids, such as the 
muriatic, nitric, phosphoric, and arsenious, as its solution produces 
with the salts of all vegetable alkaloids— insoluble precipates — 


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166 Lee on Indigenous Plants. 

tannates of the organic bases thrown down — it may often be em* 
ployed with advantage in cases of poisoning by alkaloids, and 
especially by the tartrate of antimony and potassa. It must, 
however, be recollected that owing to the frequent presence of 
hydrochloric or other acids in the stomach, a solution of tannin 
can never be regarded as a perfectly reliable antidote. 

Gallic acid has recently been extensively employed in the place 
of tannin, in all cases of internal administration where a pure as- 
tringent indication was present. Prof. Simpson was one of the 
first to employ it in cases of uterine hemorrhage, and finding it 
more efficacious than tannin, it was inferred that it might prove 
equally successful in other forms of hemorrhage. Nimierous trials 
have tended to sustain this conclusion. It has long been known that 
the two substances yield the same set of products when submitted 
to destructive distillation, and the researches of Braconnot go to 
prove that tannin is a compound acid, composed of gallic acid in 
combination with the elements of grape sugar ; three atoms of 
tannic acid being equivalent to six atoms of gallic acid and one 
of grape sugar. When its solution is taken into the system, or 
heated in the open air, the elements of grape sugar are oxydized 
into carbonic acid and water, and gallic acid is set free ; and in 
this manner it has been supposed that gallic acid passes out of the 
blood into the secretions and exerts an astringent action at distant 
parts of the system. Headland remarks that as tannic acid loses 
weight by the decomposition, it follows that a dose of gallic acid 
produces a greater effect as a medicine than an equal amount of 
the former. We might also refer to the experiments of M. Pelletier, 
who found that a mixture of a solution of gallic acid with one of 
gum precipitates albumen, though neither of them affects it 
separately. But as gum has the same composition as grape sugar, 
and the latter is continually forming in the blood. Headland 
thinks it probable that gallic acid may act along with this sacchar- 
ine matter in the circulating fiuids, and thus acc[uire an astringent 
power, which it has not when employed extemallyi as the sac- 
charine matter is required in the system for special purposes, the 
gallic acid passes out into the secretions alone. It is probable 
that tannic acid, if absorbed as such, of which some physiologists 
have doubted, is not decomposed, or changed into gallic or pyro- 
gallic acids until it is about to be separated from the blood by 


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Chadboume on Ckdtivaiton of Medicinal Plants. 167 

glandular action. This, however, is a point which requires fur- 
ther examination. If tannin is converted into gallic acid by oxi- 
dation, immediately on its absorption, it is difficult to explain its 
astringent action on chemical principles; and on the other hand 
if gallic acid is instantly converted into tannic acid on its intro- 
duction into the blood, by the presence of grape sugar it will not 
be easy to explain why it should prove more efficacious as an 
astringent than the latter. The following formula, however, shows 
how the elements of tannic acid may be constructed out of those 
of gallic acid and grape sugar : — 

Tannic ocia.— C." H.« 0J'+2 aq. 
QaUic acid.—C: H 0.'+2 aq. 

Three equivalents of anhydrous tannic acid amount to six of 
gallic add and one of grape sugar. 

8 (C." tt* 0.»^— 6 (C H O.O +C." H." 0." 

It is very easy to construct theoretic formula, to explain aU the 
changes which food or medicine may be supposed to undergo in 
the himian body ; but whether they actually do occur or not, 
must always remain rather a matter of surmise and assumption, 
than of demonstration. But) however, the modus operandi may 
be, the fact is now generally admitted by practitioners that gallic 
acid is &r more efficient as an internal astringent than tannic acid, 
while the latter only, possesses styptic properties. 

Fro£ Chadboume on Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 

Messrs. Editobs. — ^I submit the following letter from Pro£ 
Chadboume, of William's College, on a subject which I lately 
discussed in your pages, viz., the " influence of cultivation, climate, 
soil, &C., on medicinal plants," which you will oblige your read- 
ers, probably, by laying before them. You will notice that he 
substantially confirms the views then presented; though, with 
myself, he considers that much remains to be settled by further 
experiments. Many facts come to my knowledge since the 
article referred to was written, all going to prove that proper cul* 
tiyation, in all cases, increases the medicinal properties of plants; 
that is, of those whose development is compatible with the climate, 
and this embraces, probably, nine-tenths, if not a larger propor- 


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168 Ohadboume on Cultivation of Medicinal Plants, 

tion, if we include the whole extent of the United States, There 
is every probability that senna, liquorice, rhubarb, buch\i, opium, 
sarsaparilla, manna, arrowroot, jalap, scammony, colocynth, &c., 
may be produced in our southern, middle, and some of them in our 
northern states, and of as good quality as is now obtained from 
foreign sources. I shall feel obliged to any of your correspond- 
ents, for facts in regard to this subject Charles A. Lek. 

• "BowDOiN OoLLEGB, February 22, 1869. 

** My answer respecUng the effect of cultivation on medicinal plants must be 
very brief on account of press of labors. I know of nothing in th« history of 
cultivated plants justifying that sweeping generalization which some have 
made; that cultivation alway$ injures the value of plants for medicinal pur- 
poses, by decreasing the amount of active principle. That this is true of soms 
plants is well known; and that change of climate affects the amount of 
active principle is also well known. But what will be the result in a given 
case, must be decided by actual experiment I know some consider it very 
unphilosophical to bring the consideration of *** final causes'" into any 
scientific discussion ; but they have, nevertheless, been of great advantage, 
and it seems to me they may well be considered in connection with the history 
of cultivated plants. 

** Plants have been changed, but in what different directions ? Take the 
apple and rose— two plants belonging to the same natural order. Cultivation 
has changed ihej¥uit of the apple, causing it to break up into untold forms — 
with almost every possible tint and flavor ; no important change has been 
produced in its flower. The rose, on the other hand, becomes more beautifiil 
as a flower. In the apple the original idea seems to have been utility in its 
firuit In the rose, on the other hand, the beauty of the flower seems the main 
design of its creation. So fixed and so well understood are these two charac- 
teristics that no one expects any change from cultivation in these two plants, 
except improvement of firuit in the apple and of flower in the rose. 

The potato and tomato plants of the same genus, might also be cited. No 
one expects by cultivation to cause the tomato to produce underground stems 
like potatoes, nor does he expect to cause the potato balls to develope into 
edible fruit like the tomatoes, though they correspond exactly in their relation 
to the plant The potato improves in one direction — the tomato in another — 
each, as it seems to me, according to the leading idea in the* creation of the 
plant Examples might be multiplied to any extent If this be a true princi- 
ple we might expect that medicinal plants would be improved sometimes by 
cultivation, unless we adopt the notion that there is no plant in which the 
healing property is the leading idea. There is very great difference in plants, 
in their readiness to change by cultivation, and there is very much yet to be 
learned respecting the conditions under which the active principle of plants is 
increased or diminished. 


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Sanionine. 169 

But I think we know enough to saj that cultivation does not necessarily de- 
tretae the quantity, but on the other hand, it may be increased. And this 
must be determined by eicpcriment on each plants in each new place and under 
each new condition of cultivation. This is the only philosophical course. And 
it is a subject of very great scientific as well as pecuniary interest Climate 
<annot be controlled and that will limit the home of some species, but all else 
iseems resolved into methods of cultivation^ and there seems no reason to sup- 
pose that there may not be methods of cultivating successfully, medicinal, as 
well as nuirfUve plants. Very truly yeurs, 

P. A. Cmadbourne.** 



{Artemisia Santontca.) 

Santonine is prepared from the artemisia santonica or worm- 
seed, whicli does not consist of seeds, but of small globular, unex- 
panded flowers of the plant, mixed with broken peduncles 4nd 
minute obtuse smooth leaves with greenish appearance, of strong 
aromatic odor increased by friction, and disagreeable taste. The 
plant is abundant in the Levant, and is much used as a vermifuge 
in those countries, and in many parts of Europe. 

From ten to thirty grains were generally given in substance, 
mixed with sugar or milk ; the dose being repeated at short in- 
tervals and followed by a purgative. The eflfects as might be 
expected were uncertain, but the evident power of the herb led 
to an investigation of the nature of its active principle ; a resinous 
extract and an essential oil were obtained, but subsequently a 
eaU^ which is the principle now mostly employed as a vermifuge. 

It was discovered and described by Kahler and Alms, and sub- 
sequently carefully investigated by OberdorfiTer, and especially by 
Trommsdorff the younger. It was seperated by Kahler, in 1880. 

Methods of Preparation. — The process of M. M. Kochler was to 
treat the seed by sulphuric ether, and distill off the ether to 
obtain crystals; these were purified by solution in alcohol, to 
which a little hydrochloric acid had been added. 

That of Merck consists of submitting the seed to the action of 
hydrate of lime and alcohol. Evaporating the tincture to one- 
fourth ; filter to separate the resin, and treating it while hot with 
concentrated acetic acid. The santonine is deposited in crystals 
on cooling ; it is purified by boiling it several times with alcohol 
and animal charcoal. 


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170 Santonine. 

M. A. Guillemette macerates the seeds in cold water six hours; 
expresses; pulverizes the cake; macerates again for eight^a 
hours in cold water and expresses. The mass having been dried 
and pulverized is digested in alcohol pf 89° for twenty-four hours^ 
and expressed; this process is repeated until the seeds are 
exhausted. The alcoholic solutions are mixed and evaporated to 
three hundred and fifty grammes which is set aside to crystalize, 
and are purified by alcohol and charcoal. 

M. Lecocq reduces one part of seied to coarse powder, and boila 
for fifteen minutes with ten parts of water, after which a sufficient 
quantity of slacked lime is added to render the liquor slightly 
alkaline ; it is again boiled for ten minutes, strained and pressed, 
if the seed is not sufficiently exhausted, which may be ascertained 
by ^he hot pungent taste of the seed ; it is again boiled with five 
quarts of water and a little slacked lime, strained and pressed ; the 
united liquors are evaporated to the weight of the seed employed^ 
placed in an earthen pot, allowed to cool, and then treated with 
an excess of hydrochloric acid. A fatty, resinous matter instant- 
ly separates in thick flakes* wiich float, while the santonine is 
precipitated as an impalatable powder. Strain to separate the 
resinous matter ; allow a days repose ; the impure santonine is. 
deposited ; to purify this it is put into a porcelain capsule with 
two quarts of distilled water and boiled ; fifty or sixty grammes 
of pulverized quick lime is added and the combination is effected 
in a short -time. The liquor is filtered and decolorized by animal 
charcoal, and then treated by hydrochloric acid, which imme- 
diately precipitates the santonine; collect; wash well and dry 
in a dark room. 

The difficulty experienced in procuring pure santonine, and on 
account of its high price induced M. Gtiffard to endeavor to ob- 
tain from wormseed a product which may possess the advantages 
of the santonine, and at the same time ^ free from the objections 
to the crude article. He calls his the brown or impure santonine ; 
his process is : — 

Aleppo Wormseed, - - - - - 8 Ounces. 

Carbonate of Potash, 1 " 

Slacked Lime, sifted, - - - . . ^ ." 

Water, 8 to 8i Pints. 


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Sanionine, 171 

Boil the mixture for an hour; express through a linen cloth ; settle, decant 
and add hydrochloric or nitric acid until it reddens litmus paper, without bein^ 
BOisibly acid to the tongue ; allow it to rest ; pass it through a filter ; allow 
the product which remains on the filter to dry in the open air until it acquires 
the consistence of firm butter. This product is a mixture of santonine, resin^ 
and essential oil, and answers for many of the forms in which practiticmers 
wish to exhibit it 

The chemical properties of this substance are somewhat re- 
markable. According to M. Merck pure santonine is in brilliant, 
colorless elongated quadrilateral prisms, inodorous and tasteless. 

"Santonii\e is in brilliant, colorless prisms, without taste or 
smell ; when exposed to the rajs of the sun it becomes yellow ; 
is soluble in alcohol, and its solution, which is at first yellow, 
soon loses its color and furnishes the santonine as at first. 

" When it is heated in a platina crucible it melts, and volatilises 
without being decomposed. The diluted acids have little action 
upon it ; and although it is not acid, it forms real salts with alka- 
line and other bases, which salts are crystalizable, as those of lime, 
barytes and lead. These combinations take place with very re- 
markable phenomena. When a mixture of quick-lime, water, 
santonine and alcohol is heated, the fluid at first assumes a beauti- 
ful red color ; on cooling, the calcareous salt crystalizes in needles 
of a silky appearance, losing its color from above downwards and 
at kst becomes perfectly white. To purify this salt, it is to be 
dissolved in warm water, and the excess of lime precipitated by 
a current of carbonic acid gas. The calcareous combination is 
not decomposed by the carbonic acid, whilst that of lead is de- 
stroyed by mere exposure to the air. 

" The red color is also produced when santonine is heated with 
barytes, ammonia, strontian, soda or potash, but only if alcohol 
be added; otherwise although the combinations are perfectly 
formed, they remain of a pure white. 

When santonine, changed to a yellow by the effect of the sun's 
rays, is used in making these basic salts, the products are as white 
as if white santonine be used, but during the evaporation a yellow 
color is observed which disappears on cooling like the red tint 
spoken of above. 

M. Liebig has not yet determined the atomic weight of the 
calcareous combination of santonine, but an analysis of it has fur- 
nished him with the following results : — 


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172 SanUmine, 

Carbon, --..-. 70.609 

Hydrogen, 7.466 

Oxygen, 22.025 


Wachenroder found in the Levant wonnseed : — 

Volatile Oil, 00.39 

Bitter matter, 20.25 

Resinous bitter substance, - . . 04.45 

Green Resin, 06.05 

Cerin, 00.85 

Gummy extractiye, 15.50 

Ubnin, 08.60 

Malate of lime with trace of Silica^ - 00.02 

Woody fibre, 85.45 

Earthy matter, 06.70 

Subsequent analysis has given to Santonine the formula — 
€/• H.« 0.« 

According to M. Calloud santonine is a specific poison for in- 
testinal worms. He administered it to hundreds of infants with 
results that exceeded his expectations, and several physicians to 
whom he distributed it obtained similar results. 

M. Mialhe says : — " Santonine constitutes without doubt a medi- 
<5al agent destined to render most important services; being 
nearly insipid, it will be generally preferred to the volatile oil of 
semen contra^ the bitterness of which is such that few infents can 
bear it ; but it may be said, since this stearopten has no decided 
iaste, since it is scarcely soluble in water, how is it possible that 
it can possess a so decided deleterious action on these parisites? 
Nothing is so easy as to answer this question. Santonine, it is 
true, is nearly insoluble in water, but it becomes soluble in every 
proportion in the presence of an alkali. The. liquid contained in 
the portion of the intestinal canal in which the parisites in ques- 
tion ordinarily occur, has a very distinct alkaline reaction ; it has 
therefore, the power of rendering this substance soluble, and con- 
sequently active. I may, moreover, observe, that the property 
which santonine possesses of being soluble and absorbable only in 
the inferior portion of the alimentary canal, renders its efficacious- 
ness more certain. In fact, every good anthelmintic agent must 
necessarily belong to the class of bodies which are little or not at 


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Santonine. 178 

all absorbable in the stomach. Why, for instance, do a few centi- 
grammes of calomel constitute a yermifuge far more certain in its 
eflfects than a quantity of corrosive sublimate, equal to that which 
would result jQrom the partial transformation of the protochloride 
of mercury into the bichloridie, imder the influence of the alka- 
line chlorides contamed in our secretions? It is because a weak 
dose of corrosive sublimate, administered as such, is absorbed in 
the prtnwe vice, while the partial transformation of the calomel into 
sublimate takes place throughout the whole extent of the di- 
gestive canal, which enables the poison to attain the intestinal 
worms in whatever portion o#the canal they may be situated." 

Dr. Wells, surgeon of the Eoyal Navy says: " The experience 
of medical men with whom I have conversed, and my own obser- 
vation, have convinced me that this salt woidd be a most valuable 
addition to our pharmacopoeia. Many think its effects more cer- 
tain upon lumbrid than upon taenia, but I have found it equally 
efficacious in both. The dose for an adult is from five to eight 
grains, and for a child from two to four, given as a powder in 
sugar or preserve, at bed-time, and washed down by a glass of 
water. In many cases the worms are passed on the following 
morning, but not unfrequently. it is necessary to give a second 
dose on the succeeding evening. I have not yet found more than, 
the second dose required. In Corfii it is usual to combine the 
santonine with a moderate dose of calomel, and to follow it up by 
a saline aperient; but I have not done so, as I thought the trials 
of the real power of the salt itself would thus become less satis- 
fectory. Very little griping is produced, and the worms are 
passed dead. If the dose exceed five grains in an adult, a curious, 
effect upon the retina is produced — the patient, for an hour or 
more, occasionally seeing all objects tinted green or yellow, as 
though he was looking through colored spectacles. No visible 
change in the eye can be detected in such cases. In two persons 
I have seen the urine very highly colored for a few hours. The 
men to whom I administered it were strong seamen or marines, 
and some of them, who had previously taken turpentine on dif- 
ferent occasions, said they thought the new medicine equally or 
more effectual, far less unpleasant to take, and less painful in 
operation. Forming a small and almost tasteless powder, it is pe- 
culiarly adapted to children." — {To be continued.) 


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Meeting of the American Medical Association, 

Twelfth Aimnal Meeting of the American Medical 

The association met on Tuesday, May dd, at eleven o'clock, A. If., in 
Mozart Hall, the president, Dr. HarVey Lindsly, of the District of Cohimbia^ 
in the chair, supported by Drs. W. L. Sutton, of Kentucky, Thomas 0. Ed- 
wards, of Iowa, Josiah Crosby, of Massachusetts, and W. C. Warren^ of N(nrth 
Carolina, as vice presidents, with Drs. Alexander J. Semmes, of the District 
of Columbia, and S. M. Bemiss, of Kentucky, acting as secretaries. Dr. Cas- 
par Wistar, of Penn., treasurer, was also in attendance. 

The president announced the Rev. Mr. Robinson, of Louisyille, who opened 
the proceedings with prayer. 

Dr. Robert J. Breckenridge, chairman ^f the committee of arrangements, 
then welcomed the delegates to the city. 

Prof. Joshua B. Flint, of Louisville, accompanied by Drs. Sutton, Chipley, 
Spillman and Snead, all ex-presidents of the association, then came forward 
and presented a resolution of welcome from the state medical society of Ken- 
tucky, and in behalf of the state society, in a neat and appropriate address 
welcomed the president and members of the association as guests of their Ken- 
tucky brethren. 

The secretary, Dr Bemiss,* then called the roll of members of the associadon, 
and the following gentlemen were in attendance : — 

OHIO. John DatIs, 

Thomas W. Gordon, 


Hanrey Llodsly, 
Cornelius Boyle, 
Alex. J. Semmes. 


L. S. Joynes, 
P. 0. Spencer, 
A. 8. Payne. 


Henry F. OampbelU 
Joeeph Jones, 
W. H. Doaghty, 
J. T. Banks, 
A. Q. Thomas, 
John W. Jonea, 
J. Q. Weslmnreland, 


8. O. Scruggs, 
R. A. New. 


G. W. Lawrence. 


Henry R. Frost, 
H. W. Qlbbs, 
John F. Gaston, 
W. H. Huger, 
Francis J. Miles, 


Caspar Wistar, 
Robert K. Smith, 
Jamea Bryan, 
W. B. Atkinson, 
Frank Kiesor, 
WlUlam Hunt, 
John Shrack, 
D. D. Clarke, 
W. W. Townsend, 
Caleb Swayne. 


James H. Eldrldge. 

Jl. H. Baker, 
W. W. Dawson, 
Thomas M. Taggart, 
H. E. Foote, 
John C. Beck, 
0. G. Comegys, 
8. P. Hunt. 
James Graham, 

B. F. Richardson, 
T. J. Mullen, 

J. B. Smith, 
Robert Thompson, 
Charles 8. IVipler, 
Stephen Bonner, 
John A. Murphy, 
E. P. Tyffe, 
Daniel TUden, 
J. Helmick, 
George Fries, 

A. B. Heighnay, 
Joseph Clements, 
J. G. Rodgers, 
H. G. Gary, 
WilUara Mount, 

C. McDermott, 
R. L. Rea, 

W. H. Lamme, 

B. 8. Brown, 

G. A. Dougherty, 
J. C. Devise, 
George MendenhaU, 
8. G. Armor, 
E. B. Stevens, 
L. G. LeckUder, 
W. L. Scbneck, 
J. P. Judkins, 

D. B. Cotton, 
W. F. Kincaed, 

W. C. Hull, 
W. B. Davis, 
P. H. KeUey, 
Usher P. Lelghton. 


Lewis A. Sayre, 
Thomas W. Blatchford, 
David Meredith Reese, 
J. Carey Selden, 

A. L. Saunders, 
Douglas Bl>', 
David L. Rogers, 
Daniel G. Thomas, 
John L. Zabrlskie, 
M. M. Marsh, 


John H. Callender, 
J. C. Newnan, 
James M. Keller, 
G. C. E. Weber, 
H. R. Robards, 
J. 8. White, 
W. K. Bowling, 

E. B. Haskins, 

F. Rice, 

J. B. LlndsIy, 
T. L. Maddin, 

D. F. Wright, 

W. C. Cavanaugh, 
R. C. Foster, 

E. D. Wheeler, 

B. W. Arrant, 
W. D. Haggard, 
Paul F. Eve, 

J. M. Brannock, 


J. W. singleton. 
N. B. Anderson, 
H. K. Pttsey. 


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Meeting of the American Medical Association. 


Oiarcfalll J. Blaokbom, 
W. H. Miller, 
R. C. Hewitt, 
JohB L. Disatfaest 
J. B. Flint, 
W. A. Tomer, 
M. Goldimlth, 
UtweUjm Powell, 
0. W. Bayleas, 

DftTld Canunint, 
0. M. Wlble, 
A. B. Cooke, 
D. W. TftBdell, 
]>. D, Tbonuoii, 
S. J. Breckenridge, 
& M. Bemlat, 
John B. Cook, 
Henry MQler, 
T. P tetterwhlte, , 
>€. W. Ronald, 
J. Hopeon, 
J. Q. A. Foster, 
Hn|di L. Oivint, 
•0. H. SpiUman, 
H. D. Stirmnn, 
M. B. Manhall, 
M. D. Foree, 
•T. 8. Bell, 
JL P. Letcher, 
A. Callaway, 
>& D. Weatberford, 
J. L. Landnun, 
D. J. 0*RelUy, 
Jamael Reid, 
John H. PoUn, 
W. 8. Chlpley, 
W. D. Holt, 
W. £. OUpin, 
Wb. Hayea, 
Ihmnaa Marshall, 
'W. L. Sutton, 
.0. P. Mattlogly, 
fllanton P. Biyan, 
J. W. Bosh, 
H. M. BkUtman 
Ju Bnckner Todd, 
W. R. Erans, 
W. C. Bnead, 
^. B. Caldwell, 
W. H. Gardner, 
1.0. Brown, 
Ju B. Richardson, 
A. U. adrely, 
P. G. Montgomery, 
J. A. Hodge, 
W. W. Clearer, 
Hn^ Berkley, 
A B. Field, 
W. N. Gsrther, 
JUL Ridiardson. 


Z. PUcher, 
Wm. Broctte, 
John Bennet, 


H. F. Askew. 

Landon A. Smith, 

E. Flthlan, 
Joaeph Fithian, 
Alex. N. Dottgberty, 
Abraham Coles, 


Dixi Crosby. 


Ckorge D. Norrls, 
J. B. Coons, 
W. P. Reese, 

A. J. Reese, 

J. N. Tnmey. 


Bdward Warren. 


Montrose A. Pnllen. 
J. M. AUen, 
John H. Walters, 
Joseph N. McDowell, 
Stephen Ritchie, ' 
M. L. Linton, 
J. R. Washington, 
Chas. A. Pope, 
W. M. McPheeten, 
J. M. Allen. 

F. B. Fraxer. 


C. B. Chapman. 


J>. L. McGngln, 
Thos. 0. Edwards, 
Daniel Meeker, 
Wm. Watson. 

Charles FIshback, 

B. a Woodworth, 
W. R. Winton, 
CalTin West, 
Isaac Capelberry, 
J. N. Green, 
R. D. Maury, 
Geo. Sutton, 
Isaac Mendenhall, 
M. H. Hardin, 
L. D. Personett, 
A. B. Butler, 
R. E. Houghton, 

D. W. Taylor, 
8. & Boyd. 
J. H. Brower, 
A. McPbeeters, 
J. Langes, 
Joel Pennington, 
L. H. Kennedy, 
J. Joel Wright, 
H. G. Sexton, 
Joseph Somers, 

VKiTiD STATU AKMT.— Cbarles S. Tripler. 

John Mofflt, 

D. Morgan, 

H. P. Ayes, 

Wn. Dickey, 

D. H. Jestup, 

Joseph H. D. Rogers, 

Be^J. Newland, 

John Sloan, 

T. R. Austin, 

R. R. Town, 

A.a»PP, ^ 
F. W. Beard, 
Wm. Reeder, 
D. M. Jones, 
Chas. Bowman, 
R.& Shield, 
John M. Kitchen, 
S. Darts, 
George W. New, 
J. H. Woodbora, 
& M. Linton, 

C. Brown, 
A. G. Boynton, 

F. M. Mothershead, 
T. Bullard, 
W. A. Clapp, 
W. W. HIt^ 

A. J. MuUen, 
Jno. M, Ufaikle, 
J. D. MaxweU, 
Jno. M. ReiUy, 
J. A. Windle, 

B. C. Rowan, 
L. Ritter, 
R. Curran, 
J. W. l^ivls, 
W. T. S. Cometl, 
A. V. TaUbet. 


Plerson F. Kendall, 

G. Shattuck, 
Bet\J. F. Heywood, 
SoL D. Townsend, 
Joslah Crosby, 
J. B. Upham, 
Enos Hoyt, 


J. W. Fruer, 
Daniel Brainard, 
N. 8. Davis, 
R.N. Isham, 
J. H. Hollister, 
H. A. Johnson, 

D. W. Young, 
0. Goodbrake, 
H. Noble, 
J. M. Steele, 
A. H. Ince, 
J. N. Graham, 
J. B. Curtis, 
F. B. HaUer, 
H. Nance, 
Thomas Wllklns, 
T. D. Fltch^^ 

C. Johnson, 

D. 0. McCord. 

The president then appointed the following gentlemen a committee on yolun- 
iary essajs : — ^Drs. L. P. Yandell, of Kentucky, Bryan, of Philadelphia, and 
•Gomegys, of Ohio. 

Dr. R. J. Breckinridge, from the committee of arrangements announced the 
hours of business from 9 A. M. to 12 M., and from 3 P. M. until such hour 
as the convention should adjourn upon resolution, which arrangement was 


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176 Meeting of the American Medical Association, 

Dr. Harvej Lindsly, Che president of the association, then read his retiring*- 
address, which was listened to with marked attention, and was an eloquent 
tribute to the dignity of the medical profession and the importance of its im- 

After he had concluded, Dr. L. A. Smith, of New Jersey, moved that the 
thanks of the association be tendered to the president for his able and eloquent 
address, and it was ordered to be placed in the hands of the appropriate com-^ 
mittee for publication, among the proceedings of the meeting. 

Dr. Caspar Wistar, chairman of the committe on publication, read the an-- 
nual report, and on motion of Dr. Sayres, of New York, the following resdu- 
tions app^ided to it were unanimously adopted : — 

JRMolwdf That hereafter erery paper intended for publication In the Trani actions moat not onljr 
be placed in the hands of the committee of pnblicatlon by tlie 1st of June, bat it most also be so> 
prepared as to require no material alteration or addition at the hands of the author. 

BMolved^ That authors of pM>ers be required to return their proofii within two weeks after their 
reception, otherwise they will be passed over and omitted from the rolume. 

Adjourned until three o^clock, P. M. 


Dr. W. L. Sutton, one ot the vice-presidents, took the chair in the absence^ 
of the president 

Dr. D. Meredith Reese, of New York, chairman of the committee on nomi- 
nations, reported the following officers for the ensuing year : — 

President — Henry Miller, of Kentucky. Vice Preaidente — ^H. F. Askew,. 
Delaware ; Chas. S. Tripler, U. S. Army ; L. A. Smith, New Jersey ; Calviib 
West, Indiana. TWasurer — Caspar Wistar, Pennsylvania. Secretary — S. M.. 
Bemiss, Kentucky. 

Dr. Sayre moved the adoption of the report, which was unanimously agreed to. 

Dr. Brainard, of Ulinois, moved the appointment of a committee to conduct 
the newly appointed officers to their respective chairs. The acting president 
selected Drs. Brainard, of IlL, Mattingly, of Ky., Sutton, of Ind, McDowell, of 
Mo., and K J. Breckinridge, of Ky., and they accordingly performed the duties 
assigned to them. 

The newly elected president, on taking the chair, addressed the convention 
in substance as follows : — 

Gentlemen of the American Medical Association: — I am wholly at a 
loss to command language to express the dee^ sense of obligation put upon me- 
by calling me to the Presidency of your Association. It is an honor any maa 
may well be proud of^ and although, I admit, in all sincerity, that you might 
witiiout difficulty have selected an individual more worthy the position, I may 
be allowed to say you could not have conferred it upon one who would prize 
it more highly, or cherish it longer with the most grateful recollection. I do 
esteem it the greatest honor ever conferred upon me by the profession that I 
love, and to which I have devoted a long life ; nay, more — it is the greatest 
honor that could be conferred upon any man by the medical or any other pro- 
fession in this or any other country; for any decoration of honor or any mark 
of approbation conferred by a crowned head, I should regard as a bauble in 


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Meeting of the American Medical Association. 177 

eomiMuriaon. Who are you, gentlemen, when nghtly considered? You arc 
the rightful representatives of the great American Medical Profession — an 
army forty thousand strong, and a body of men, no matter what captious 
criticism may say in disparaging comparison with the European branch of the 
profession, in my humble judgment, &r superior to the same number of medi- 
cal men to be found in any quarter of the globe. Although, as a body you 
may not be so learned, so critically and nicely framed in all the minutiso of 
the profession, yet for strength, integrity, and precision in all the great princi- 
ples guiding to a successful combat with disease, this body is equal if not su- 
perior to that of any kingdom of continental Europe. ^ 

To be called to the presidency of such a body of men is in my sober judg- 
ment the greatest compliment that could be conferred on mortal man, provided 
that man is a devotee of medicine, who has given his whole mind, soul, heart, 
and strength individuaUy to the profession, and has that high regard for it 
which will not suffer any less noble pursuit to interfere with the daily though 
laborious duties of the profession. Comkig so recently from a sick bed, and 
still enfeebled in health, I beg to be excused from further remarks and desire 
yoQ to acc^t this brief and imperfect acknowledgement of the distinguished 
honor conferred upon me, instead of what, under other circumstances, I might 
be disposed to say. 

The president, after this grateful address, sat down amid much applause, 
when Dr. R. J. Breckinridge moved that the thanks of the association be 
tendered to the retiring officers for the fiiithful and assiduous manner in which 
they have conducted the business committed to their charge, which was unani- 
mously adopted. 

A long and discursive debate then ensued on the admission of members by 
invitation. The plan of organization pertnits practitioners of respectable 
standing from sections of the United States not otherwise represented at the 
meeting, to receive appointment, by invitation of the meeting after an intro- 
duction from, any of the members present, or any absent permanent members, 
to hold connection with the association until the dose of the annual session 
at which they are received, and to be entitled to participate in all its afiairs, 
as in the case of delegates. The point of difficulty seemed to be whether the 
invitations should be extended by the committee of arrangements or by open 
vote of the association. It was finally settled by referring all the applicant's 
names to the committee on arrangements. 

Dr. J. R Lindsly, of Tennessee, offered the following : — 

J?Mo2c«(i, Tliat a eommlUee of three be appointed by the chahr to Inquke into and report upon the 
profnieCy of diridlng the AModation into sections, for the purpose of performing such part of ita 
Bdentific labors as may relate to particular branches of medicine and surgery. 

Dr. Brodie moved its reference to the nominating committee. 

Dr. Brainard explained at some length the object of the resolution of inquiry, 
and enforced its adoption as the means of giving more effect and usefulness to 
the proceedings of the association, the reports of which had heretofore gone 
out unmatured, in consequence of the want of concentrated action. 


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178 Meeting of the American Medical Associaiion, 

A motion by Dr. Sayre to lay the motion on the table was negatived, and 
the motion of Dr. Lindsly was then adopted. 

Dr. Davis moved that no person be permitted to speak more than twice on 
the same subject, or more than ten minutes at one time, except by consent of 
the association, which was adopted. 

The standing committee on prize essays was called on for their report, but 
without a response. This was also the case with the committee on medical 
education. The committee on medical literature had no report to present 

A letter from Dr. J. G. F. Holston, of Ohio, chairman of the special commit- 
tee on the microscope was read, reporting progress and begging a continuance 
for more extended investigation, which was referred to the committee on 

A letter from Dr. Stephen Smith, of New York, from the special committee 
on medical jurisprudence had the same reference. 

The special committee on quarantine was not ready to report 

Dr. Mattingly, of Kentucky, from the special committee on diseases and 
mortality of boarding schools, asked a continuance until next year, in order to 
obtain further information requisite to the full investigation of the important 
subject The request was referred to the committee on nominations. 

The special committees on surgical operations for the relief of defective 
vision, on milk sickness, and on the blood corpuscle had the same reference. 

A report from the committee on medical ethics, signed by Dr. John Wat- 
son, of New York, was read, laid on the table, and made the spedal order for 
to-morrow at 12 o'clock M. 

Continuances were asked by the committes on the pons varrolii, medulla ob- 
longata, and spinal marrow — ^their pathology and therapeutics ; on American 
medical necrology ; on the hygienic relations of air, food and water the natu- 
ral and artificial causes of their impurity, and the best methods by which they 
can be made most effectually to contribute to the public health ; on the effect 
of the virus of rattlesnakes, &c., when introduced into the system of the mam- 
malia ; on the climate of the Pacific coast and its modifying influences upon 
inflammatory action and diseases generally; on the constitutional origin of 
local diseases, and the local origin of constitutional diseases ; on the physio- 
logical effects of the hydro carbons ; on epilepsy ; on the causes of the impulse 
of the heart, and the agencies which influence it in health and disease, and on 
the best substitutes for cinchona, and its preparations in the treatment of in- 
termittent fevers, &c., all of which were referred to the committee on nominations. 

The special committee on government meteorological reports, made a report 
written by Dr. R. H. Coolidge, of the U. S. Army, but read by Dr. Paul F. 
Eve, of Tennessee, which was referred to the committee on publications. 

The committee appointed in May, 1857, on criminal abortion, submitted a 
report, written by Dr. Storer, of Boston, which was read by Dr. Blatchford, of 
New York, and referred to the committee on publication. The following reso- 
lutions appended to this report were unanimously adopted : — 

Bedolvedf That while physicians hare long been united In condemnfiog the act of producing abor- 
tion, at every period of gestation, except as necessary for prcsenring the life of either mother or child, 


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Meeting of t/ie American Medical Association. 179 

It hu become the duty of this AMOciation, hi view of the prevalence and hicreashig fireqaency of the 
crime, publicly to enter an earnest and solemn protest against such unwarrantable destruction of 
kdnan Ufe. 

BMohedf That fai porsoance of the grand and noble calling we profess — the saving of human Hres 
— «nd of the sacred responsibilities thereby devolvhig upon us, the Association present this subject 
to the attention of the several legislative assemblies of the Union, with the prayer that the laws by 
vbich the crime of procuring abortion is attempted to be 'Controlled may be revised, and that such 
«ther action may be taken In the premises as they In their wisdom may deem necessary. 

S4iok!€«f, That the Association request the sealous co-operation of the various State medical so- 
cieties in pressing the subject upon the legislatures of their respective States, and that the president 
and secretaries of the Association are hereby authorized to carry oul by memorial these resolutions. 

The convention then adjourned till Wednesday morning at nine o'clock. 


The president, Dr. Miller, called the Association to order at nine oVlock. 

Dr. D. Meredith Reese, chairman of the committee on nominations, called at- 
tention to the &ct that the committee could not act definitely until the place 
for next year's meeting should be designated. He also stated that tho State 
medical society of Connecticut had requested that an amendment to the con- 
stitution proposed two years smce should be taken from the table, relative to 
the time of meeting. 

It was moved by Dr. Blatchford and seconded by Dr. Sayre, that the amend- 
ment to the third article of the constitution be taken up, which proposes to 
add after the words "first Tuesday of May" the words "or first Tuesday of 
June," and after the words "shall be determined "add the words "with the 
time of meeting." 

The amendment was adopted by a constitutional vote. 

Dr. D. M. Reese also stated that the Connecticut State society had extended 
a pressing invitation to the association to hold its next meeting at New Haven, 
which invitation was referred to the committee on nominations. 

Dr. Reese also called attention to the necessity of some radical change in 
the mode of appointing committees to prepare treatises on scientific subjects to 
be reported at the annual meetings. It had been seen, that, on yesterday, a 
large majority of the committees made no reports and did not even see proper 
to send in any communication explanatory of delay. The difficulty heretofore 
has originated in the mode of selection adopted by the nominating committee. 
It has been customary for gentlemen to hand in their names and the proposed 
subjects on slips of paper, and the committee without further investigation, 
have so published in the annual reports. Thus it has happened that appointments 
have been most injudiciously made, and gentlemen to whom a special duty has 
been assigned have been found to know less of that than any other subject. 
He therefore hoped that no committee of last year would be reappointed or 
continued from which no report had been had, and no communication 

On motion, the nominating committee was unanimously instructed to act 
opon the suggestions of the chairman, who also stated that there should be 
some definite expression of disapprobation as to the course of those gentiemen 
who had volunteered essays and had their names reported in the newspapers 
and spread over the land, and then paid no further attention to the matter. 


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180 Meeting of (he American Medical Association, 

Dr. Flint, from the committee on prize essays, begged leaye to report that 
they received four dissertations in time for a careful and thorough examina- 
tion ; and two others, quite voluminous, only two days before the meeting of 
the Association. The latter we have felt constrained to exclude altogether 
from the competition of the present year, on account of the absolute impossi- 
bility of reading them with a critical purpose and effect The others have 
been carefully examined by all the surviving members, of the committee— one 
estimable associate, Dr. Evans, having been called from all his earthly labors 
before the active duties of the committee began. 

More than one of the four essays we examined exhibited much labor, and a 
commendable scholarship in their preparation — are voluminous, and in some 
respects very meritorious papers ; but, in the unanimous judgment of the com- 
mittee, neither of them possesses the degree and species of merit which should 
entitle its author to the Association prize. 

The committee beg leave, furthermore, to report, that in their opinion and 
as the suggestion of their own recent experience, the association should de- 
termine in more precise and formal manner than has yet been done the terms 
and conditions of competition and of success in the contest for prizes, for the 
government alike of contestants and the committee of adjudication, and that a 
committee be now appointed to consider and report upon that subject 

Dr. J. B. lindsly, chairman of the committee appointed to inquire into the 
propriety of dividing the Association into sections, for the better performance 
of its work in considering the various branches of medicine and surgery, re- 
commended the adoption of such a plan as being indispensably necessary to 
making this body a working scientific association. They do not deem it ne- 
cessary to enter into any argument in favor of this plan, it being the one al- 
ready universally adopted by similar bodies. They would simply recommend, 
for fhe present, a division into the following sections, as being most suitable 
to fiusilitate the transaction of business, viz: — 

1. Anatomy and Physiology. 

2. Chemistry and Materia Medica. 

8. Practical Medicine and Obstetrics. 
4. Surgery. 

The committee do not propose that this subdivision of labor shall in any 
manner interfere with the regular business of the Association as now conducted ; 
but only that after having assembled each day in general session, each section 
shall meet separately for the purpose of hearing and discussing papers on such 
subjects as properly belong to them, and they, therefore, recommend that the 
committee of arrangements for the ensuing year be requested to provide suita- 
ble accommodations for the services of these sections, and that each of said 
sections shall be authorized to make such arrangements as may be required 
for the proper transaction of its business. 

This report was considered and* adopted after a very able speech in its sup- 
port by Dr. Davis. 


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Meeting of ike American Medical Association. 181 

Dr. J. W. Singleton, of Kentucky, moyed the suspension of the rules for 
the introduction of the following : — 

Besdvedf That In the death of Dr. A. Evans, of Kentucky, the ABSoclation has lost one of Ha 
moat manly and efficient members, and society a fHend and benefeetor. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

Dr. W. L. Sutton, under the resolution appointing a committee on registra- 
tion of births, marriages, &c., proposed a plan of general action, an abstract of 
which he read on motion of Dr. Gibbs, of S. C, and on motion of Dr. L. P. 
Tandell, the subject was referred to a committee to report during the present 

Drs. Sutton, Lindsly, W. R. Gibbs, Bryan, Pitcher, and Crosby were ap- 
pointed such committee. 

Dr. Blatchford stated that he had receired from Dr. Willard, secretary of the 
New York State medical society, fifty volumes of their transactions for 1859, 
for distribution to the medical press, the medical colleges, and all medical so- 
dedes of the south, and sent with a request for an interchange of civilities. 
GknUemen present can be supplied by application to Dr. Bemiss, and if the 
number sent be not sufficient for the supply they will be cheerfully forwarded 
to any gentleman, by application to the secretary. Dr. S. D. Willard, Albany, 
N. Y., the postage being included in the application, which is twenty-two cents. 

A voluminous report from Dr. Thomas Logan, of California, on medical 
topography and epidemics, was received and referred to the committee on 

The chairman of the committee on voluntary essays, stated that he had re- 
ceived a paper on a case of extra-uterine foetation from Dr. Enos Hoyt, of 
Transylvania, Mass. ; and another on a case of accidental poisoning by Strych- 
nine, from Dr. Douglas Bly, of Rochester, N. Y. He also presented a very 
voluminous paper entitled " observations on some of the chang^es of the solids 
and fluids in malarial fever, by Joseph Jones, Professor of medical chemistry 
in the medical college of Georgia, at Augusta.*' By request, Prod Jones gave 
a verbal abstract of his paper and an exposition of his theory, and on motion 
of D. W. Yandell the communication was referred to the committee on publi- 

Dr. D. W. Yandell announced that the following railroad companies had 
agreed to pass delegates to this convention over their roads at half-price : — 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago ; Pennsylvania Central ; Jeffersbnville ; 
New Albany and Salem ; Louisville and Nashville, and Cleveland and Pittsburg. 

On motion, a vote of thanks was tendered to these companies for their 

Dr. J. B. Flint offered the following resolution : — 

Whereas, oar brethren of Great Britain are engaged in erecting a monnment to the oAmory of 
John Hunter, whose invaluable services in behalf of Physiology and Surgery are recognlied and 
honored, as well on thlg side of the Atlantic as in Enrope ; and whereas, this Association, as the re- 
prestntatiTes of American medicine, would rejoice In some suitable manner to participate in so grate> 
All a testimonial of gratitude and respect ; therefore, 

Bwolv^y That a comndttee of three be appointed to consider in what manner this participation 
can best be effected so as to be acceptable to our British brethren, and consistent with our own means 
and opportunities of action, with instructions to report at the next annual meeting. 


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182 Meeting of the American Medical Asssociatwn, 

The resolution was adopted, and Drs. Flint, Bowditch and Shattuck 
appointed as the committee. 
Dr. Harvey Lindsly offered the following : — 

Whereas, ParUamentary rules of order are nomeroas, complicated, sometimes obscure, and < 
inapplicable to such a body as the American Medical Association ; and whereas, from the natnre or 
the pursuits of medical men, they cannot be familiar with these rules. Therefore, 

lieaolcedj That a select committee of three members be appointed to prepare a system of rules Wmf 
the government of this Association, as few In number, as concise and as perspicuous as possible, to hm- 
reported to the next annual meeting. 

This resolution was adopted, and Drs. Lindsly, Comegys, and Blatchford 
appointed as the committee. 

The paper of Dr. Bly, on accidental poisoning by strychnine, was read by 
its author, and as individual cases are not reported in the journals of the as- 
sociation, thanlcs were returned for the communication, with a request that it 
be published in some medical journal. 

An invitation from grand master Morris, of the Masons, was received, 
urging medical brethren to attend the Masonic convention now in session In 
this city. 

The nominating committee made the following report : — 

The next annual meeting to take place at New Haven, on the first Tuesday 
of June, 1860. Dr. Eli Ives is elected junior secretary. 

CJommittee of arrangements — Drs. Clias. Hooker, Stephen G. Hubbard, and Beigar 
min Sullivan, Jr., with power to add to their numbers. CJommittee on prize essays — 
Drs. Worthington Hooker. Conn. ; U. C. Shattuck, Mass. ; Usher Parsons, R. I. ; P. 
A. Jewett, Conn. ; and John Knight, Conn. Committee on publication — Drs. F. O- 
Smith, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Wistar, do. ; Bemiss, Louisville, Ky. ; Ives, New Havoiv 
Conn. ; Hollingsworth and Hartshome, Philadelphia, Pa. ; and Askew, 'Wilmington,. 
Del Committee on medical literature — Drs. Henry Campbell, Ga. ; D. P. Wrig^t^ 
Tenn.; 0. Wendell Hohnes, Mass.; S. G. Ormer, Ohio; and W. H. Byford, HL 
Committee on medical education — Drs. D. M. Reese, N. T. ; W. R. Bowling, Tenn. ;- 
Charles Rshback, Ind, ; John Bell, Penn. ; Z. Pitcher, Mich. 

The following special committees were appointed : — 

On morbus, coxarius, and surgical pathology of articular inflammation — Dr. Lew» 
A. Sayre, of New York. On the surgical treatment of strictures of the urethra— 
Dr. James Biyan, of Philadelphia On drainage and sewerage of large cities, th^ 
influence on public health — Drs. A J. Semmes, D. C, chairman, Cornelius Boyle, and! 
G. M. Dove. On the periodicity of diseases prevailing in the Mississippi valley — ^Dr. 
J. W. Singleton, of Smithland, Ky. On puerperal tetanus ; its statistics, pathology,, 
and treatment — Dr. D. L. McGugin, of Keokuk, Iowa On hospital epidemics — ^Dr. 
R. K Smith, of Philadelphia. On puerperal fever — ^Dr. J. N. Green, of Stellisville^. 
Ind. On anosmia and chlorosis — Dr. H. P. Ayres, of Fort "Wayne, Ind. On vera- 
trum viride — Dr. James B. McCraw, of Richmond, Va. On alcohol j its therapeuti- 
cal efrects — Dr. J. R. W. Dunbar, of Baltimore, Md. On meteorology — Dr. J. O. 
Westmoreland, Atalanta, Ga. On milk sickness — Dr. Robert Thompson, Columbua^ 
Ohio. On manifestations of disease of nerve centres — ^Dr. C. B. Chapman, Wisoonain. 
On the medical topography of Iowa — ^Dr. T. 0. Edwards^ Iowa. On microscopic ob- 
servations on cancer cells — Dr. George D. Norris, New Market, Ala. On the philoso- 


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Meeting of the American Medical Association. 183 

phj of practical medicine — Dr, James Graham, Cincinnati, Ohia On some of the pe- 
culiarities of tlie North Pacific, and thou: relations to climate — Dr. W. H. Doughty, 
Georgia. The following special committees were continued or altered : — 

On microscope — John C. Dalton, Jr., N. T. ; David Hutchinson, Ind. ; A. R Stout, 
CaL ; Calvin Kills, Mass. ; Christopher Johnson, Md. On diseases and mortality of 
boarding schools — Dr. C. Mattingly, Ky. ; and Dixi Crosby, N. H. On the various 
surgical operations for the relief of defective vision — Drs. M, A. Pullen, Mo. ; T, J. 
Cogley, Ind. ; and W. Hunt, Penn, On the blood corpuscle — Dr. A. Sayre, Michigan. 
On American medical necrology — Dr. C. C. Cox, Maryland, On the hygienic rela- 
tions of air, food, and water — the natural and artificial causes of theur impurity, and 
the best methods by which they can be made most efiectually to contribute to the 
public health — Dr. C 0. Cox, Md. On the effect of virus of rattlesnake, eta, when 
introduced into the system of mammalia — Dr. A. S. Pame, Yirginia. On the climate of 
the Pacific coast and its modifying influences upon inflammatory action and diseases 
generally — ^Dr. 0. Harvey, Califomias On the constitutiontd origin of local diseases, 
and the local origin of constitutional diseases — Drs. W. H. McKee, North Caro- 
lina, and C. F. Heywood, New York. 

On motion of Dr. Brodie, Dr. A. J. Semmes was requested to serve as secret 
tary pro tern., during the remainder of the session. 

The association took up the special order, being the report on medicaV 
ethics to which had been referred the action of the Dubuque medical society \. 
which, after debate, was laid over until twelve o^ clock to-morrow. 

On motion of Dr. H. F. Campbell, a section of meteorology, medical topo* 
graphy, and epidemic diseases, and of medical jurisprudence and hygiene, was 
added to those already adopted by this association. 

Amendments to the oonstitution of the association were then taken up, and 
a provision acted upon that no individual who shall be under sentence of ex- 
pulsion or suspension from any State or local medical society, of which he may 
have been a member, shall be received as a delegate to this body, or be al- 
lowed any of the privileges of a member until he shall have been relieved from 
such sentence by such State or local society. This amendment to the consti- 
tution was adopted. 

The next amendment, lying over from, last year, was the proposition of Dr. 
Kyle, of Ohio. 

That the constitution of the association be so amended as to prohibit the 
admission as a delegate or the recognition as a member of any person who is 
not a graduate of some respectable medical college. 

This amendment was rejected ; but, on the question of re-consideration, a 
long and animated debate ensued, which called forth all the oratorical abilities 
and much of the personal feelings of the delegates. Without arriving at a 
vote, the association adjourned for dinner. 


Upon the re-assembling of the association, the discussion was renewed on 
the motion to re-consider the vote by which the amendment to the oonstitution 
was negatived, prohibiting the admission as a delegate or the recognition as a 
member of any person who is not a graduate of some respectable medical 


zed by Google 

184 Meeting of the American Medical Association. 

Dr. Kincaid moyed a further amendment to insert the word "hereafter," 
after "prohibiting." 

Dr. Askew, of Delaware, one of the yice presidents in the chair, ruled the 
amendment out of order at the present stage, or until the association decide 
upon the question of re-consideration. 

After a long discussion, Dr. Davis, of Ind., moyed to lay the motion to re- 
consider on the table, which was carried ; 97 yeas, nays not counted, so the 
amendment stands registered. 

The next proposed amendment to the constitution was that suggested by 
the New Jersey medical society, asking for sudi changes as would establish a 
board of censors in every judicial district of the supreme court, who should ex- 
amine and grant diplomas to all proper members of the association. 

This was temporarily laid on the table for Dr. Crosby to offer a report 
of the medical teacher's convention which met on Monday last He strongly 
recommended a committee from this body to confer with the teacher's commit- 
tee, and felt great confidence that something beneficial to medical education 
would be the effect of such conference. 

Dr. Comegys moved the appointment of a committee of five to confer with 
the committee of medical teachers, and veport at the next annual meeting, pro- 
vided that no medical teacher be selected on the part of this association. 

This again gave rise to an excited debate, clearly showing that there was 
a great deal of bad feeling between the professors and the laymen of the pro- 
fession. Prof. McDowell, of Missouri, was extremely happy in some of his hits 
and kept his auditors in a roar of laughter. He acknowledged that Philadel- 
phia and New York had the advantage of location ; the railroads took students 
there as they did the horses and cattle of the West, and sometimes its asses. 

Prof. Crosby, of Dartmouth college, contended that the elevation of the 
standard of medical education depended more upon practitioners than the 
colleges ; if bad materials were sent up from physicians' offices for professors 
to model into physicians, it could not be expected that good results would fol- 
low. He wanted a committee of conference, not based on any sectional feel- 
ings, and he believed the whole matter could be arranged satis&ctorily. 

Dr. D. W. Yandell wished to reply to one remark of Prof Crosby, as to the 
bad materials sent by private teachers to the colleges. He had himself re- 
jected students who were too big fools to be made physicians, and these same 
persons, in a few months, had gone to some of the colleges and come back with 
their diplomas in their pockets. AAer a very eloquent, appropriate, and con- 
ciliatory speech from Dr. Davis, the resolution of Dr. Comegys was unani- 
mously adopted. 

The resolutions from the New Jersey medical society were then taken from 
the table and referred to the committee of conference. 

Dr. Davis offered a resolution instructing the same committee to confer with 
the State medical societies for the purpose of procuring more decisive and 
uniform action throughout the profession, in carrying into effect the standard 
of preliminary education, adopted by this association at its organissation in 
1847. This was carried. 


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Meeting of the American Medical Association, 185 

Dr. Gibbs, from the committee to examine into a plan of uniform registra- 
"iion of births, marriages and deaths, offered the following report : — 

They have given the same a careful consideration, and they unanimously 
recommend that the report be adopted and referred to the committee on 

They also recommend that the same committee be continued, with instructions 
to add to the report in time for publication in the ensuing volume of transac- 
tions, a form of registration law which may be likely to answer the require- 
ments of the several states. 

Dr. Sayre, of New York, oflFered the following . — 

Whereas, The medical profession at large have an interest in the character and qnailflcations of 
thoee who are to be admitted as their associates in the profession ; therefore, 

Se»ol9sd, That each State mescal society be reqneated to appoint annnaUy two delegates for each 
coflege in Uiat State, whose duty it shall be to attend the examination of all candidates for gradua- 
tion ; and that the colleges be reqaested to permit such delegates to participate in the examination 
and rote on the qoaliflcatlons of all such candidates. 

This was referred to the committee of conference. 

The paper of Dr. Jones, presented at the morning session, was taken from 
the committee on publication and referred to the committee on prize essays 

Dr. Eve moved to record the name of Dr. Benj. W. Dudley, as a permanent 
member, which was adopted by a unanimous vote, the delegates all rising to 
their feet in token of respect. 

The following gentlemen have been admitted to the association as members 
by invitation : — 



J. A. Hodge, 
S. B. Menlfleld, 

B. C. Bowan, 

W. 0. HaU. 

N. D. Held, 

N. B. Baris. 

Joshua Gore, 

.John 8. Rowe, 

H. M. Berkely, 


J. BL Brannoch. 


V. WUey, 


J. M. Allen, 

J. A. Wlndle, 

W. N. Garther, 


A. V. Talbot. 

S. B. Fields, 

Dr. Boylman, 

J. W. DftTls. 

W. S. Cain, 

Dr. Tumey. 

Brw BAMPHHiBi. — ^Darld Kay. ckitbd states akmy. — Chaiies S. Tripler. 

The whole number of delegates in attendance was 801, exclusive of members 
.by invitation. '^ 

Adjourned till Thursday morning. 


The president called the association to order at nine o*clock, and the reading 
of the minutes of yesterday was dispensed with. 

The first business in order was an amendment to the constitution, laid over 
•from last year, and proposed by Dr. T. L. Mason, of New York, to insert in 
the first line of the second paragraph of article 2, after the words "shall re- 
i^ive the appointments from," the words " any medical society permanently 
organized in accordance with the laws regulating the practice of physic and 
-surgery in the State in which they are situated, and consisting of physicians 
and surgeons regularly authorized to practice their profession." Also to add 
to the sixth paragraph of the same article, the words " but each permanent 
jnember of the first class designated in this plan of organization shall be en- 
titled to a seat in the association on his presenting to this body a certificate of 


zed by Google 

186 Meeting of Oie American Medical Association, 

his good standing, signed by the secretary of the society to which he may be- 
long at the time of each annual meeting of this body/' 

Dr. Linden A. Smith, of New Jersey, said amendments to the constitutioil 
should be adopted with care, and, though, perhaps, that now proposed might 
be desirable, still as Dn Mason, who had proposed it was not present to explain 
his views, he moved that the subject be laid over until next year. This sug- 
gestion was adopted. 

Another constitutional amendment, proposed by Dr. Henry Hartshome, of 
Penn., and laid over from last year under the rules, provides to add to the 2d 
article, the words '^ no one expelled from this association shall at any time 
thereafter be received as a delegate or member, unless by a three-fourths vote 
of the members present at the meeting to which he is sent, or at which he is 
proposed.'' This amendment was adopted. 

Another amendment proposed by J^ Berrien Lindsly, of Tenn., was called 
up, to omit in article 2 the words *' medical colleges, hospitals, lunatic asylums, 
and other permanently organized medical institutions in good standing in the 
United States ; and also to omit the words ^^ the faculty of every regularly 
constituted medical college or chartered school of medicine shall have the 
privilege of sending two delegates. The professional staff of every chartered, 
or municipal hospital containing an hundred inmates or more, shall have the 
privilege of sending two delegates, and every other permanently organized 
smedical institution of good standing shall have the privilege of sending one 

This was laid on the table until the next annual meeting. 

An invitation was received from Mons. Qroux, requesting the delegates to- 
meet him at the hall of the University, at noon to-day, to witness experiments 
on his congenital fissure of the sternum, which was deferred until four o*clodc 
this afternoon, as the association had previously accepted the hospitality or 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. Ward, at the former hour. 

Dr. Singleton offered a series of resolutions from **Toung Physic^'* depreca-^ 
ting the introduction of schisms, and reflecting on the harmony of the associa- 
tion ; which, after a vigorous speech from Dr. McDowell, was unanimously 
laid on the table, with a request that it should not appear on the minutes. 
Dr. Davis regarded the evidences of harmony and good feeling exhibited here 
this year as greater and more cheering than on any previous oocasion, and de- 
precated any insinuation that unkindly sentiments existed. . 

Dr. McDermott submitted the following resolutions: — 

Whereas, A vMt proportion of the dlteMe and misery that afflicts our race Is caused by the ezoM- 
slve use of Intoxicating liquors, and whereas, in the opinion of this association the cTils of intoxica- 
tion can be most effeciaally remedied by the establishment of Inebriate Asylums, wherein the Tlctims 
of intemperance may be snl^ected to such restraints and treatment as shall effect a thoroogh reform 
nation of thehr habits ; therefore, 

B69ole^^ That this association recommend the establishment of Inebriata Asylums In the variooa 
States of the Union. 

JRetoleedt That the State and County medical societies, and all members of the medical professioo 
be requested to unite in dilfaslng among the peofde a better knowledge and appreciation of the be- 
Bifldent purposes and important benefits that would be conferred upon society by the eetabflshment- 
ot such Asylums throughout the rarlous sections of the countiy. 


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Meeting of the American Medical Association. 187 

This resolution was referred to the mover as a special committee, with a 

request that he would report thereon at the next meeting of the association. 

Dr. Shattuck offered the following, which was adopted : — 

Re^eed^ That the committee appointed in May, 185T, on criminal abortion, be requested to con- 
tinae their labors, and especlallj; to take all measures necessary to carry into effect the resoluUonf 
reported by them on the first day of the meeting. 

Dr. Yandell, from the committee on voluntary essays, made a further report 
that a communication had been received from Dr. Langer, of Iowa, on suben- 
taneous injections as remedials, which, on motion, the author read. 

The essay was referred to the writer as a special committee, with the re- 
quest that he would report further at the next annual meeting of the associa- 
tion and continue his investigations. 

Invitations to visit the Insane Asylum, and the library and museum of the 
Transylvania University were received. 

The president appointed as the committee of conference to meet the com- 
mittee fipom the teachcr^s convention, the following gentlemen : — Dr. Blatch- 
fiml, Troy, N. Y. ; Condie, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Bozeman, Montgomery, Ala. ; 
Brodie, Detroit, Mich. ; and Snead, Frankfort, Ky. 

Dr. D. Meredith Reese, from the nominating committee made the following 
final report : — 

Special committees continued. 

On quarantine — Drs. D. D. Clark, Penn. ; Snow, R. I. ; Jewell, Penn. ; 
Fenner, La. ; and Houck, Md. On medical ethics — Drs. Schuck, Penn. ; Mur- 
phy, Ohio ; Linton, Mo. ; Powell, Qa. ; Eve, Tenn. On trachetomy in mem- 
branous croup — Dr. A. V. Dougherty, N. J. On the effects of lithotomy, 
performed in childhood, upon the sexual organs in after life — Dr. White, 
Memphis, Tenn. On mercurial fumegation in syphilis — Dr. D. "W". Yandell, 
Louisville, Ky. On the improvements in the science and art of surgery, made 
duringthelast half century — ^Dr. Joseph McDowell, St. Louis, Mo. On the 
cause and inicrease of crime and its mode of punishment — Dr. W. G. Snead, 
Frankfort, Ky. On the education of imbecile and idiotic children — Dr. H. P. 
Ayres, Fort Wayne, Ind. On the uses and abuses of the speculum uteri — ^Dr. 

C. H. Spillman, of Kentucky. On the topography of Vermont — Dr. Perkins, 
of Vermont On the pons varolii, Ac. — Dr. S. B. Richardson, of Kentucky, 
and Dr. Fishback, of Indiana. On the physical effdcts of the hydro-carbons 
— ^Dr. F. W. White, of Ulinots. On the effect of the periodical operations 
fw urinary calculi upon procreation of the male — ^By J. S. White, of 
Tennessee. ' 

The paper fVom Dr. Ellis, of Massachusetts, on the subject — "does the mi- 
crosoope. enable us to make a positive diagnosis of cancer, and what, if any are 
the sources of error ? " Was referred to the special committee on the micros- 
cope, of which Dr. Dalton is chairman. 

Honorary resolutions were passed to the memory of the following members, 
of the association, deceased: — ^Dr. W. W. Bowling, of Alabama; Dr. Thomas 

D. Mutter, of Pennsylvania ; Dr. P. C. Gaillard, of South Carolina ; Dr. Jabez. 
G. Goble, of. New Jersey ; Dr. John K. Mitchell, of Pennsylvania. 


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188 Editorial 

Dr. R. K. Smith, of Philadelphia, submitted the following : 

Se9olved^ That the death of Dr. John K. Mitchell, one of the members of this Association, has 
1»een to this bodj^ loss Iceenly felt by every man who knew him. His eminence as a tcadier, his 
▼aried acquirements in every department of lean^g, and his generous social qualities In every re- 
lation, endeared him to every member of the profession who bad the pleasure of his personal 

£€9oltitdy That the family be notified of the action of this Association. 

Other more formal resolutions were offered and feeling eulogies pronounced. 
Dr. Sayre offered the following, which were adopted by acclamation: — 

Be9oUDtd^ That the thanks of the American Medical Association are eminently due, and are here- 
hy presented to the citisens of LoulsvUle, Ky., for the princely hospitality publicly and privatelj 
extended to the members of this body during its present session. 

JiMolved^ That to the committee of arrangements and the profession of Louisville generally, our 
^thanks are due for their kind and assiduous attention to the Association, and for the hearty welcome 
with which^they^have greeted our convention in their flourishing city. 

On motion of Dr. Davis, the association adjourned, to meet at New Haven, 
-on the first Tuesday in June, 1860. 

The registration book during the day announced the names of Drs. D. G. 
Thomas, of New York; William S. Cain, of Kentucky; and Peter Allen, R. 
.K. McMeans, and W. R. Kable, of Ohio— making three hundred and five mem- 
bers in attendence diurlng the session of the association. 


TwELFTU Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association. — 
We give this month a large amount of space to the proceedings of this asso- 
ciation, to the exclusion of other matter. To abridge its proceedings more 
than we have done was quite impossible, and give to our readers anything like 
;a correct history of its proceedings. 

It convened at Louisville, Kentudcy, on the 8d of last month ; the attend- 
ance was quite large ; the proceedings are very interesting, and its delibera- 
tions appear to have been conducted with good feeling and harmony. 

Kentucky was honored with the selection of the president for the ensuing year 
— ^Dr. Henry Miller, a gentleman whose character, experience, and high social 
.standing eminently qualify him for the position ; who entertained the mem- 
bers of the association at his residence, on the evening of the 4th. 

A small number of reports were presented to the association, most of the 
<x>mmittees being unprepared, and asked for a continuance until another year. 

The next annual meeting will be held at New Haven, Conn., on the first 
Tuesday of June 1860. 

Convention of Medical Teacheks. — This convention, caAed under a reso- 
lution adopted at the last annual meeting of the American Medical Association, 
met at Louisville, on Monday, May 2d, and were organised by the choice of 
Prof. Dixi Crosby, of Dartmouth College, as chairman, and Prof. George C. 
Blackman, of Ohio medical college, at Cincinnati, as secretary. Some thirty 


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Editorial. 189^ 

delegates were present, including one (Pro£ Shattuck) from Harvard 

A series of resolutions was offered, stating the objects of the convention^ 
which we will publish next month. 

Berkshire Medical College. — The annual course of lectures will com- 
mence on the 4th of August, (the first Thursday,) and continite sixteen weeks. 
For particulars see announcement 

Medical convention for revising the pharmacopoiia op the united" 
STATES. — The medical convention for revising the pharmacopoeia, whigh met 
at Washington in May, 18S0, provided for assembling a convention for the ' 
purpose, in the year 1860, by the following resolutions: — 

^M. The president of the convention shidl, on the first day of May, 1859,. 
issue a notice, requesting the several incorporated State medical societies, the 
incorporated State medical colleges, the incorporated colleges of physicians- 
and surgeons, and the incorporated colleges of pharmacy, throughout the 
United States, to elect a number of delegates, not exceeding three, to attend s 
general convention to be held at Washington, on the first Wednesday ia 
May, 1860. 

**2. The several incorporated bodies, thus addressed, shall also be requested 
by the president to submit the pharmacopoeia to a careful revision, and to 
transmit the result of their labors, through their delegates, or through any 
other diannel, to the next convention. 

^*8. The several medical and pharmaceutical bodies shall be further re»- 
qaested to transmit to the president of the convention, the names and residen- 
ces of their respective delegates, as soon as they shall have been appointed, a 
list of whom shall be published, under his authority, for the information of 
the medical public, in the newspapers and medical journals, in the month of 
March, 1860." 

In accordance with the above resolutions, the undersigned hereby requests- 
the several bodies mentioned to appoint delegates, not exceeding three in num- 
ber, to represent them in a convention, for revising the pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, to meet at Washington on the first Wednesday in May, 1860 ; 
and would also call the attention of these bodies to the second and third 
resolutions, and request compliance with the suggestions therein contained. 
Geo. B. Wood, Fret, of the Contention <>/'1850. 

PkUadtlphia, May \9t, 18C0. ' 

Physicians wishing a location are referred to the advertisement of Dr. J. N. 

Correspondents will oblige by writing plainly their names, town, county and 
state. We have in several instances, been unable to answer letters because 
these are omitted. 

Book of Formula — ^Eight pages of this work will be appended to each 
number of the Journal hereafter. 
Subscribers will please notify us if they do not receive the Journal regularly. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




91 FVLTOH ST&EBT, H. T. , 

Importers qf 

mm?uti fAmv goods 


Fine Toilet Articles, 




A ftiU MMrtment of Artidoi ia this line, 

Adapled to the wuitt of a flrtt-clsM trade. 

Tarrant's Effervescent 
Seltser Aperient 

Our loAg experience In every department of 
tUs butlneee as Importer8> and the facUittes ae- 
quired by direct comma&Ieatlon with leading 
msttttfacturerf, thronsfa a member of our Ann, 
who is In Europe much of the time, enable qs to 
oflhr our goods to purchasers on the most fatorable 

The trade are respectfully Invited to examine 
our stoclc before making purohases. 



IM Wadiington St, Boston, Xasik, 
Offers to the trade a large assortment of 
OILS, DYB8TUm,*e. 
Also, a very fhll assortment of 
Sole Agents for the use PICKENS* COPPER 

Samuel Kidder A Co.'s Tartaric Add, Sal Ro- 
ehelle and Seidlita Mixture constantly on hand. 



Petersburg!!, Ta. 


A ftill assortment of TQden A Co's fluid and solid 
Extracts, Concentrated Preparations, sugar^ated 
pharmaceutic Pills and Granules, constantly on 

Orders from apothecaries, merchants and phy- 
sicians promptly attended to. 

This valuable and popular medidne, prepared 
In conformUy with the analysis of the water of the 
celebrated seltser spring In Germany, in a most 
oonvenlent and portable form, has anivensHy 
received the most favorable recommendaUoMof 
the modlcal proftedou and a discerning public, ss 
the most effldent and aoeeable Saline Aperient 
In use. and as being enUtled to spedal pref^enoo 
over the many mineral spring watera, sddllte 
powders, and other stmUar arUcles, both fh>m Its 
?S^/^}^V^ 1°^ «^**^ efficacy. It may be 
used with the4>est effect In all Bilious and Febrile 
dtaeases, dck Headache, Loss of AppcUte, In«a. 
g«Uon, and all similar complaints. pecuOariy In- 
ddent to the spring and summer seasons. 

It Is particularly adapted to the wants of travd- 
ers, by sea and land, residents In hot cihnates. 
persons of sedentary habits, InvaUds andconva- 
lescenta, <^pt«ins of vessels and planters wfll find 
it a valuable addition to thdr medidne chests. 
With those who have used It, It has high favor. 
and Is deemed indispensable * 

^^^ ^'^ ^y *^ ^•^ 1* '^«»d«" P«* 
•enice in restoring healthy action. In govt and 
rh»um4iU9m it glres the best satlsCaction, aUay. 
tog all toflammatory symptoms, and In mm 
cases effectually cnrinff those aflUcted. lUtM^ 
0M8inca9e% of gravel, indiffMtion, hsartinirtL 
oftcf ooe^^eSfiMs proves it to be a medidne of the 
^teainimtv^oidUyo/tKe stomach, and tlU 

yields speedily and with marked succals under ita 
healthfttl Influence. HiJ^^brdstheffreatetireM 
1oVu>S6 affiicUd tern, or •u^ecttoSs^, 
actf ng geiitly on the bowels, neatraUsIng aU irri- 
tating secretions, and thereby removing all In- 
flammatory tendendes. In fact. It Is tovalnaUe 
Is uf*^ ''**^'* * '*°'*® •perient or purgative 

I ^K ^. J° *^* f**"° ?' * powder, careftilly put up 
In botUes, to keep In any cUmate, and merely re- 
qiUres water poured upon it to produce a d^ght- 
lul effervescent beverage. ^^ 

Taken to the morning, it never interferes wHh 
the avocations of the day, acttog gently on the 
prstem, restoring the «gestlve powers, exdting a 
healthy and vigorous tone of the stomach, uid 
creaUng an dastidty of mtod and floiTofspIrits 
'S^^Pf **^ f® *^"y enjoyment. It abo en- 
ables the InvaBd to ci\joy many luxuries with im- 
punity, li-om which he must otherwise be debar- 
red, and without which Ufe Is irksome and dis- 

Numerous testhnonials flrom professioDal and 
other gentlemen of the highest standng throuxhout 
^e country, and Its steadily tocreastog popularity 
Ibr a 8eri(» of years, strongly guarantee its efllca- 
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w«f^orable noUce of an Intelligent public 
Prepared and sold wholesale and retaU. 

TarraDl's Componiid Extract tf 
Cttftebs and Copaika, 

Sanctioned by popular opinion and high author!^ 
of the most dlsttoruished of the me<ucal fkcuRy. 
It offers to the affUctod a remedy, whose succeis 
has to every Instance supportod its deserved 
reputation. Being convenient and agreeable In 
Its use, experience has proved that It retains to 
every climato Its dedrable and truly valuable 
**y!5^'- Ji*"*o.*«'o™o'»P«»teristastdess, 
and docs not Impair the dIgesUon. It U prepsxed 
with the greatest possible care, upon well-tested 


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lew] JULY, 1859. IBwJM. 

Bemaxks on Bhns Glabra, Oeraniuxn Maculattun, and 
Hamamelis Yirginlca. 



In investigating our indigenous botany we must guard against 
the danger of encumbering the materia medica with articles which 
posess no marked properties, or which have less efficacy than 
some already known, and whose efficacy has been already satis- 
£Eu^rily settled. But while guarding against this error, we are 
not to fall into the opposite one, of resting satisfied with wihat is 
already known and recorded in our standard authorities. While 
rejecting the doctrine of specifics, as generally understood, as both 
unphilosophical and opposed to all correct notions of sound pa- 
thology, and the modus operandi of remedies, we must, neverthe- 
less, admit, that every remedy has specific properties; that is, 
properties which cause it to difier fix)m all others, and to exert an 
influence peculiar to itself alone. It is true that many possess in 
conmion, very similar properties, and one may often, apparently, 
be substituted for another with equal advantage ; yet their effects 
are not identically the same, though, perhaps, equally curative. 
A very superficial sxirvey of the articles belonging to the class of 
emetics, cathartics, &c., will satisfy any one of the truth of this 
statement, yet, in regard to astringent substances it is not so ob- 
vious. Chemical analysis demonstrates that the proximate active 


zed by Google 

290 Lee on Medicinal Plants. 

extractive constitutes the largest proportion, and is supposed to be 
the principal active ingredient. Dr. Barton, however, concluded 
that as the fresh leaves, when bruised and applied to the skin, 
caused redness, and even vesication, it must contain some volatile, 
acrid constituent The researches of the late Dr. Mitchill, of New 
York, confirmed this opinion. 

Your own recent analysis gives, in seven thousand parts : — 

Organic matter, - - - - . 6488 

Inorganic " 512 



Gum and albumen, - - - . 280.08 3.286 

Sugar, 181.28 2.589 

Starch, 83-92 0.484 

Extractive 849.92 4.998 

Tannin, 347.28 4.961 

Particular principles, ... - 1002.68 14-295 

Clorophyle 444.00 6.342 

Soluble salts, 82.88 1.184 

Insoluble " 429.12 6.180 

Ligneous, &c. 38.998 55.731 

7000.00 100.000 

There is a peculiar bitter principle contained in this plant as 
well as the other species, C. macuhta, {spotted winter-green) to which 
the name chimaphillin may be given. It is included among the 
"particular principles" or " extractive," in the above analysis. 

Therapeutical properties cmd vses. — ^From the large amount of 
. tannic acid and bittei* principle contained in the plant, we might 
infer that it was an efficient tonico-astringent But, although it 
possesses these properties in no slight degree, it also has a decided 
^action on the renal organs, increasing the urinary secretion and 
the depurating function. It has been suggested that this effect is 
in consequence of the peculiar active principle passing ofl^ either 
changed or unchanged with the urine ; but as this is the case with 
nearly all medicines which are administered, we must suppose 
that there is some specific power in the remedy by which it com- 
bines such apparently opposite virtues. It, however, possesses 
these properties in common with buchuj uva ursi and pareira brava ; 


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Lee on Medicinal Ph/nis, 291 

all efficient tonics, and all exerting a specific influence over the 
genito-urinary organs. 

This plant seems to have been extensively employed by the 
Indians in a variety of diseases before it was adopted by the 
medical profession. They employed it chiefly in the very cases 
in which it is used at the present day, viz;, scrofola, dropsy, rheuma- 
tism, and affections of the kidneys and urinary passages. We have 
employed it to a considerable extent for many years, especially in 
the treatment of dropsical affections, in broken down constitutions 
and intemperate subjects, and generally with manifest advantage. 
It has tended to carry off the dropsical accumulations, while, at 
the same time, it imparted tone and vigor to the digestive system. 
Its alterative powers entitle it to a high place among our indige- 
nous remedies, independent of its other therapeutical properties. 
In albuminuria^ also, its effects have proved decidedly beneficial, 
and in some cases curative. In scrofula and cachectic affections 
generally, it will rarely disappoint the practitioner, especially when 
aided by chalybeates and a suitable regimen. Dr. Wood also 
states that in such affections he has found few remedies more 
efficacious. "Its mildly astringent and tonic properties," he re- 
marks, " adapt it admirably to the treatment of the scrofulous 
cachexia, in which a general laxity of the tissues and debility of 
the functions call for these two remedial influences; while the 
chronic character of the affection requires that the medication 
should be gentie, in order that it may be long sustained without 
injury to the organs. In the earlier stages of the disease, 1 have 
been in the habit of directing, in connection with its use a saline 
laxative twice or three times a week, and in anemic cases, have had 
recourse also to the chalybeates, but in many instances the pip- 
sissewa has been the remedy mainly relied on. It has seemed to 
me to exercise a favorable alterative influence in scrofula, inde- 
pendently of its astringency and tonic power ; but it is extremely 
difficult to discriminate, in affections of this kind, between the 
course of nature and the effect of remedies, so that it is proper to 
speak of the latter with some reserve. Fully aware of the neces- 
sity of this caution, I am still of opinion, as the result of consider- 
able experience, that pipsissewa deserves to rank next to cod-liver 
oil, and the preparations of iodine in the treatment of scrofula, 
and may often be usefully combined with one or both of these 


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292 Lee on Medicinal Plants, 

remedies. In order that its full effects may be obtained, it should 
be long continued, with interruptions now and then, should any 
considerable degree of fever supervene. In cases attended with 
ulcers of an indolent or flabby character, it may be used with ad- 
vantage in decoction as a wash, at the same time that it is adminis- 
tered internally." I have made this quotation in order to express 
my entire confidence in the opinions so strongly set forth. I have 
advised this remedy for a long time in the same class of cases, both 
in city and country practice, and with marked success. It is a tonic 
astringent of peculiar efficacy in the whole class of cachexia, but its 
effects are rendered more decided by an occasional dose of grey pow- 
der {Hyd. cum. cret) and rhubarb, as an alterative. The compound 
decoction of aloes, with phosphate of iron, should be given in 
connection with it in chlorotic and anemic cases. During the 
revolutionary war, the pipsissewa was used extensively by the 
army surgeons as a tonic and diaphoretic in typhus fever. As a 
popular remedy in rheumatism it has also been in great repute. 
In Germany it has long been deemed one of the best remedies in 
abdominal and renal dropsies. The late Prof. Mitchill, of New 
York, made it the subject of his inaugural thesis, {Phil 1808) in 
which he relates many cases of intermittent fever effectually cured 
by it. Dr. Barton extols it highly for its anti-lithic properties^ 
and ranks it with uva uisi. It may, however, well be doubted, 
whether it has any specific powers of this kind, which entitle it to 
particular consideration. 

On the whole it may be safely recommended as a diuretic tonic, 
in cases attended with loss of appetite and general debility, as it 
proves acceptable to the stomach, while it imparts tone to the 
whole digestive apparatus. 

We have already referred to the influence of the fresh leaves 
when bruised and applied to the skin, causing redness and vesica- 
tion, in consequence of some acrid volatile constituent in it 

Preparations, — Decoction, fluid extract, solid extract, pills, in- 
fusion, syrup, beer, &c. 

The decoction is made by boiling one ounce of the dried plant 
in a pint and a half of water to a pint ; the whole of which may 
be taken in the course of twenty-four .hours. The fluid extract^ 
prepared in vacuo, as kept in the shops, is perfectly reliable, and 
in all respects the most valuable form for administering. Dose — 


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Lee 071 Medicinal Plants. 293 

One dram. The solid extract prepared in a similar manner, is also 
used in doses of ten to twenty grains, in form of pill of three 
grains each. The infusion may be extemporaneously prepared by 
adding one ounce fluid extract to one pint of water ; the dose of 
which is two ounces. The syrup may be made by adding ^ iv.» 
of the fluid extract to ^ xij. of syrup. Dose — 5 ss. ; or if the fluid 
extract is not at hand, take 5 iv. of the plant, 5 xij. of sugar, and 
a sufficient quantity of water ; macerate (finely bruised) in 5 viij. 
of water, for thirty-six hours ; then subject it to displacement, till 
one pint of fluid is obtained; reduce by evaporation lo §viij.; 
add the sugar, and form the syrup in the usual manner. The 
coriaceous character of the leaves renders long maceration neces- 
sary. One fluid ounce of this syrup represents two drams of the 
leaves. Dose — ^A tablespoonful. Pipsissewa beer is a very agree- 
able form for administering this remedy. 5^. Ghimaphila ^vi. 
water one gallon. Boil, strain and add brown sugar one pound; 
powdered ginger 5 ss. ; yeast a sufficient quantity. Set it aside 
till fermentation has commenced ; then bottle it for use. Dose — 
A small tumbler full three or four times a day. In the same way 
comus and other indigenous articles may be made into beers. 

GoRNUS Florida {Dogwood ; Boxivood). — This important genus 
includes about twenty species, one half of which are natives of 
North America; all but two, which are herbaceous, are either 
trees or large shrubs. The above species, too well-known to need 
description, are found in nearly every part of the Union, especially 
in moist, swampy woods, flowering from February to June, in- 
dicating the time for the planting of Indian corn. The wood is 
hard, compact, susceptible of a high polish, and employed for a 
variety of purposes in the arts, where hardness and strength are 
required. The bark is officinal, though that of the root contains 
a greater amount of the active principle. The C. Jiorida occupies 
a place in the primary, and the C, cincinata and sericea in the 
secondary list of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 

Physical properties and chemical composition. — The powdered 
bark of the root is of a reddish gray colour, very bitter to the 
taste, slight odour, and of an astringent and slightly aromatic 
taste. Its virtues are exhausted by water and alcohol combined. 
No very accurate analysis of this bark has been made previous 
to your own. Dr. Walher investigated it some years ago, but 


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294 Lee on Medicinal Plants. 

very imperfectly ; subsequently Mr. Cockburn found it to contain 
tannin, gallic acid, resin, a bitter extractive, and a crystalline 
substance. About the year 1830, Dr. Carpenter, a druggist of 
Philadelphia, claimed to have discovered an alkaline base in the 
<7. florida^ to which he gave the name of comine, forming salts 
with acids. This substance is in the form of a grayish white pow- 
der, extremely bitter and deliquescent when exposed to the air. 
It was employed to a considerable extent by the late Dr. Morton, 
of Philadelphia, as an antiperiodic tonic in intermittents, and with 
much success. — (JPhU, Jour^JIed. and Phys, Sci. xi.) Owing, how- 
ever, to the comparatively small amount of comine contained 
in th# bark of the C. flonda^ it has not been much employed; 
although, in the same dose it has been found equal to quinine in 
arresting intermittents. The recent analysis of the inner bark in 
your laboratory, yielded, in seven thousand parts : — 

Inorganic matter, 876 

Organic " 6124 


Gum and albumen, 104 

A crystalline bitter principle, 12 

Tannin 81 

Coloring matter, 8 

Particular principles (bitter) 288 

Sugar, 4 

Extractive matter, 282 

Starch, 66 

Resin, 209 

Soluble salts, 94^ 

Insoluble " 781i 

Lignii^ 5180 


If the " peculiar crystalline bitter principle " represents the total 
amount of the comine, then the latter only exists in the bark in 
the proportion of 1.3 percent. If so, even if its extraction were 
much easier than it is, the][ quantity being so minute, its cost 
would be far greater than that of quinine. 

Therapeutical properties and uses. — ^The physiological effects of 
the comus bark are similar to those of the vegetable bitter tonics 
generally, viz., increased frequency of pulse, exalted temperature, 


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Lee 0)1 Medicinal Plants, 295 

diaphoresis, sensation of fullness or pains in the head, and, if the 
quantity be sufficient, gastric derangement. Of these, the most 
strongly marked, are the increased temperature of the skin, and 
the general perspiration. Some experimenters have observed a 
constant tendency to sleep, which has continued for several hours. 
This, as occurs in many other cases, does not indicate any specific 
narcotic properties, but is the result of the cerebral fullness^ 
Whether the remote effects are owing to sympathy, propagate(J 
fix>m the gastric centre; or, are the direct effects of the intro- 
duction of the active principles into the blood, is not certainly 
known; although the latter is most probable, since the cold in- 
fusion or the alcoholic extract produces the same effects. But 
whatever doubt there may be in regard to its true mode of 
operation, it is very evident that the comus has properties calcu- 
lated to invigorate the vital forces, and the organic nervous energy 
without unduly stimulating the circulatory system. A person in- 
good health may take the comus, as well as any of the other 
vegetable tonics in moderate doses, and for a" long time without. 
any marked effect on any of the functions ; but, taken in the same 
manner and the same quantities, in certain pathological states, as- 
a general lowering of the vital force and nervous energy, inde- 
pendent of organic disease, or where miasmatic poison has caused 
a tendency to paroxysmal attacks, as fever and ague, the thera- 
peutical influence of the comus will be promptly manifested in a 
general invigoration of the vital forces, and suspension of the 
paroxysms. Here, as in regard to cinchona, we must rest satisfied 
with the result, for the manner in which it is brought about must 
ever remain a mystery. In certain morbid conditions, as hectic 
fever, or great debility, attended with frequency of the pulse and 
cold colliquative sweats, the comus would seem to possess the 
powers of a sedative, as manifested in decided lowering of pulse 
and abatement of perspiration. This effect is common to all neu- 
rotic tonics, in certain pathological conditions of the body. It de- 
pends on their irflparting increased tonicity to the muscular fibres 
of the heart through the organic nerves, thus enabling the central 
organ of circulation to throw out a greater quantity of blood at 
each contraction. The cardiac irritability also, is lessened by the 
temporary increase of tonic power, and vital contractility. We 
see this constantly illustrated in cases of great debility, by tho 


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296 I^e on Medicinal Plants, 

diminislied frequency and increased force of the pulse, consequent 
on tlie administration of alcoholic stimulants. The tonic vege- 
table alkaloids and neutrals possess this power in a still greater de- 
gree. On the contrary ; if cornus and other analogous substances 
be given in acute or sthenic conditions, marked by those phenom- 
ena which are characteristic of inflammatory action, the circulation 
will be correspondingly increased by an increase of inflammatory 
action; in both conditions, however, acting as a stimulant. It 
has been stated by some writers, that the cornus is apt to cause 
derangement of the digestive organs, and hence is, in many cases, 
inadmissable where other vegetable tonics would be unobjection- 
able. But this effect depends entirely on the mode of adminis- 
tration and the quantity given. The hydro-alcoholic extract is 
certainly not open to this objection. 

The cornus florida is a tonic-astringent, occupying the first rank 
among our indigenous antiperiodics. Its effects are closely 
analogous to those of the cinchona bark, for which it may often 
be successfully sub^ituted. Eberle states that thirty-five grains 
of the dogwood bark are equal to thirty of cinchona.— (TViero. vol. 
1st, p. 304.) Our own experience with this article has satisfied 
us that most cases of our periodic or miasmatic fevers will yield 
to its judicious use. The severer forms may require the more 
energetic action of quinine, but as intermittents generally occur, 
no other antiperiodic will be required. Our rule is to administer 
from half a dram to one dram of the hydro-alcoholic extract be- 
tween the paroxysms, preceding its use by a cholagogue cathartic. 
It is also well adapted to promote the appetite and digestion, in 
atonic and enfeebled conditions of the stomach, and as a general 
tonic in feebleness and debility of the whole system, especially of 
the muscles. It, also, has considerable anthelmintic power, though 
this may be dependent on its influence in improving the functions 
of the alimentary canal, and correcting those conditions of the di- 
gestive organs which favor the production of worms. 

Preparations — These are the powder, fluid extract, solid extract, 
cornin, tincture, infusion, wine and syrup. 

The powder is seldom used, it being apt to disturb the stomach. 
The fluid extract is wholly reliable and efficient, in doses of from 
thirty drops to two drams. It contains all the active principles, 
and is adapted to all cases where the article is indicated. As a 


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Lee on Medicinal Plants, 297 

fitoniacliic, half a dram before eating, will generally be sufficient. 
The solid extract as well as the fluid, is now prepared at our large 
establishments, in vacuo, and are, doubtless, superior to those pre- 
pared in the ordinary manner. Still, the country practitioner 
who has not these preparations on hand, can prepare them for 
himself so that they will prove sufficiently reliable. The follow- 
ing formula will serve as a guide: — Take of dogwood bark, 
■coarsely powdered, one pound; absolute alcohol, four pints; 
water, six pints; macerate the bark with the alcohol for five 
-days; pour off the tincture and express; boil the residuum for 
half an hour in three pints of the water ; strain through linen 
while hot, and express ; repeat the boiling for the same length 
•of time with the remaining three pints of water ; strain and ex- 
press as before ; then mix the decoctions, and evaporate to the con- 
sistence of a thin syrup ; distil the alcohol from the tincture until 
it acquires the same thickness ; then mix both inspissated liquors 
and evaporate to the consistence proper for working pills. Ten 
pounds of bark will, in this way, yield fifteen ounces of extract 
•Care must be taken to avoid burning the extract by evaporating 
towards the close, over a very slow fire ; or, what would be still 
better, a sand-bath. Good cornus bark, such as*from the root or 
the inner bark of the trunk, yields about nine per cent of extract, 
and one ounce of it is equal in antiperiodic power, it is believed, 
to half an ounce of quinine. At fifty cents per ounce, therefore, 
the extract would be twice as cheap as quinine, and it would un- 
doubtedly be manufactured at a profit, at less than that price. In 
some parts of the southern States this preparation has nearly su- 
perseded the cinchona. The above extract is less bitter and more 
astringent than a similar preparation of the Peruvian bark. A 
more simple mode of making the extract, is to evaporate a tincture 
of the bark in a sand-bath ; the tincture to be prepared by di- 
gesting it with proof spirits, in the proportion of two ounces of 
the former to a pint of the latter, allowing it to stand for one 
week before digesting ; occasionally, during this time, submitting 
it for a few hours to a moderate heat, to favor the solution of its 
active constituents. This may be called a concentrated prepara- 
tion of the cornus, as it contains the active principles, separated 
from the lignin and other insoluble matters. 
This extract may be given in doses of from five to ten grains ; 


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298 Lee on Medicinal Plants. 

simple, or combined witli other remedies, as blue mass, caJorael^ 
ipecac, &c. The cornin is a true alkaloid ; first discovered by Dr. 
Carpenter, and employed by Dr. Morton ; although it has since 
been questioned whether any such principle has ever been de- 
tected in the comus bark. But it may readily be separated by 
the same processes which are employed in preparing sulphate of 
quinine, from the various species of cinchona bark. It probably 
exists in combination with tannic acid. Cornin is, however, not 
kept in the shops, and that which now goes under this name is 
nothing but a solid extract mixed with the crude powdered bark, 
chloride of soda and other impurities. The dose of the real cor- 
nin is from one to five grains. 

The tincture of comus is made extemporaneously by adding 
four ounces of the fluid extract to twelve ounces of proof spirits,, 
the dose of which is from two to four draip. The infusion is 
readily prepared by adding two ounces of the fluid extract to one 
pint of water. — ^Dose, 5 ij- The vnne, add 5 v- A^d extract to 
5 X. sherry wine. — Dose, 3 j. — 3 iij. Syrup, — Fluid extract 5 iv. 
syrup one pint. — ^Dose — 3ij. — 3 iij. Decoction. — 5j- powdered 
bark to one pint. Where any of the above preparations seem to 
disagree with the stomach, it is probably from their having been 
made from the recent bark, or given in too large doses. A few 
drops of laudanum, however, will, in nearly all cases, obviate any 
such tendency. An infusion of the dried flowers is a very usefiil - 
stomachic tonic, and well adapted to cases of flatulent colic. The 
above remarks apply also to the comus cirdnata and C. sericea^ as 
well as some other species. 

The extract of the C. cirdnata is, however, more astringent than 
that of the C. florida. It is highly recommended by Prof. Ives, 
of New Haren, and the late A. W. Ives, M. D., of New York, in 
dysentery. The late Dr. Tully also extolled it in the same disease.. 
One ounce of the bark of the (7. cirdnata yields one hundred and 
fifty grains of solid extract by boiling. It is used externally in 
New England in cases of diarrhea, dyspepsia, &c. 


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Jiepo7't on Home Adtdterations, ^ 299 

A valuable Report to the Pharmaceutical Convention on 
Home Adulterations. 

At the meeting of the Pharmaceutical AssodatioD, Mr. Camey» from the 
committee upon the subject of home adulterations, appointed at the annual 
meeting of the association, held in Washington last year, made the following 
report, which is of so general public interest that we give it entire : — 

The subject placed in their hands has received, as it deserves, careful con- 

The co-operation of our pharmaceutical brethren from all parts of our country 
has been solicited, and yoiur committee take pleasure in stating that the in- 
terest shown by our members in this subject proves that it is a matter worthy 
of all the time and care bestowed upon it from year to year, by this association. 

The matter of adulteration is one that appeals to every person strongly. 
Viewed in the best light we can place it, that of a mere matter of dollars and 
cents, it even then meets with the condemnation of those who are only con- 
sdoos of the wickedness of the practice by being touched in their most senstive 
region — the pocket 

*For, although some do say that mixing rfce flour with cream of tartar, and 
chickory with coffee, is a "AarmZew" sophistication; still, when they are 
obliged to pay the price of *^Best Old Mo«ha," for chickory, and forty cents a 
pound for rice flour, then the enormity of the offence is at once apparent 

Before presenting to the association such specimens of adulterations and so- 
phistications as your committee have to ofler, it will be well, perhaps, to give 
an explanation as to what constitutes an adulteration. For the best definition 
of an adulteration, we are indebted to Dr. Hassall, of London. He says: — 
**The sale of one article in place of another is not an adulteration, but a sub- 
stitution. The presence of substances in articles, in consequence of impurities 
contained in the materials out of which they were prepared,, as for example, 
arsenic in the hydrochloric acid used in the preparation of unfermented bread, 
does not constitute adulteration, they are simply impurities. Lastly, the aC' 
eidental presence of substances in any commodity does not constitute an adul- 
teration. Excluding, then, from the class of adulterations all cases of substi- 
tution, impurities and accidental contaminations, adulteration may thus be 
defined : — It consists in the intentional addition to an article, for the purpose 
of gain or deception, of any substance or substances the presence of which is 
not acknowledged in the name under which the article is sold." 

Tour committee feel that, perhaps, they may bring forward some facts, not 
in aU cases agreeable, and that they may be met with the oft repeated state- 
ment that ** the public wish the adulterated articles," that ** pure mustard and 
cream tartar will not sell," coffee with burnt peas and apples in it is "richer** 
and more "nutritious," but we feel constrained to say this pretended regard 
for the wishes and tastes of the " public" is most generally based upon a slight 
interest for the pecimiary welfare of the manufacturer or trader. 

The public do not wish adulterated articles ; were they once aware of the 


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300 Report on Home Adulterations, 

real difference between pure and impure articles they would not hesitate a 
moment in their choice: could they but see the peas and beans roasted for 
best ** old Mocha," the sulphate of soda for " cream tartar," the turmeric for 
" mustard," the alum for bread, and #he sulphuric acid for "vinegar," your 
committee feel tliat very soon the lucrative portion of the adulterator's business 
would pass away, leaving him with a reputation far from enviable. 

It is not only in articles of food, but in medicines also, that this practice 
prevails, and your committee have felt that upon this part of the subject they 
should bestow a large portion of their investigations. 

Science is never so noble as when engaged in advancing those arts which 
promote health or mitigate the sufferings of humanity, but when it is prosti- 
tuted to ignoble purposes, and in direct opposition to the relieving of suffering, 
is engaged in sophisticating with a cunning and well concealed hand those 
yery articles which the physician relies upon for promoting and restoring 
health, then indeed is it deserving of condemnation. 

Very many of the adulterations of the present day exhibit a knowledge of 
science worthy a better cause ; many of them are decidedly pernicious, and 
serious results have followed their use ; of such we may instance the employ- 
ment of poisonous pigments for the colored confections, lead in snuff, and in 
cayenne pepper, copper in pickles^ and cocculus indicus and nux vomica in 
beer and ale. 

Your committee would refer to any of the works published in France or 
England devoted to the exposure of the frauds in food and medicine, for evidence, 
were it needed, of th« great interest felt in this subject by scientific men ; and 
they cannot better illustrate the necessity of these investigations than by 
^ving a short list of those articles of food which have been proved to be adul- 
terated, and the substances used for the purpose. Many of these have been 
met with by your committee, and some of them are described by Dr. Hassall, 
in his work on " The Adulterations of Food and Medicine." 

The articles we specially refer to are as follows : — 

Colored confectioneiy — Adulterated with emerald or scheles green, arsenite 
of copper. 

Beer — with cocculus indica and nux vomica. 

Pickles and bottled fruits — with verdigris and sulphate copper. 

Custard Powders — with chromate of lead. 

Tea and snuff—with the same, 

Cayenne and curry powder — with red oxide of lead. 

Sugar confectionery — with gamboge, orpiment, or sulphurct of arsenic, and 
•chloride of copper. » 

Flour and bread — with hydrated sulphate of lime, plaster of Paris and alum. 

Vinegar — with sulphuric acid. 

Sugar — with sand and plaster of Paris. 

Milk— with chalk, sheep's brains and ground turmeric. 

Arrow root — with ground rice. 

•Chocolate — with rice, flour, potato starch, gum tragaganth, cinnabar, bals. 

Digitized by 


Report on Home Adah-rations, 301 

Peni, red oxide mercuiy, red lead, carbonate of lime, and the red ochres to- 
bring up the color. 

Mustard — with ground turmeric, to give it a brilliant color. 

Butter — with potato starch, mutton tallow, carbonate of lead, and sugar of 

That it would be right to make public the persons who are directly engaged 
in the practice of adulteration, we feel that few would deny ; but your com- 
mittee refrain from pursuing this course at present, suggesting, however, to- 
the association the propriety of taking some measures for exposing those who 
make it a regular matter of business. 

It is, perhaps, our duty to be more explicit in this matter as to what parties 
are guilty of the adulteration, but your committee know that all classes of 
trade, manufacturer, jobber and retailer, are sometimes implicated in these 

Certain kinds of adulterations and sophistications are practised upon so large- 
a scale as to be beyond the small dealer ; they involve the use of extensive- 
machinery, which the ordinary tradesman does not possess. 

It was once the practice for druggists to systematically add to all drugs cer- 
tain amounts of saw-dust, oat-meal, and other substances of less value than the 
article in its purity, to make good the loss by drying and powdering. The 
average loss was considered to be about four per cent., and as this amount 
was added to compensate, it was known as the " four per cent system." The 
practice, under this name, was principally confined to England, but from speci- 
mens with which your committee have, from time to time, met, it is apparent 
that a practice somewhat similar exists occasionally on this side of the water. 

Tour committee feel also that the tradesman is sometimes a party to the 
fraud, although he may not be the actual mixer. He often purchases of the 
wholesale dealer an article which he knows cannot be pure, from the price 
asked ; he is willing, however, to stretch his elastic conscience round the ap- 
parent discrepancy, and, as one of the members of your committee has been, 
told by a retail apothecary, if the jobber told him an article was pure, although 
lie knew it was not, he should consider the jobber as having taken the responsi- 
bility, and should buy and sell the article with a clear conscience. 

Your committee do not appreciate this kind of a conscience, and trust that 
our profession is not graced with many such. It is our duty as pharmaceu- 
tists to do all in our power to put an end to this pernicious system of adul- 
teration, using our influence against a practice which, in the language ot 
another "is undermining the very foundation of trade, namely, /a i77* in com- 
mercial ip^tegrityy 

In England the matter of pecuniary loss to the government has been taken 
into consideration, and from careful estimates the revenue suffers by adul- 
teration to the extent of two millions annually I The author of "Food of 
London^' states that half the national revenue is derived from articles of con- 
sumption. "If the government loses so much, the public suffers a much 
greater loss." 


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802 Bepori on Home AduUeraiions. 

This subject of home adulterations then is one worthy of attention by State 
and public ofiBcers, even as a question of pecuniary moment only. 

As a matter relating to public health this subject is worthy careful attention; 
very many of the adulterations practised upon food and medicine are said to he 
** harmless in themselves ; " but we have seen that in a pecuniary point of 
view at least, they are not so. Very many instances are on record, however, 
where not only serious, but fatal results to health have followed the use of 
adulterated articles. 

During the past year your committee have met with very many instances 
of fraud and deception in drugs ; some of these are very curious, and are worthy 
of a place in a Report of this kind. 

During the past year, in a wood turner's shop in Boston, was seen more 
than a barrel of East India rhubarb, which was being turned down into ^*true 

This rhubarb was sold for genuine and real Turkey rhubarb. 

A druggist was applied to by a man for a situation as porter in his store : — 

" What can you do ? What have you been doing at your last place ? '* were 
the questions asked. 

*^ Oh ! " replied the man, ** I have done everything about the store that was 
needed ; until the past year, I have worked up stairs in the room making Tur- 
key rhubarb." 

" Making Turkey rhubarb I what do you mean by that ?" 

"Why," replied the man, " we used to take the East India nudjile it and 
bore it into true Turkey." 

The man was not engaged. 

Both of these, it may be remarked, are merely instances grateful to those 
who urge that ^^most of the adulterations are harmless^^^ but they must appeal 
with considerable force to those who are sensitive as to the mere value of an 
article in dollars and cents, for East India rhubarb at 90c. per lb. transformed 
into *'true Turkey" at $4.50 per lb., is certainly a touching instance of the 
mutability of earthly things, especially drugs. 

There is one more aspect in which this subject of adulterations is to be con- 
sidered, and that is the moral bearings of the practice. It is not possible for 
an adulterator to bo a strictly honest man. The practice not only makes those 
guilty of it dishonest, but it also causes distrust on the part of those who buy ; 
confidence in the integrity of the seller is lost by those who purchase, and not 
only do the guilty, but the honest traders suffer ; in fact the standard of mo- 
rality and business integrity is lowered, and the innocent suflTer with the guilty. 

The truly upright man who cannot conscientiously adopt the practices of his 
competitors, how fares it with him ? 

He struggles along, selling pure articles at a smaller profit than those who 
are less scrupulous ; he is discouraged, and well he may be oftentimes ; and 
were it not for the proud consciousness of right doing, he would become dis- 
heartened, less honest, and finally adopt the practices he formerly condemned. 

The practice of adulteration then is one deserving condemnation, because 
prejudicial to public health, honesty and morality, and in a pecuniary view, 


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Bepori on Home AdiUteraiions, 803 

as occasioning a loss to the public and the goTemment. 

If we admit the truth of the statement of Dr. Nonnandy, and Tery few will 
question it, we can see to how great an extent the practice has adyanced. He 
says: — *^ Adulteration is a wide spread eyil, which has invaded every branch 
of commerce. Every thing which can be mixed or adulterated, or debased in 
any way is debased.*' 

Your committee submit herewith a brief list of drugs found to be adulterated, 
and the articles used for the purpose. 

Many of the substances referred to in this list are taken from " Chevalier's 
Dictionary of Alterations and Falsifications.'' 

Acetate of morphia is adulterated with acetate and phosphate of lime. 

Benzoic acid with asbestos, carbonate and sulphate of lime, hipponic acid 
and sugar. 

Citric acid with oxalic and tartaric acids, and sulphate of lime. It often 
contains sulphuric acid and salts of lead or copper. In 1850, M. Pennes dis- 
covered the presence of lead in this acid, obtained of three highly respectable 
dealers. The acid was very white, and was intended to prepare the purgative 

Tartaric acid with cream of tartar, acid sulphate of potassa, and with lime. 

Aloes with colophony, ochre, extract of liquorice, gum arable, and calcined 

Starch with carbonate and sulphate of lime or alabaster ; the more common 
fraud is, however, to saturate it with moisture. 

Arrow root with potato starch and rice flour. 

Assafcetida with gum resins of poorer quality, sand, and other inert 

Balsam copaiba with the resinous extract by decoction of the bark and 
branches of oopaifera, turpentine, colophony, and fat oils. 

Balsam Peru with colophony, turpentine, benzoin resin, alcohol and fixed oils. 

Balsam Tolu with turpentine, colophony and other resins. 

Chloroform with chlorohydric ether, hypochlorous acid, hydro carbonated 
oils, compounds of methyle and aldehyde, and fixed substances. 

Beeswax with resin, burgundy, pitch, earthy matter, flowers of sulphur, 
starch and amylaceous substances, tallow, stearic acid, yellow ochre, calcined 
bones, and sawdust. 

Tart emetic with cream tartar, oxide antimony, tartrate of iron, chlor. cal- 
cium and potassium, and sometimes is contaminated with salts of copper 
and tin. 

Essential oils with alcohol and fixed oils. 

Iodide potassium with chloride potassium and sodium, and calcium, carbon- 
ate of potassa and bromide of potassium. The latter salt being sometimes in 
so large a proportion, owing to its lesser price, as to replace^ almost entirely, 
the iodide. 

Manna with glucose or starch sugar, and starch. The large flake manna is 
sometimes made from a mixture, consisting of a little manna, flour, honey, and 
a purgative powder ; these are boiled together to a syrupy consistence, and 


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304 Report mi Home Adulterations, 

then moulded in form of "flakes;" common "sorts manna" has been con- 
verted into "Hake" by being boiled in water, clarified with charcoal, and 
moulded into proper form. 

It is possible to extend this list, but your committee feel that enough ha& 
been already brought forward to establish the fact, were proof necessary, that 
very many articles depended upon as medicines to restore health, may be, le- 
cause adulterated^ highly pernicious and even fatal in their eflfects. 

Your committee propose to offer, in concluding this report, already perhaps 
extended beyond its limits, a few specimens of adulterations, and substitutions 
which have come to their knowledge the past year, and to give the simpler 
tests by which they may be detected. 

First we ask your attention to the 


Specimen No. 1, is western alcohol. A barrel of this was sold for " Atwood's- 
alcohol." A very simple examination proves it to be loaded with grain oils, 
and thus exposes the fraud at once. The simplest way to detect the grain 
oils is to treat the suspected sample with an equal volume of concentrated sul- 
phuric acid ; if grain oils are present, the mixture becomes darker colored, 
owing to their carbonization. Also they may be detected by a solution of nitrate 
silver ; expose the alcohol, to which this solution has been added, to the action 
of sunlight, or diffuse daylight, if grain oils are present, a black precipitate 
subsides after some little time. This change does not occur if the alcohol 
is pure. 

Specimen No. 2, is an oil, principally linseed, which was sold for Uue Eng- 
glish oil of sweet almonds." The physical characteristics and the temperature 
required for congelation serve to detect this fraud. Linseed oil remains fluid 
at zero, while true oil almonds congeals above that temperature. 

Specimen No. 3, is false oil, of bitter almonds. This was purchased with 
the label of a well known English house upon it, and was sold as "true es- 
sential oil of bitter almonds." It is the article known as " essence de Mirban,"^ 
or nitro-benzole, and may be detected very easily- 

When a mixture of one volume, true essential oil almonds, two volumes of 
alcohol, and one volume of very weak solution of potassa, mixed well together, 
is allowed to stand, it is converted into benzoic acid in from twenty-four ta 
forty-eight hours. 

The fictitious oil (nitro benzole) is not capable of undergoing this change. 

Specimen No. 4, is fictitious tapioca. This article purports to be the fecula 
of iatropha manihot, or cassiva. It is not, however, what it appears, and is 
proved to be, by microscopical examination, entirely a fictitious article ; made 
from potato starch, and does not contain one particle of real tapioca. 

This article is made in Liverpool, England, and imported into New York. 

Your committee cannot refrain from recommending the use of the^microscope 
as being a very valuable aid to the pharmaceutist By this instrument he is 
enabled to detect at once, frauds which perhaps might be previously unsuspec- 
ted, particularly articles of food, as in the instance jast brought to your notice. 


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Sfjlam'ne and Dalcamava, — Iodide of Potassium. 805 

Specimen No. 6, is Melambo or Matias bark. — ^This bark is largely used for 
grinding with all kinds of spices. For further description we refer to Prof. 
Procter's Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 29th, pp. 103 and 215, where the nature 
and characteristics of this bark are very fully set forth by Messrs. Edward 
Parrish and Frank B. Daucy. Your committee are not aware of other uses, 
to any extent, to which this bark is put, except for adulterating spices. Spe- 
cific adtilterat'iom^ whicli concludes the report, will be given in the next No. 

Therapeutical Action of Solanine and Dulcamara. 

Prof Caylus, of Leipzig, has undertaken a series of experiments to ascer- 
tain the exact etfect of dulcamara, and its active principle, solanine. These 
substances belong to the class of narcotico-acids, as they produce a paralyzing 
action on the medulla oblongata, and an exciting action on the nerves. They 
cause death by producing paralysis of the respiratory muscular apparatus, by 
an action analogous to that of coneine and nicotine. They possess a thera- 
peutical action in spasms and irritable conditions of the respiratory organs, in 
simple spasmodic cough, hooping cough, and spasmodic asthma. Their thera- 
peutical action in certain morbid conditions of the blood — as gout, rheuma- 
tism, constitutional syphilis, and perhaps in certain chronic diseases of the 
skin — may be due to their augmenting the excretion by the kidneys, of the 
constituent parts of the blood which have undergone combustion, and not to 
the excitement of cutaneous activity. Solanine and dulcamara may be gjiven 
without danger in inflammatory conditions of the stomach and the intestinal 
tube, as they exercise no action on those organs. Inflammation of tho respi- 
ratory organs presents no contraindication to the employment of solanine and 
dulcamara, but they are contra-indicated in inflammation of the kidneys. The 
medium dose of solanine for an adult is from one to five centigrammes of ace- 
tate of solanine, a substance which M. Caylus prefers to the pure alkaloid, in 
consequence of its solubility. The most suitable form of administration is in 
pills, tho solutions of the salts of solanine having a very disagreeable taste. 
The extract obtained from alcohol, and then washed with water to remove the 
alcohol, is preferable to the watery extract generally employed. — PrcMC MSdi- 
eah Beige, Sept ,\ms. 

Diuretic Action of Iodide of Potassium. 

By a Handfidd Jones, M. 2>., F. R. S. 

It appears reasonable to expect that the healing influence of a drug in cer- 
tain morbid states may be shown to be explicable by its general mode of ac- 
tion, yet there are certain remedies which exert a very positive curative power, 
and yet aflFord no clue in their general mode of action to explain their special 
eflR^cts. Such a remedy, according to Dr. H. Jones, is iodide of potassium, 
which has certainly a strong controlling power over periosteal inflammations. 


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/306 Iodide of Potassium, — Acid Nitrate oj Silver, 

whether syphilitic or rheumatic, as well as over rupial ulcers, which geuerallj 
heal under its use. It is also more or less useful in inflammations affecting 
fibrous tissues in various parts. Dr. Jones has made a series of experiments 
upon the effects of iodide of potassium administered to patients, and has ex- 
amined the urine in each case ; and the general results are thus summed up: — 
1. That the quantity of water was greatly increased in three out of six cases; 
a little (one-sixth) increased in one ; diminished in two. 2. Out of five cases^ 
the acidity was increased in three, diminished in two. 8. Urea was increased 
in three, diminished in three. 4. Phosphoric acid was increased in four, dimin- 
ished in two. 5. Sulphuric acid was increased in four, diminished in two. 
6. Chlorine was increased in three, diminished in two out of five cases ; in two 
the increase was very considerable. 7. Uric add was diminished in four out 
of six cases, greatly increased in the remaining two. The most marked effects 
seem to be the increase of the water, of the phosporic and sulphuric acids, 
and of the chlorine. But Dr. Jones adds, that as far as these confessedly em- 
pirical results go, there seems to be no help or clue afforded to trace out any 
connection between the empirical facts just noticed. A varying diuretic effect 
does not give any explanation of the modus operandi of the drug in curing 
a node or an ulcer. For the present Dr. Jones concludes that we cannot at- 
tain to more than an empirical acquaintance with the operation of iodide of 
potassium. — Beale^s Archives of Medicine^ No. 3. 

Alum and Savin in Condylomata. 

In tliose raised patches of skin, known as mucas tubercles, or condylomata^ 
existing about the verge of the anus and around the genitals, but especially 
those which are wide-spread and flat, more extensive than prominent, Mr. 
Coulson, at St Mary's hospital, has been remarkably successful in producing 
the diminution of the swelling and causing them to dry up, by the application 
to a powder consisting of equal parts of alum and savin. This is quite painless, 
and a cure is generally completed in a few days. — London Lancet 

Therapeutical Action of the Acid Nitrate of Silver. 

By Br, Crocq. 
Under the name of acid nitrate of silver. Dr. Crocq designates a solution of 
nitrate of silver in nitric acid. He thinks this preparation cspeciaUy useful 
when it is desirable to modify certain surfaces more or less deeply without 
producing a deep destruction of the tissues ; in such cases, in fact, as are 
usually treated by the solid nitrate of silver or by the add nitrate of mercury. 
The acid nitrate of silver is preferable to the former, because it penetrates 
much better into all the sinuosities and anfractuosities of surfaces, and be- 
cause its action can be rendered either superficial or deep. It is preferable to 
the second, because it does not act as a poison by absorption, however large 
may be the surface cauterized, while the acid nitrate of mercury may and does 


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American Phannaceutical Convention. 307 

produce symptoms of mercurial poisoning. Moreover the action of the acid 
nitrate of silyer may be immediately arrested, when it is applied to organs 
where its extension might become prejudicial, as on the eye, the yagina, and 
in the throat, for in these cases the injection of a solution of chloride of sodi- 
mn renders it instantly inert The acid nitrate of silver may be employed ad- 
vantageously in cases of chancre, in simple and gangrenous ulcers, in some 
wounds, in lupus, in epithelial tumors, and cancroid ulcers ; in ulcerations of 
the neck of the uretus, and granular aflfections of the cervix uteri and of the 
conjunctiva. — Bulletin Genial Therapeutique^ Feb. 15th, 1859. 

American Pharmaceutical Convention. 


The American Pharmaceutical Association commenced its eighth annual ses* 
sion, at the rooms of the Massachusetts college of pharmacy, in Temple Place, 
on September 13th. This association embraces the Massachusetts, New Yori^:, 
Philadelphia, Maryland and Cincinnati colleges of pharmacy, and the pharma- 
ceutical associations of St Louis and Washington. The meeting last year waa 
held at the Smithsonian Institute, Washington. 

The association has nearly three hundred members, embracing many of tho 
leading apothecaries in the principal cities and towns of the Union. The ob- 
ject of the association is to improve and regulate the drug market — prevent 
the adulteration of drugs— establish friendly relations between druggists, etc. 
Any respectable druggist may become a member, by election, and the pay- 
ment of a yearly contribution of $2. 

The meeting was called to order by Robert Battey, of Rome, Ga., one of the^ 
vice presidents, in the absence of the president. 

On motion, Alfred B. Taylor, of Philadelphia, was appointed temporary 

The Chair appointed Messrs. John Meakim, of New York, James S. Mel- 
vin, of Boston, and Israel J. Ghrahame, of Baltimore, a committee on credentials. 

S. S. Garrigues, of Philadelphia, presented the following names of members 
elected by the executive committee during the recess : — 

M. S. McConville, Worcester, Mass. ; Raymond Graverend, New York dtyj 
L. Terry, New York city; Henry Steele, New York city ; Wm. Wright, Jr., 
New York city ; James H. Anderson, New York city ; H. Wandoner Bedford^ 
New York ciiy ; Alfred J. Shipley, New York city; James T. King, Middle- 
town, N. Y. ; J. Hartley Bunn, Lynchburg, Va. ; R H. Lane, Newberry, C» 
H., S. C; J. F. Gross Klaus, Navarree, Ohio; C. F. Gove Collins, Beloit, 
Wis. ; Louis D. Lanozweert, San Francisco, Cal. ; Charles Hodge, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. ; George S. Dickey, San Francisco, CaL ; G^rge E. Hinckley, San 
Francisco, CaL ; Albert J. Calder, Providence, R. L 

Mr. Samuel M. Colcord, of Boston, moved that a reporter be employed to 
assist the recording secretary, and the motion was adopted. The committee 
of arrangements were authorized to secure the services of a reporter in ac- 
cordance with the above vote. 


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308 Ameiican Phainnaceulical Convmiiion. 

Mr. Oolcord also announced that Mr. Kimball, of the Boston Museum^ had 
furnished a package of tickets to that place of amusement, for the use of mem- 
bers of the convention. The invitation of Mr. Kimball was accepted, and a 
vote of thanks adopted. 

The committee on credentials reported the names of gentlemen duly ac- 
credited to the convention : — 

From the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — Thos. Restieaux, William 
Brown, George W. Parmenter, Charles H. Price, Eben Blatchford. 

Xew York College of Pharmacy. — H. T. Kiersted, Isaac Coddington, Wm. 
liegeman, George W. Berrian, Geo. Thurber. 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — Dr. W. H. Pile, D. S. Jones, Chas. 
Ellis, Samuel S. Bunting, Charles Bullock. 

Maryland College of Ph<irmaey. — James Balmer, Joseph Roberts, N. H. 
Jennings, A. P. Sharpe, I. J. Grahame. 

Cincinnati College of PJiarmacy, — Wm. S. Merrill, E. S. Wayne, W. J. M. 
Gordon, John C. Parr, William B. Homer. 

Washington Pharmaceutical Convention.— Joseph W. Nairn, Jas. N. CallaD, 
Samuel B. Waite, Joseph B. Moore, John Schwartz. 

St. Louis Pharmaceutical Convention. — Eno Sander, William. H. Domin, 
James O'Gallagher, S. D. Handel, William B. Parker. 

None of the delegates from Cincinnati or St Louis were present 

The committee read a letter stating the reasons why the delegates elected 
for St Louis were not present 

A letter was also read from Mr. John L. Kidwell, of Georgetown, D. C, the 
president of the association, regretting his inability to be present 

It was moved that the names of delegates elected by the St Louis pharma- 
ceutical society be included in the list of delegates of this convention, and the 
motion was adopted, and their names appear in the list above. 

A letter was read by Mr. Colcord, of Boston, from Eugene L. Massot, presi- 
dent of the St Louis association, tendering a cordial invitation to the American 
jftfifiociation to hold their next annual meeting in that dty. 

A letter was read from Wm. J. M. Gordon, of Cincinnati, a delegate, giving 
.ithe reasons for his absence from the convention. 

Wm. A. Brewer, of Boston, read communications from the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, from John P. Bigelow, in behalf of the trustees of the city 
library, and from N. B. Shurtleflf; for the trustees of the State library, inviting 
the members of the association to visit tiieir respective rooms. The invitations 
were accepted, and a vote of thanks unanimously adq>ted. 

The executive committee reported the following names of persons suitable 
to be elected members of the association : — 

A. IL Wilson, PhlMMl. ! M. M. DeLevis, Chlcpfo. i J. B. W. Nowlin M. D., F. J. Green, MUlidgeTV, 

T A Lancaster, " C. Pefferman, Peru, Ind. l Rome, Ga. , Ga. 

a1 F. Neynaber, /I ^\ W. £. If»ck, Vino«ine«. | W. lI.JW^arncr, - ^ | C, ^^^^J^'^^^^^^ 


U T SUlyman, Col. 8. C. W. F. Clency, Cincinnati. B. M. Smith, AtUnU, Ga , O. Tompking, Boston. 
J H XdtenTMacon, Ga. J. J. Cook, Lewiaton, Me. ] R. J. Masaey, M.D., " Wanren Tapley, Lynn. 
W. S. Potts, St. Paut 1 B. T. Miller, York, Pa. i J. A. Taylor, " A.a RamMy. Cambrid'« 

Henry C. Morrte, " J. T.Bamett,DanTiUe Ky W. A. Lan»dell, " I. T. Campbell, a Boston 

W N«6rffaanL M. York. ( J. Stratton, B'den^n. KJ \ P. V. WMte, Charkstown ' Thonaa Dott»er, Boston. 
John W. ShcUdsn, •» I H. Q. Mack, N, Y. city. Mass, , Charles CUrke, " 


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American Pharmaceutical Convention. Z09 

J. T. Brown^ Boston. - E. A. Morse, Rutland, Vt. renccL Mass. port, Ma^M. 

O. M. Waebbom, III. Y. O. Blgelow, Medford, C. L. c£m, Brandon, Vt. T. H. Harris, BosioD. 

(with E. 6. L. Faxon.) Maw. N. R. Scott, Worcester, G. If. Chapman, Bofiton. 

T. A. Swectiier, 8. Daa'u. J. L. Burbank, Worcest'r Mass. B. K. BUm, Springfield, 

J. F. RoUiufi, Concord, Mass. ! N. S. Harlov, Bangor !^Ie Mass. 

N. H. J. H. Thacher, Ports- U G. Dodge, Boston, Ms. N. Dlckerman, Jr., W.v 

Julias Cene, '* i mouth, N. H. F. K. PhBlipi*, K. Boston. terbury, Conn. 

F. Dutcber, St. Albans, Vt L. Babo, Boston, Mass. W. D. Miller, Boston, Ms. , J. French, Boston, Mass. 
J. B. Arnold, Fitchborg. J. G. Steele, San Pranc'o. A. G. Weeks, " J. Morgan, Concord N.IF. 

0. A- KhnbaU, llaverhUI. C. E. Hinckley, " ; Wm. J. CuUer, " L. L. Ducher, St. Alban's 
M. H. Glceson, Boston. , Wm. If. Keith, *» E, WaWo Cutler, " Vermont. 

G. Moore, Gt. Falls, N.H. 1 J. C. Howe, Boston, Ms. ' B. F. Brown, " J. P. Cook, I^ewwton, Me 
W.Baker, Bnmuw'k, Me. Ed. G. Frothhigham, Jr., W. F. Phillips, PortUn«l, T. Wheeler, Bosura, Ms. 

1. II. Rollins, Concord. ! HaverlilU, Mass. Me. Edmund Dana, Jr. Port- 
C. E. Field, Chelsea, Ms. H. M. Whitney, Law- ; A. R. Bailey, Cambridge- land, Me 

The convention balloted, and the gentlemen on the lists were elected by a 
vote of thirty-seven in the affirmative, and none in the negative. 

The matter of names of other parties, who had been proposed as members^, 
was next taken up. It was explained that these parties were not eligible under* 
the constitation, although they were worthy men, some of them chemists, and 
dealers in eclectic medicines. 

Mr. Krewer, of Boston, moved to refer the.«e names again to the executive 

Mr. Edward Parrish, of Philadelphia, thought dealers in eclectic medicines 
were, or should be eligible as pharmaceutists. 

The chairman remarked that this was a matter of much importance, and de- 
manded careful attention. 

Mr. Parrish said he was opposed to letting in quack.s, but chemists and 
many other useful men of practical knowledge we"e kept out by the con- 

Henry T. Cummings, of Portland, Maine, was in fav,)r of admittinj^; all per- 
sons properly advanced in pharmacy, but the selectii-n from chemists, etc., 
should be as careful as possible. 

Mr. Charles Ellis, of Philadelphia, thought the rules should be altered, be- 
fore admitting a new class of men to the society. 

Mr. Thomas llollis, of Boston, thought the society would le strengthened 
by the addition of scientific men. 

Mr. Wm. Procter, Jr., of Philadelphia, thought something should be done 
to relieve the committee of unpleasant responsibility. 

The motion to refer these names back to the executive committee then pre- 

Mr. Colcord, of Boston, wished to know whether the convention had a right 
to inquire if delegates to the convention from the subordinate societies were 
not chemists, or men of that character. 

Mr. Parrish, of Philadelphia, thought the convention had no right to inquire 
the standing or occupation of delegates. 

The calling of the roll of members being in order, Mr. Colcord, of 15oston, 
suggested that it be oalled from the book of signatures present. 

That list was accordingly read, and seventy-nine gentlemen answered to 
their names. 


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American Pharmaceutical Convention: 


Fred. Hale, N. Y. clt^'. 
B. K. Squibb, " 
P. W. Bedford, " 
A, Cushman, " 
J. Coddington, " 
John D. DIx, " 
H. T. Kiersted, " 
John Meakim, " 
H. HavUand, " 
Geo. Thurber, " 
Wm. HcgemAn, ** 
G. H-DeLaVergnc, " 
J. T. King, Middletown. 
A. S. Lane, Rochester. 


T. S. Harris, Bofton. 
G. H. Chapman " 
H. W.Lincoln " 
H, D. Foule, •* 
J. Gordon, ** 

J. P. Melvln, " 
C.H.Lyon, Jr. " 


A. Boyden, ^too. 
M. H. Gleason, " 
G. D. Tonne, " 
M. D. Colby, " 
ThoB. Doleber, " 
G. W. Woodbridge, " 
J. T. Campbell, ^» 

D. Henchman, *' 
T. Hollis, '» 
W. A. Brewer, " 
S. M. Colcord, " 

C. T. Carney, " 
A. P. Welaar, •• 
J. Emerton, Salem. 
J. Buck, Chelsea. 

H. Thayer, Cambridge. 

E. Blatchford. Rockport. 
M. 8. HcCunrille, Wor'r. 

D. Scott, Worcester. 

E. G. Frothingham, Jr., 

A. 8. Jones, Newburyp't. 


Chas. Ellis, Philadelphia. 
B.Saunder8, C. HUl. 

I W. Procter, Jr., Philad. 
E. Parrlsh, 

I F. L. John, " 

i F. 0. Hill, *• 

Ambrose Smith, ** 
W. IL Pile, '* 

D. a Jones, " 

a a Bunting, " 

I Chas. BuUock, " 
a 8. Garrignes, " 

I A. B. Taylor, " 
L. Neal, Lancaster. 


1 1. J. Grahame, Baltimore 
I N. R Jennings, " 
1 H. A- Elliott, " 

Jas. Bahner, ** 

J. Roberts, " 

) A. P. Sharp, •* 


1 H. T.Cummlngs,Portl'nd 
j T. R. Philbrick, " 
! J. G. Cook, Lewiston. 


0. A. TolRs,' DoTcr, 
0. G. Dort, Keene. 
J. Morgan, Concord. 

E. A. Moore, Rutland. 


H. F. Fish, Waterbury. 


R. J. Taylor, Newport. 


J. Jackson, Knoxville. 


Fred. Steams, Detroit. 


E. O. Gale, Ofaioago. 


J. Stratton, Bordentowa 


R. Battey, Rome. 

F. G.Greive,Mimdgev*e 

MiNiOEaoTA ter.— J. W. CaUan, Fairfoault. 

Reports from standing committees were called for, but few of the committees 
reported. It was decided to take up these reports this (Wednesday) forenoon 
for discussion. 

Mr. Brewer, of Boston, presented papers received through the president, 
Mr. Kidwell, of Georgetown, D. C, from the agricultural bureau of the Patent 
Office, and the Department of the Interior. Among them was the following let- 
ter from ^* Kit Carson,*' an agent who had been requested to obtain information 
respecting medicinal plants in use by the Indians : — 

Utah Agency, Taos, N. M., June 15, 1859. 
'SiK. — Circular from your office, dated April 80, 1869, I have the honor to ac- 
knowledge. The only reply I can make is to send you roots and herbs, stating 
for what used by the Indians. The names are only known to themselves. 
They are gathered in the mountains. The samples I send are used by the 
•Jicharilla Apaches. I will send, from time to time, such as are brought to me 
by the Indians. They are found in latitudes 87**, 38°, and 39°. Obtained in 
small quantities, seven hundred miles from navigable streams, the only facility 
*of sending them to market is on pack mules. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

C. Cabson, Ind. Agt 
Hon. Com. Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C. 

A letter was received, accompanying the Swiss Journal of Pharmacy, and 
asking for an exchange of plants, from E. Ringk, vice-president of the Swiss 
Apothecaries* Association. 

The executive committee then made their annual report, through their chair- 
man, S. S. Oarrigues, of Philadelphia, and the report was accepted. The re- 
port states that the Journal of Proceedings of last year contains four hundred 
4ind eighty-eight pages, and cost nine hundred dollars. Many copies had been 
distributed and sold, and others remain on hand. The association had £uled 


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American Pharmaceutical Oonveniian. 811 

to obtain a charter from Congress, and this subject the convention referred 
back to the committee. 

The following gentlemen were appointed a committee to nominate officers 
for the ensuing year : — H. W. Lincoln, Boston ; W. Hegeman, New York ; 
Charles Bullock, Philadelphia; Israel J. Grahame, Baltimore; J. M. Cullan, 
Washington ; C. A. Tuflfts, New Hampshire ; Ed. Parrish, Philadelphia ; A. 
P. Sharpe, Maryland. They will report this forenoon. 

The convention then adjourned till nine o^ clock the following morning. 


The convention was called to order at half-past nine o'clock, and the minutes 
of the preceding day were read and approved. 

Several members of the association not present yesterday came in and regis- 
tered their names. 

EL 0. Gale appeared as a delegate from the Chicago college of pharmacy. 

The executive committee nominated the following gentlemen, and they were 
elected members of the association : — 

J. Lindley Pyle, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Cyrus Pyle, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Uriah B. 
Wilson, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; Samuel P. Duffield, Detroit, Mich. ; F. F. Mayer, 
New York ; Joseph T. Brown, Boston ; Benjamin Proctor, Lynn ; Samuel A. 
Smith, Newburyport; M. D. Colby, Boston; George Woodbridge, Boston; 
R. J. Taylor, Newport, R L ; Joel S. Ome, Cambridge ; Francis D. Hardy, 
Jr., Cambridge ; Wm. T. S. Cardy, Chelsea ; W. Atwood, Portand, Me.; Luther 
Atwood, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Corydon E. Tyler, New York; Samuel Noyes, 
New Haven, Conn. ; James M. B. McNary, Hartford, Conn. ; H. II. Burring- 
ton. Providence, R. L 

Dr. Henry T. Cummings, of Portland, presented the following: — 

Vot^y That the name or title of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
shall not be employed by any of the members thereof, upon signs or labels, 
or in advertisements, in a manner to compromise the association in respect to 
its approbation or endorsement of any species of nostrums or proprietary pre- 

This was withdrawn, to give place to other business. 

The committee on nominations reported the following list of officers for the 
ensuing year : — 

President — Samuel M. Colcord, Boston Mass. l8t Vice President, — ^Wm. 
Procter, Jr., Philadelphia. 2d.— Joseph Roberts, Baltimore, dd — ^Edwin 0. 
Gale^ Chicago. Recording Secretary, — Charles Bullock, Philadelphia. Cor* 
responding Secretary, — ^Wm. Hegeman, New York. Treasurer. — Ashael Boy- 
den, Boston, Mass. Executive Committee, — Chas. F. Carney, Boston; Chas. 
A* Tuffts, Dover, N. H. ; S. S. Garrigues, Philadelphia; George W. Berrian, 
Jr., New York ; Charles Bullock, Philadelphia, Committee on Progress cf 
Pharmacy, — ^Edward Parrish, Philadelphia; Alpheus P. Sharp, Baltimore; 
Eugene S. Massot, St Louis ; James N. Callan, Washington, D. C. ; William 
Hegeman, New York. 

The persons above named were unanimously elected. 


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812 American Pharmaceatical Convention. 

Samuel M. Colcord, of Boston, the president elect, was conducted to the chair 
by a committee appointed for that purpose, afler a brief and able address from 
the retiring chairman, Robert Battey, of Rome, Ga. He could not speak au- 
thoritatively of the progress of the association, but the large number of the num- 
bers who answered to their names, yesterday, and the addition of new members^ 
showed an increasing interest in its success. 

He spoke of the necessity of securing a charter, and of having the Associa- 
tion represented in the next convention for the revision of the Pharmacopoeia. 
The difficulty in deciding who shall, and who shall not be admitted as mem- 
bers, was alluded to, and the careful consideration of the subject recommended. 
He suggested that the constitution might be altered, so as to allow o^ the 
election of associate members from among the chemists and similar professiofia. 

Upon taking the chair, Mr. Colcord spoko of the manner of electing prefii- 
dents from the place where conventions are held, as having the effect to debar 
from that office valuable members living in small places, and then proceeded 
to give a brief history of the organization. 

The committee took a brief recess, and upon coming to order again, the 
other officers of the convention took the places Assigned. 

On motion of Mr. Meakim, of New York, the thanks of the convention weie 
tendered to Dr. Robert Battey, for his address, and to the secretary pro Uin,y 
Mr. Taylor, for his services. 

It was decided to make the report of the committee on home adulterations 
the first business of the afternoon session., 

A committee was appointed to take into consideration the order of business, 
acceptance of invititions, «S:c,, as follows : — Thomas Ilollis, of Boston ; Stratton^ 
of Philadelphia, and Bunting", of New Jersey. 

Wm. Procter, Jr., of Philadelphia, from the committee on the jjrogress of 
pharmacy, presented a long report, which gives a briefstatemcnt of disco veries^ 
Ac, and states what authorities can be referred to for full particulars. The 
report also contains brief accounts of the proceedings of the Philadelphia, New 
York, and Massachusetts colleges of pharmacy, and complains of the lack of 
interest in the association in New England, The Cincinnati college has done 
but little, and the Richmond college has abandoned the field. The Washing- 
ton college has made little or no efforts at teaching, and no reports have been 
made from St. Louis and San Francisco. 

A new college has been established at Chicago. Several new phannaceuti- 
eal journals have been established during the year, and some valuable wcfAs 
upon pharmacy published. Insufficient information in reference to the im- 
portation of drugs has been received. The demand for isinglass is growing 
less; twenty-four thousand cases of cod liver oil are obtained annually, be- 
tween Boston and Eastport. Over five thousand cases of castor oil, of twenty 
gallons each, are received in Boston yearly, and movements are in progress to 
have castor beans imported direct from Calcutta. 

The business of manufacturing chemicals is increasing in Baltimore, Phila- 
delphia, New York and Boston. The report closes with noticing the decease 


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American Pharmaceutical Convention. 313 

of several eminent pharmaceutists during the past year. 

The report was accepted and referred to the executive committee with lull 

Mr. Parrish, of Philadelphia, remarked that it would be useful to have re- 
ports of importations published, and it was suggested by Mr. J. D. Dlx, of New 
York, that upon a proper representation to the Secretary of the Treasury, they 
could obtain authority to get the necessary information. 

After some further remarks by Messrs. Parrish, Jones and Procter, of Phila- 
delphia, the chairman, and Mr. Stearns, of Detroit, on motion of Mr. Procter, 
it was voted to refer this subject to a special committee, to report to morrow. 
The committee consists of Messrs. Dix, of New York, Brewer, of Boston, and 
Procter, of Philadelphia. • 

Mr. Parrish, of Philadelphia, moved that a special committee be appointed 
to act upon the subject of obtaining an act of incorporation from Congress. 

The chairman believed it was proper to have an act of incorporation, so that 
the association can sue and be sued — so that the committee on adulterationB 
can publish names without being personally responsible. 

Mr. Stratton, of New Jersey, thought if they had an act of incorporation 
they would bo more likely to receive donations" from individuals, or from 

The motion of Mr. Parrish prevailed, and the committee will be appointed 
at the afternoon session. 

Prof. Procter, of Philadelphia, submitted a motion for the appoiiitment of a 
committee to examine specimens of drugs, kc, sent to the convention. Carried. 

It was voted to hold an evening session, at half past seven o'clock. 

At one o'clock the convention adjoumed till three o'clock. 


The convention wa.^ called to order at half-past three o'clock, by the presi- 
dent, Mr. Colcord, of Boston. 

Mr. Colcord, who was the treasurer the past year, submitted a report, show- 
ing that the cash on hand at this time is $231. The association will have 
about $700 towards publishing the proceedings of the present convention. 
Messrs. Charles Ellis, of Philadelphia, John Meakim, of New York, and Henry 
Haviland, were appointed a committee to audit the treasurer's acconut. 

The Chair appointed the following committees : — 

To Examine Specimens. — ^Messrs. Smith, of Philadelphia, Thurber, of New 
York, Procter, of Philadelphia, and Sharp, of Baltimore. 

To petition Congress for an Act of Incorporation. — James N. Callan, Wash- 
ington; E. II. Rollins, Concord, N. H. ; W. A. Brewer, Boston; R. il. Stabler 
Vid J. L. Kid well, of the District of Columbia. 

The following persons were elected members of the association : — Chas. T. 
Pollard, Maysville, Cal. ; Samuel Kidder, Jr., Lowell ; and George C. Hunt, 
Jr., Frederick ton, N. B. The president remarked that the last named is the 
first member out of the limits of the United States. 

A communication was received from 1). J. Brown, of the U. S. Patent Office, 


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814 American Pharmaceutical Convention. 

suggesting that a committee be appointed to memorialize Congress for an ap- 
propriation to defray the expenses of attempting to raise medicinal plants not 
natives of this country. The communication was laid upon the table. 

The committee on the president's address rep(H*ted an amendment to the 
constitution, so as to allow chemists to become members of the association. 
The amendment lies over imder the rules. 

Mr. Chas. T. Carney, of Boston, from the committee on home adulterations, 
then submitted a report, which we publish in another place. 

At the close of the reading of the report, the convention manifested its ap- 
proval by continued applause. The report was referred to the executive com- 

Aii invitation was recived to hold the next conventton in New York, and 
another to hold it in Columbia, S. C. 

On motion of Mr. Parrish, of Philadelphia, Dr. Charles T. Jackson was in- 
vited to take a seat in the convention. He, with several members, made re- 
marks upon the subject of adulteration, a brief abstract of which we give at 
the close of the report of the committee on that subject 

An invitation was received from Mr. Cutting, of the Aquarial Garden, to 
visit that exhibition, and the thanks of the association were tendered therefor. 

At six o'clock the convention adjourned till half-past seven. 


Upon the table, in the evening, were several specimens of plants, received 
from the Department of the Interior, at Washington, including camphor and 
cork oak trees, shrubs of green and black tea, wild chamomile, and wax and 
soap plants. They were objects of much interest to the members of the as- 

Upon coming to order, at seven and a quarter o'clock, a committee was 
appointed to select a list of subjects for next year's convention. Wm. Procter, 
Jr., Frederick Steams, Charles T. Carney, and Israel J. Grahame. 

Dissertations from members were next read, as follows: — 

Edwin 0. Gale, of Chicago. — " What is the character of the rosin weed of the 
Western prairies ?" He thinks it qan be substituted for mastic for chewing; 
it makes a fine varnish, is a sure cure for heaves in horses, allays irritation of 
the lungs ; the prairies abound with it, but it is tedious to collect ; it is not 
known whether it can be cultivated, and for the present, at least, it must be 
an expensive article. 

Joseph Roberts, of Baltimore. — "The sediment deposited by wine of ipecac- 
uanha." He thinks the sediment not peculiar to wine of ipecacuanha, but is 
found in other extracts, and that it is deposited by the breaking up of the 
chemical composition. The deposit is so slight as to have but little effect upon 
the quality of the medicine. 

Edward Parrish, of Philadelphia. — "The deteriorating of pharmaceutical 
preparations by keeping. The causes of injury, and the means of preventing 


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American Pharmaceutical Cbnvention. 315 

Edward Parrish. — ^A paper from James O^Qallagher, of St Louis, giving a 
synopsis of the history of pharmacy. 

Dr. E. R. Squibb, of Brooklyn, N. Y. — " Mechanical preparation of mercury, 
with a new mercurial machine." 

At nine and three-quarters o*clock, the association adjourned to nine o'clock 
Thursday morning. 

The following were the remarks of Mr. Coloord upon taking the chair as 
president of the association : — 

Gentlemen- Associates. — ^The honor you have conferred by electing me to 
preside over your deliberations, I accept with reluctance, on the score of my own 
personal disqualifications, though as a compliment in giving the office to Bos- 
ton, and as the highest compliment from the association to me, I value it highly, 
as reposing confidence in one of your oldest members, who has always been 
ready to offer his views for what they are worth at a period in your history 
when there was no precedent to follow, and no landmarks to guide — at a period 
when a mistake in our organization might have proved fatal to the realization 
of our hopes. 

Happily, those questions of a perplexing character that must necessarily 
arise and be settled, in the first efferts of our organization, in the general plan 
of our operations, have been met and settled ; and it must be gratifying to you 
as to me, that it has been done without jar or discord — that all have been united 
in one common object — to promote the advancement of pharmaceutic skill and 
science throughout the land. To attain this end, we have thrown our doors 
wide open to welcome all well-wishers to our profession to unite with us to re- 
ceive whatever of good we have to impart, and to do what they may for the 
benefit of our common cause. 

How different are the circumstances under which we meet to day, our eighth 
anniversary, to what was our first meeting, with but nine members, strangers. 
An imperative necessity existed for associated effort to regulate and improve 
our profession. "We then met without confidence in ourselves, and under a 
still greater embarrassment of having no leaders in our labors ; strangers by 
reputation even to our distant brethren, how could we look with confidence to 
their support in the general apathy which all knew hung like an incubus over 
all ranks in our line of business. 

I have said that an imperative necessity existed for such an organization, and 
that I can give as the only reason why we exist All other trades and pro- 
fessions have their organizations for associated efforts, and as it is the general 
average of varied talent and ideas that make the unit nearest perfection, so we 
shall find it ; every one has a mission to perform as well to his fellow as to 
himself. There is no one so humble in our ranks but can add something of 
value to our common stock. Then let us each lay aside excess of modesty as 
well as ostentation, and join head and heart in the work before us. 

It is with these views and with these feelings that I accept the office with 
which you have honored me — not because I feel that you have made the wisest 
selection, and grave doubts that you have made a judicious one — ^but as no one 
can tell his capabilities until they have made the trial, and relying upon your 

Digitized by 


816 American Pharmaceutical Gonveniion. 

generous support and kind forbearance, I can only promise my beet efforts for 
facilitating business, as well as for your general comfort and happiness while 
you r%main in Boston. 

And I feel sure that while I eicpress myself personally at your disposal, I do 
but express the sentiments of the Massachusetts college of pharmacy, as well 
as the drug trade of Boston. 

And I can but hope that you will consider us, individually and collectively, 
as a committee of the whole raised for your especial convenience during your 
sojourn with us — and make use of us accordingly. 


The convention came to order at a quarter before ten o'clock, at the call of 
the president, Mr. Colcord, of Boston. 

The journal of yesterday was read and approved. 

Mr. Charles A. Tuffts, of Dover, of N. H., offered resolutions of respect for 
the memory of Mr. S. P. Peck, of Bennington, Vt, formerly a vice-president 
of the association. 

The re5?olutions were adopted. 

The subject of "resignations" coming up, a resolution was adopted, author* 
izing the treasurer to accept the resignation of any member, upon pa}-ment of 
dues, and return of certificate, after remarks by the president^ and by Dr. 
Squibl>, of Brooklyn, Jones, of Philadelphia, and others. 

The committee on weights and measures, through the chainiian, Mr. A. B. 
Taylor, of Philadelphifi, made a lengthy and verj* able report The report 
says that all persons agree upon the necessity of a reform, but there is a di- 
versity of opinion upon the best method of affecting it. The committee speak 
of the adoption of a decimal system, retaining the old iianies. They explain 
the French system, but object to its nomenclature, with its scientific jargon. 
There are objections to both of these systems which it is difficult to overcome, 
unless there be grafted upon them a system of halves and quarters. The new 
English system is described and objected to, as were other systems in use in 
other countries. Tlie report explains at great length various systems and 
scales of nations, and recommended a new .system. The report was referred 
to the executive connnittee, to be published with the proceedings, and also in 
a separate form. 

Mr. Dix, of New York, said the people of France were becoming familiar to 
their new system of weights and measures, and he believed that there would 
soon be no objection to it, 

Mr. Parrish, of Philadelphia, chairman of the committee on the revision of 
the Pharmacopoeia, read a lengthy report recommending the transfer of arti- 
cles from the secondary to the primary list, and the addition of new articles — 
mostly herbs — to each list. Many changes are reconmiended in the formula 
of medicinal preparations. 

During the reading of this report, suggestions and observations were made 
by several members. 

Dr. Squibb, Mr. Colcord, Mr. Parrish, Prof. Grahame, Mr. Dix, Mr. Meakim, 


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American Pharynaceuiical Convention, 317 

Mr. Tufils, Mr. Ellis and others, spoke of the proper specific gravity of am- 
monia, the difficulty of keeping it, and the cause of its explosion. 

Some inquiry being made as to what should be done with this report, the 
chair suggested that delegates be appointed to the National Convention for 
the revision of the Pharmacopoeia, to present it there. 

llr. Parrish thought it should be sent to that convention without being 

Dr. Squibb believed it should be printed, and believed the committee of re- 
vision would be glad to avail themselves of it. He was not afraid of the pro- 
jceedings making too large a volume. 

The chair entertained similar views, and thought by having the report 
printed, the value of its suggestions would be shown by experience. 

Mr. Carney alluded to the benefit that had been derived from printing of 
simikir reports. 

Mr. Meakim thought the report should be published at once in a pamphlet 
form, and distributed through the country. 

After further remarks by Messrs. Procter, Garrigucs, and Battey, the 
report was referred to the executive committee, to publish at their dis- 

The convention then took up the subject of the place for holdijig the next 
convention; invitations having been received from Columbia, 8. C; Atlanta, 
Geo.; New York, and St. Louis. Dr. Battey, of Rome, Ga., spOke in favor of 
Atlanta, Gra. ; Mr. Callan for St. Lodis ; Messrs. Coddington, Procter, Kiersted, 
Sqoibb and Meakim, for New York ; and the chairman in favor of migrating 
from place to place. An adjournment was had without coming to a decision. 


The convention came to order, after the recess at four o*dock. 

The executive committee presented the names of the following pei-sous, as 
candidates for membership, and they were elected : — James Emerton, Salem ; 
Wm. H. Ware, Gloucester ; James A. Gleason, Samuel H. Woods, and Henry 
Warren, Boston; Rufiis W. Stevens, Great Falls, N. H. ; A. A. Dana, Provi- 
dence, R. I. ; B. F. Johnson, Philadelphia ; Lewis Doane, Baltimore. 

Mr. Brewer, from the committee appointed to co-operate with the agricultu- 
ral department of the Patent Office, in introducing foreign medicinal plants, 
made a report, covering a voluminous correspondence between the committee 
and officers connected with the Patent Office. Several plants were also pre- 
sented, which had been received from the Patent Office, with a statement of the 
manner of germinating and cultivating them. The correspondence states that 
efforts are being made to introduce the tree bearing Peruvian bark, now be- 
coming scarce in South America. It also gives an interesting account of the 
eariy use of the Peruvian bark. The correspondence also describes several 
plants used for medicinal purposes by the Cherokees, many of them unknown 
to the profession. This report was referred to the executive committee. 

The Chair appointed the following committee on adulterations for the en- 
suing year: — 


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318 Ainerican Pharmaceutical Convention. 

Charles T. Carney, Boston; I. J. Grahame, Baltimore; Charles Bullock, 
Philadelphia; A. P. Sharp, Baltimore; E. R. Squibb, New York; E. S. 
Wayne, Cincinnati. 

Frederick Hale, of New York, read an essay on fitting up and ornamenting 
cb'ug stores, with reference to convenience and good taste. 

Ambrose Smith, of Philadelphia, read a paper upon the decomposition of 
oxide of silver in pill matter. 

Prof. Procter, of Philadelphia, presented a paper upon the obtaining of 
polygalic acid from senega, describing the process with minuteness, as well as 
the manner in which it may be administered as a medicine. 

It was reported, in answer to inquiries made, that the production of Spanish 
saffron, (crocus sativus) in this country, had ceased as unprofitable. 

Prof. Grahame, of Baltimore, read a paper on the best means of keeping 
vegetable extracts, especially those from narcotic plants, in the dispensing 

S. S. Garrigues read a paper from J. M. Maisch, of Philadelphia, upon ^e 
bark of the cornus florida. 

A paper from Henry A. Tilden, of New Lebanon, N. Y., upon the relative 
value of imported and indigenous medicinal plants, was presented. 

The committee appointed for that purpose reported the draft of a communi- 
cation to the Secretary of the Treasury, asking for permission to publish lists 
of importations of drugs, &c The report was accepted, and it was ordered 
that the communication be forwarded as proposed. 

On motion of Mr. Brewer, of Boston, the plants received from the Depart- 
ment of the Interior were put in care of Prof. Gray, of the Cambridge bo- 
tanical garden, for the benefit of the public. 

The feasibility of raising arnica plants in this country, was discussed. Mr. 
Dix, of New York, said they could be obtained from Germany cheaper than 
the flowers could bo picked here, if the fields were covered with them. He 
could obtain the seeds for any person who was desirous to see the plants 

Alexander Cushman, of New York, read a paper upon ** pepsin." That ob- 
tained from the stomach of pigs he prefers ; the French prefer that from the 
stomachs of sheep, and the English that from sheep and calves. 

At about seven o'olock, adjourned till nine o'clock Friday morning. 


The convention was called to order at half-past nine o'clock, by Prof. Proc- 
tor, of Philadelphia, one of the vice-presidents, in the absence of the presi- 
dent, Mr. Colcord, of Boston. 

Mr. Henry H. Fish, of Waterbury, Conn., offered a resolution that a com- 
mittee be appointed to consider the propriety of holding alternate sessions in 
the cities of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, and Washington, 
and also the appointment of a permanent secretary at Washington. 

The consideration of the resolution was deferred. 


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ATnerican Pharmaceutical Convention, 319 

Prof. Procter read a paper upon " Improved Formula for the Fluid Ex- 

The following resolution, offered by Mr. Parrish, waa adopted : — 

JKesohed^ That the subject of offering prizes for scientific and other essays 
of merit, to be read at the next annual meeting, be referred to the executive 
committee, with power to offer such prizes, through the Pharmaceutical Jour- 
nal, as they determine upon. 

Dr. Battey, of Georgia, read an interesting paper on the production of sugar 
from the sorghum mccharatum^ and gave a history of its culture in the 
United States. He believes that under favorable circiunstances the proportion 
of sugar may be as high as eighteen per cent. The soil, season, and manner 
of culture have great effect upon the quantity and quality of the product 
The cane should be cut when green and succulent, and he believes the syrup 
should be boiled rapidly and without stirring. 

On motion of Mr. Charles Ellis, of New York, it was resolved to give an 
elegantly bound presentation copy of Pareira^s Materia Medica to Prof Wm. 
Procter, Jr., for his valuable researches and essay upon fluid extracts. 

Mr. Parrish, of Philadelphia, read a paper upon mustards, and the best for- 
mula for a permanent liquid preparation of white or black mustard, as a sub- 
stitute for mustard plasters. 

S. S. Garrigues made some remarks upon the source of the odor of vanilla, 
as a substitute for a report upon that subject. 

Mr. Steams, of Detroit, presented volunteer papers upon the use of Cataw- 
ba brandy and wine, in pharmacy, written by a Mr. Zimmerman, of Cincin- 
nati. They were referred to the executive committee. 

The subject of place for holding the next session came up, and Dr. Battey, 
of Georgia, said it was apparent that the majority were in favor of New York. 
He was willing to go to St Louis the succeeding year, if the brethren from 
that place would meet him at New York next year. 

Mr. Taylor, of Philadelphia, offered a resolution, deprecating the acceptance 
of hospitalities of their brethren at places where future conventions may be 

Mr. Parrish seconded the resolve, and, after speaking of the generous hos- 
pitality extended to them in Boston, said he wanted the thing to stop here, so 
that they could go to. small places without encumbering the few brethren 
there with the burden of entertaining them, when they were better able to 
entertidn themselves. 

Mr. Cushman, of New York, was opposed to the resolve, and thought these 
entertainments were very useful in making members acquainted with each 

Mr. Grarrigues expressed similar views, and the resolve was supported by 
Messrs. Meakim and Squibb, of New York ; Battey, of Georgia, and Procter, 
of Philadelphia. 

The resolution, having been amended, was laid over till next meeting. 

Mr. Garrigues presented a paper from J. M. Maisch, of Philadelphia, upon 


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320 Avierican Pharmaceutical Convention. 

the behavior of essential oils to iodine and bromine, which was referred to 
the executive committee. 

The executive committee presented the following names for membership, 
and they were elected: — John J. Tower, of Wilmington, Del., and E. A. Pond, 
of Rutland, Vt. 

Mr. Cushman, of New York, presented a new apparatus for applying modi> 
cated vapors to the throat and lungs, which, from its form, is called " medi- 
cated cigar," accompanied by an explanation of the manner of its use. 

It was voted not to publish the paper, as the "medicated cigar" is pa- 

Mr. Coddington, of New York, read a paper on. the probable influence of 
isomerism on the therapeutic power of substances. 

Dr. Pyle, of Philadelphia, presented a table upon the specific gravity of 
water at various temperatures. 

Prof. Procter presented a paper from F. F. Mayer, of New York (the presi- 
dent in the chair), upon liquor ferri iodide, and the tests of iodine. 

Prof. Thachor presented specimens of a plant used as a substitute for the 
true arrow-root, accompanied by a statement of its characteristic. 

Specimens were received from F. C. Hill, of Waltham, of cantharis, col- 
lected this morning. After some conversation, Mr. Hill promised to prepare a 
paper on canthares, for the next convention, with a view of ascertaining 
whether they can be substituted for Spanish flies for commerce. 

A list of subjects to be investigated next year was presented by Prof Proc- 
ter, by a committee appointctl for that purpose. 

Mr. Ellis, from the auditing committee, made a report that the account of 
the treasurer of last year is correct. After some remarks from Mr. Colcord, 
a vote of thanks was pa.ssed to him for his services as treasurer. 

The subject of dropping members who are three years in arrears with their 
dues caused some discussion, but it was decided to let the matter pass as it is, 
— the suspension list to be published in the annual list of the treasurer. 

The president remarked that the Patent OlBBce at Washington had paid the 
association a high compliment by sending Dr. Chas. T. Jackson to this con- 
vention as the bearer of papers from that department. 

Mr. Smith, of Baltimore, from the committee apointed to examine specimens 
received by the association, made a report, which was referred to the execu- 
tive committee. 

The subject of altering the constitution, so as to allow chemists to become 
members of the association was postponed till next year. 

Mr. Carney, for the executive committee asked for instructions in reference 
to publishing reports of proceedings. For himself; he was in favor of publish- 
ing very full reports. 

Dr. Squibb, Mr. Parrish, Prof. Procter, Mr. Hegeman, and othei*s were also 
in favor of full reports. 

The president suggested that there was insufficient funds to publish the 
proceedings in full, and the executive committee would find themselves In 
difficulty when they began to look about for a publisher. 


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Editcrid. 821 

A motion of Dr. Squibb to assess the members for funds to publish the 
proceedings, was voted down, and a resolution presented by Mr. Hegeman, to 
nsk for contributions for that purpose was adopted. 

Dr. Battey, of Rome, Ga., offered a resolution which was adopted, thanking 
the Massachusetts college of pharmacy for the hospitalities received at their 

Mr. Parrish, of Philadelphia, offered a vote of thanks to the proprietors of 
^pers that had published reports of proceedings, for their courtesy, and to 
reporters for their careful reports. Adopted. 

Mr. Kiersted, of New York, offered resolutions of thanks to the president, 
secretary and treasurer, which were adopted. 

It was voted to request of Dr. Robert Battey a copy of his remarks to the 
-convention, while acting as chairman ^r(> tem.^ for publication. 

The president was authorized to appoint, remodel, or fill committees in the 

The Chair expressed his thanks for the courtesy received at the hands of the 
-convention ; the minutes wore approved, and at three o*clock the convention 
■adjourned to meet in New York in September next. 


We have given a large amount of space to the proceedings of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, and if any excuse is wanting it must be found 
in the value of this Associatibn to every Pharmaceutist, and indirectly to the 
Medical Profession, as well m in the generally interesting character of its 
transactions. * -^ 

The Association has now reached its eighth year, and some estimate can be 
formed of the growing interest in its aims and objects from the fact that its 
Proceedings, in full, will now occupy about 1,000 pages (having grown from a 
mere pamphlet), containing much matter of great practical value to the Phar- 
maceutical Profession. The Convention was largely attended by practical 
men, from all parts of the country ; and the reports will be found to be made 
up mostly from careful observation and experience. 

We publish all that wc are able to do of the valuable report of the Com- 
mittee on Homo Adulterations: the conclusion will be given in our next 
issue, and as soon as possible we shall give a digest of all the most valuable 
reports and papei-s. 

It is important that every apothecary should become a member of this 
Association, and thus avail himself of every advantage that may be derived 
frx)m concerted effort in advancing the science of Pharmacy in our country. 
The expense of publishing the requisite edition of the Proceedings may ex- 
ceed the immediate ftmds of the Society. To meet this want voluntary con- 
tributions would be acceptable, as well as the immediate payment of yearly 
■dues and remittances to the Treasurer for copies of the Proceedings of the 
last Convention and those of previous years. No pharmaceutist can make 


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322 EdUorml 

a better investment than by supplying himself with the volumes, as complete 
as may be, from the organization of the Society. 

On Thursday evening, Sept 15th, the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy 
gave a complimentary dinner to the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
and invited guests, at the American House, Thos. Hollis, President of the 
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, presided. 

The table was appropriately ornamented, and the bill of fare embraced all 
the delicacies of the season. When at length the cloth was removed, the 
President welcomed the guests to the banquet, and to the city of Boston, and 
introduced Mr. W. A. Brewer, of Boston, as toast-master, who read the first 
regular sentiment: — 

** The American Pharmaceutical AMsociation — ^Though but a chlW of eight simimers, its rapid growth 
has ^ren it the proportions of a giant. May its benevolent aims and professional achievements be felt 
and appreciated tliroughout tlie vast area of country from wtiich its members converge to tliis pleasant 

Mr. Colcord, of Boston, the President of the American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation, responded. 

2d Sentiment *' Tlie honored Dead of the American Pharmaceutical Association — Andrew Q«yer, 
Benjamin Oanavan, Wm. Thomas, Henry Steiner, Silas Whitehead, Lewis LehfUss, C. L. Bache, and S. 
P. Peck— .May their memories be ever green, and their professional attainments and personal virtues 
always find a ready mention by their surviving brethren." [Drank standing, in silence.] 

8d. " The piuit Presidents of the American Pharmaoeutlcal AssoclaUon— Though their official rela- 
tions have ceased, their interest in our affabs, we are assured, will never cease while time with them 
shall last" 

Mr. Meakim, of New York, responded. 

4th. " Pharmaceutical Knowledge and Pharmaceutical Ethics — May their combined force elevate 
the profession and benefit mankind." 

Mr. Henry D. Fowle, of Boston made a response to the above. 

5th. " The Great West—Rich in natural resources and the products of her soil, but richer in the en- 
terprise and talents of her sons." 

Mr. Stearns, of Detroit, made a happy response. He closed with the fol- 
lowing sentiment : — 

*' The Mortal^— Not that siilcious compound of lime and wal^r-^ot the mortar of wajr, but the mor- 
tar of peace — ^the mortar and pestle." 
6th. " The City of Boston." 

In absence of Mayor Lincoln, ex-Alderman Carter spoke briefly. 

Tth. «' The Medical Profession— Twhi brother with ttie profession of Pharmacy— May the mutual in- 
terests which bind the two together, never be separated." 

Dr. Minot, of the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, responded. 

Sth. " The Pharmaceutical Convention of 1860 : Medical and Pharmaceutical— May theh" labors re- 
sult in an authoritative standard worthy of our country and the age." 

Dr. Charles E. Buckingham, responded. 

9th. " The Allies of Pharmacy — Chemistry, Mineralogy and Botany, different members of the same 
body of useful science." . 

In response to this sentiment, Mr. Charles T. Carney read "The Chemist's 
Dream," a most amusing paper, describing the wonders of the chemist's art 

Dr. Charles T. Jackson and Prof. Thurber also responded for mineralogy 
and botany. 

lOth. " The Keth-ed Pharmaceutists— Whether they may have been induced by the infirmities of age, 
by the allurements of a shorter road to fortune, or for the enjoyment of acquired wealth, the presence 
of their representatives asstires us they did not leave the profession flrom disgust." 

11th. '* The Pharmaceutical Associations of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cindnnati, Wash- 
ington, St. I^ouis— Like the heart of the human body, each is the vitalizing centre of Pharmacy In the 
great localities in which they exist." 

Messrs. Jones, of Philadelphia, and Hegeman, of New York, responded. 

12tli. " Union— Pharmaceutical as weU as Political— North, South, East, West, one and inseparable^ 
now and forever." 

This sentiment was received with three cheers, and at 12 o'clock the company 
retired from the table, well satisfied with the evening's entertainment 


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AND * 


Hew] NOVEMBER, 1869. [Seriet. 

Remarks on Lycopus Virginicus, Prinos Verticillatus, and 
EpiphegtLs Virglnianus. 



Lycopus VipGiNicus, {Bugle Weed: Water Hoarhound.) — ^The 
natural order, Labiatoe^ to which this plant belongs, includes a 
large number of plants, which have been employed, for a very 
remote period, as aromatic cordials and stimulants. Some of 
them are still retained, though many have been abandoned in 
modern practice. They all owe their activity to volatile oil, 
bitter^ extractive, and astringent matter. The volatile oil is foimd 
in small receptacles, or globular glands, contained in the leaves, 
in the form of an oleo-resin. The bitter extractive is found in all 
the Labiatoe, and to this principle they owe their bitterness. If 
we add a ferruginous salt to an infusion of some of the Labiatae, 
a green color is struck, which indicates the presence of astringent 
matter. Their aromatic, carminative and stimulant properties are 
owing to volatile oil; their tonic and stomachic, to M^ter cx/racftivc, 
or a peculiar bitter principle. The small quantity of tannic or 
gallic acid which they contain only serves to increase their tonic 
properties. Some of them are employed in perfumery, some in 
cookery ; while others are used in medicine, to relieve nausea and 
colicky pains, expel wind, prevent or relieve griping, and cover 
the taste of unpleasant remedies. Although volatile oil is the 


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326 Lee on Medicinal Plants, 

predominant proximate principle in plants of this order, yet some 
of them contain so large a quantity of bitter extractive as to ren- 
der them highly valuable as stomachics and tonics ; others pos- 
sess peculiar, specific properties, adapting them to fulfil certain 
special indications. Among this latter class may be ranked the 
Lycopus Virginicus. » 

The European species has long been celebrated as a powerful 
febriftige and astringent, well adapted to the treatment of fevers 
and hemoirhages, while the American species has but recently 
been introduced into practice. The bugle weed is a common, 
well-knoym plant, growing in shady and wet places, in most parts 
of tiie United States — ^flowering in August — and is often con- 
founded with the Lyoopus JSintuUusy or water hoarhound, whose 
medicinal properties, though similar, are far inferior to thc^e of 
the Lycopus Virginicus. The whole plant is officinal, and has a 
peculiar, aromatic odor, and a disagreeable bitter taste. 

Chemical Oomjposition, — ^Although the bugle weed is officinal, 
occupying a place in the secondary list of the United States Phar- 
macopoeia, its chemical composition had not been accurately ascer- 
tained until the recent analysis in your own laboratory. This 
shows that, in seven thousand parts, it contains — 

Of inorganic matter, 128 

Of organic matter, ------ 6872 

Total, 7000 

Gum and albumen, 248 

Tannin, 40» 

Bitter principle, soluble in ether, 24 

Particular bitter principle, insoluble in ether, - - .696 

Sugar, 120 

Extractive, 232 

Starch, 172 

Clorophylle, 220 

Soluble salts, 26 

Insoluble salts, 102 

Lignin, 5120 

Total, 7000 

The large amount of bitter principle contained in the plant is 
worthy of particular note, viz.: seven hundred and twenty parts 
in seven thousand, or more than ten per cent. ; whUe the amount 


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Lee on Medicinal Plants, 327 

of tannin is inconsiderable. It contains no gallic acid. 

Therapeutical Properties and Uses. — From the large* propottion 
of bitter and astringent matter we might safely infer its tonic pro- 
perties ; but, in addition to its tonico- astringent power, it possesses 
a narcotic virtue, though not of an active kind. The peculiar 
alkaloid, or oleo-resinoid principle, to which it probably uses its 
tonic qualities, has not as yet been separated in an isolated form : 
the lycopin of some manu&cturers being a powdered extract 
mixed with salt and other impurities. The lycopus, in certain 
pathological conditions, is a very valuable sedative astringent, es- 
pecially adapted to cases of hemorrhage attended with frequent 
pulse ana great nervous irritability. In such cases it often seems 
to prove specific, acting promptly and with great certainty in 
allaying irritability, while it controls the hemorrhage. It evi- 
dently strikes at tiiie pathological cause, removing or correcting 
that morbid condition of the vascular and nervous system on 
which the hemorrhage depends; while it increases the tonicity 
and contractility of the minute capillaries, j^ diminishes the vis-a- 
tergoj by which the blood is propelled into them. The wild cher- 
ry bark possesses similar properties, though less strongly marked. 
We have used the lycopus succewfully, for many years, in haemo- 
ptysis, hematemesis, mennorhagia, &c., sometimes alone, at others 
in conjunction with other remedies ; and we have come to regard 
it, in certain cases, almost in the light of a specific. We are in- 
clined to consider it best adapted to cases of bleeding from the 
lungs, though some practitioners regard it as most efficacious in 
hemorrhage from the stomach. It has been known to arrest epis- 
taxis, when all other remedies have failed. Certainly, as a popu- 
lar remedy in spitting of blood, there is no indigenous pro4uction 
that ranks so highly as this. Its great power, as already stated, 
.is doubtless owing to its sedative influence over the circulatory 
and nervous system, while, at the same time, it constringes the 
smaller vessels. The late Prof. Eafinesque, whose knowledge of 
our indigenous botany was very accurate and extensive, remarks 
as follows : — " I consider the bugle weed a very good substitute 
for aU narcotics, prussic acid, and even bleeding, since it produces 
the same state of the pulse and arterial system, without inducing 
any debility, or acting on the heart and brain in any injurious 
manner." Wiiile we do not admit that any vegetable remedy is 


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328 Lee on Medicinal Plants. 

a perfect substitute for blood-letting, in all cases, it must never- 
theless be conceded that the bugle weed will moderate the force 
and frequency of the pulse, and thus accomplish one of the im- 
portant indications of bleeding, unattended with the danger of re- 
laxing the minute vessels — the source of the hemorrhage. We 
have called the lycopus a Umic^ though its tonic properties are not 
strongly marked. In this respect it yields to the cerasus ; it checks 
the secretions like most astringents, while it quiets the circulation 
and allays inordinate irritability. These properties jrender it use- 
ful in most cases of excessive flux, associated with such a condi- 
tion. Besides the various forms of hemorrhage above mentioned, 
it will be found well adapted to many cases lOf diabetes, senile 
cough, humoral asthma, chronic diarrhoea, &c. In the latter, 
when caused by irritation, it proves particularly serviceable, after 
thorough evacuation by castor oiL The European species has 
been found very efficacious as a remedy for intermittents, given in 
powder previous to the access, and it is very probable that our 
own species possesses sipailar properties. It seems to have been 
used from time immemorial, as it is mentioned in the most ancient 
records. It forms a very good black dye, and Withering says 
that gipsies stain their skin with it. 

The physiological effects of the bugle weed are such as might 
be inferred from what has been already stated in regard to its the- 
rapeutical effects. Taken in health, in the form of a strong infu- 
sion, in doses of a wine-glass full every two hours, it abates the 
force and frequency of the pulse, without nausea or cerebral dis- 
turbance, while at the same time it causes slight constipation. 

Preparations. — ^Infusion, decoction, fluid extract^ syrup, tincture. 
The inftision, made by pouring a pint of boiling water to an 
ounce of the dried plant, is the mo&i frequent form of administra- 
tion. Of this, in haemoptysis, a wine-glass full should be given 
as often, at first, as every half hour or hour, according to the ur- 
gency of the symptoms. The fluid extras from your establish- 
ment has proved a reliable preparation, in doses of from one to 
two drams every two hours. A good extemporaneous effiision is 
made with one ounce of the fluid extract to one pint of water ; 
dose, two to four ounces. The syrup may be prepared from the 
infusion, or by mixing three ounces of the fluid extract with 
twelve ounces of simple syrup ; dose, one to two ounces. 


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Lee on Medicinal Plants. 329 

Prinos Verticillatus, {Black Alder: Winter Berry:) — Three 
species of Prinos are indigenous to the United States, viz. : the 
ksvigata {smooth iointer-herry\ glabra {inkberry)^ and verticillatus 
{black alder, the.) The black alder is a well-known bnsh, growing 
in almost all parts of North America, in low, wet places, as 
swamps, the borders of streams, ponds and ditches, and is charac- 
terized in winter by its glossy, scarlet, round berries, about the 
size of a pea, containing six cells and six seeds. The bark is 
officinal. The berries have a sweetish-bitter and somewhat acrid 
taste, and possess similar properties to the bark. 

Physical Properties and Chemical Composition. — The dried bark 
of the black alder has a smooth epidermis, and a whitish, ash- 
grey, mixed with a brownish color. The bark is in rolled pieces^ 
has a bitter and slightly astringent taste, and is easily pulverized. 
Internally it is of a greenish-white color. It yields its principal 
properties to boiling water : to be collected in the spring or fall 
of the year.* Good descriptions of the plant may be found in the 
Medical Botanies of Bigelow and Barton. • The only analysis of 
this plant is that recently rilade in your laboratory, which gives> 
in seven thousand parts, of — 

Organic matters, 6360 

Inorganic matters, 640 

Total, "5000 

Albumen and gum, 218.08 

Sugar, 10.88 

Extractive matter, 100.88 

Tannin, 332.00 

Particular principles, 404.80 

Resin, soluble in etber, '24.00 

Resin, insoluble in alcohol, 141.00 

Soluble salts, 139.20 

Insoluble salts, 500.80 

Inorganic, &c., 5128.86 

Total, 7000.00 

Comparing this analysis with that of preceding plants, already 
given, the results, as regards astringent matter, are as fol- 
lows : — 


Tannin, | 584 400 375 | 330 332 


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880 Leje on Medicinal Plants. 

This shows that, as to the quantity of tannm, the black alder 
ranks among the first class of indigenous plants, and, so far as 
medicinal properties can be inferred from chemical composition, it 
will scarcely prove inferior to any. Clinical experience also abun- 
dantly confirms this conclusion. The amoimt of resin also con- 
tained in it is worthy of note (one hundred and sixty-one parts in 
seven thousand), and among the "particular principles" will 
doubtless yet be discovered a peculiar bitter resinoid principle, to 
which its tonic properties are chiefly due. Its soluble and insolu- 
ble salts are also abundant., while the albumen and gum are less 

Therapeutical Properties. — The bark of the black alder has long 
been used and esteem^ in domestic practice as a valuable tonic 
and astringent A knowledge of its medicinal virtues, as in 
many other cases, seems to have been derived from the Indians, 
who used a strong decoction of it, both internally and as a wash, 
in chronic cutaneous eruptions and ill-conditioned ulcers, for 
which purpose it is stiil very often employed. Schoeph, who was 
the earliest writer who noticed it, speaks of it as a useful remedy 
in gangrene and jaundice. In popular practice it is in common 
use in the treatment of diarrhoeas and intermittents, and also as a 
tonic in dropsical conditions. Both the berries and bark have 
tonico-astringent and alterative properties, and have been used 
successfully in arresting the paroxysms in fever and ague, also in 
many aflTections connected with a debilitated state of the system, 
especially gangrene and mortification. We have known a strong 
decoction of it used with advantage in chronic bowel affections, 
connected with relaxation. In Act, it can ftdfiU with great cer- 
tainty the various indications met with by this class of remedies. 
It is praised highly by Dr. W. P. C. Barton, while Dr. Darlington 
thinks its virtues overrated. {Flora Cestrica^ p. 214.) Prof. Bige- 
low states that " the black alder has had a considerable reputa- 
tion as a tonic medicine, perhaps more than it deserved;" while 
the late Prof. B. S. Barton considered it superior to Peruvian 
bark in many cases, and as possessing great efficiency in cases of 
incipient sphacelus or gangrene, used locally and internally. Dr. 
Thacher strongly recommends it, used in the same manner, in her- 
petic eruptions. Dr. Bigelow seems to have judged of its medi- 
cinal properties simply from its physical and sensible effects. Be- 


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Lee on Medicinal Plants. 881 

cause not very bitter to the taste, he concluded that its tonic pro- 
perties were very inconsiderable, and' so also in regard to its 
astringency. As the chemical tests show a larger per centage of 
tannin tiian we should have inferred from the taste, so also clinical 
experience demonstrates more tonic power than would be predi- 
cated from its bitterness. The fact is, however, that in no case 
can we safely predict the therapeutical from the sensible proper- 
ties of a drug. Bitterness and stipticity are only two qualities 
from which medicinal virtues may be inferred : all tests of tonic 
agents, as well as most others, are amUguous, except those made 
at the bedside of the sick. The small, tasteless doses of Fowler's 
solution have often as great antiperiodic power as the bitter qui- 
nine. The tasteless pulv. ferri. has wonderful efficacy, and the 
sapidless bismuth is not destitute of important medicinal powers. 

Preparations, — Decoction, fluid extract, tincture, syrup, lotion, 
compound infusion, &c. — The decocivMy which is generally regard- 
ed as the preferable form, is usually made with two ounces of the 
bark to three pints of water, boiled to a quart, of which a gill 
may be taken three times a day, or oftener. This may answer 
well for external use, but, as water alone does not take up all the 
active principles, the fluid extract is preferable for internal use, as 
it combines all the valuable properties of the plant. It may be 
given in sweetened water, in doses of one or two drams. A satu- 
rated tincture may be made from the bark or berries, and used in 
the same doses ; or, what is equivalent, two ounces of the fluid 
extract may be added to one pint of diluted alcohol, of which 
the same quantity may be given. The alcohol, however, in 
many cases, would be objectionable. A syrwp of alder is best 
prepared by mixing four ounces of the fluid extract with twelve 
ounces of syrup ; dose, one or two ounces. For a hiion a strong 
decoction will suffice, or three ounces of the fluid extract may be 
added to eight ounces of water. 

Epiphegus Virginianus, {Beeck Drops: Cancer Root.) — The 
order Ordbanchucece yields two North American genera, viz. : the 
Orobanche and the Epiphegus — ^the latter so called from its sup- 
posed parasitic connection with the roots of the beech tree. The 
latter is sometimes erroneously described under the name oro- 
"banche, as in the United States Dispensatory of Wood & Bache ; 
but although th^r general aspect and medicinal properties are 


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382 Lee on Medicinal Plants. 

very similar, yet they are known to be entirely distinct genera. 

The epiphegus is a branched, leafless plant, about one foot 
high, with remote, alternate flowers scattered on each branch, 
with recurved corollas, brownish white, with darker stripes above. 
It is a fleshy plant, with a tuberous, scaly root, and a smooth 
stem, furnished with small, ovate scales of a yellowish or purplish 
color, and wholly destitute of verdure. The plant i§ of a dull 
reddish color ; the root is a scaly ball or tuber of a clay color, 
and covered with stiff, short and brittle radicals. The plant is 
abundant in almost all parts of the United States, and is chiefly 
found growing on the roots of the beech, or its immediate vicinity. 

Physical and Chemical Characters, — The beech drop has a very 
bitter, nauseous, astringent taste, which is considerably dimin- 
ished by drying. Your recent analysis gives, in seven thousand 
parts — 

Organic matter, 6680 

InorgaDic matter, 820 

Total, - *- 7000 

Albumen and gum, - 280.96 

Starch, 263.20 

Bitter principle, 898. Y2 

Extractive matter, 888.40 

Tannin, 474.08 

Soluble salts, 175.04 

Insoluble salts, 144.96 

Lignin, Ac, 4414.64 

Total, 7000.00 

Therapeutical Effects. — The very large amount of tanin (474) 
contained in this plant (larger than in any other yet noticed ex- 
cept the geum), as well as bitter principle (898), commend it to 
the profession as worthy of greater attention than it has yet re- 
ceived. That the root is one of our most powerful astringents 
has long been known, and for this purpose it has been success- 
fully employed by many physicians, as well as in domestic practice. 
Combined with arsenious acid, sulphur, and the root of the ranun- 
culus acris, it formed the celebrated "cancer powder"* of Dr. Mar- 

*NoTE. — The cancer plasters now employed by empirics, and which are 
claimed to be of vegetable origin, owe their activity t<^8ome mineral agent, 


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Lee on Medicinal Plants. 38$ 

tin, a preparation still extensively used by empirics. It evident- 
ly, however, serves no other purpose than that of a diluent. We 
know it to be a very painful application, and in a large majority 
of cases to prove highly injurious, aggravating all the symptom* 
and hastening the progress of the ulceration. Dr. Barton, how- 
ever, states that it has proved of great service, externally applied 
to obstinate ulcers, some of which had resisted the applications 
that are commonly made use of in such cases. Prof. Eberle recom- 
mends a strong infusion t)f the root in apthous ulcerations of the 
mouth, and as a wash in obstinate herpetic eruptiona As a 
remedy for dysentery, its reputation among the common people 

the Tcgetable powder or extract merely serving to obviate or lessen their ac> 
tivity. Thus " Plunkett*s cancer plaster" consists of arsenic, sulphur, and 
the powdered leaves of crowfoot (ranunculus) and cdtula foetida, levigated^ 
and made into a pntste with the white of egg. ^^Davidson^s remedy for the 
cancer'* consists of arsenious acid and conium. *' Clason's cancer salve'' con- 
sists of sulphate of zinc (exsiccated) and extract of blood-root, incorporated 
together. This acts slowly, and is kept applied for several weeks, producing 
but slight pain, and in obstinate sores and ulcers of the lips, face, &c., not 
cancerous, has been known to eflfect cures. In true scirrus, however, or open 
cancer, we have never known the slightest benefit to result from its use. In 
all cases of cancer of the breast it aggravates and hastens the progress of the 
disease. The plaster of Dr. G. T. Blake, of New York, consists of chloride of 
zinc and blood-root It is applied from fifteen to sixty minutes, de.stroying 
the vitality of all the parts with which it comes in contact. Obstinate sores 
and ulcers are thus often cured. Tt is to be noted that most sores on the lips, 
especially in persons of scrofulous and imhealthy constitutions, are ulcers — 
sometimes malignant, but rarely cancerous — and are kept from healing by the 
constant movement of the lips, the flow of saliva, &c. ; and they are not un- 
frequently cured by instituting a new action by cscharotics, with internal al- 
terative treatment. Dr. Beach's " vegetable cancer plaster" is made of caus- 
tic potash, by leaching hickory ashes, and boiling to an extract, which is ap- 
plied as a plaster. His "discutient ointment" is made by evaporating a 
spirituous infusion of the root of solanum dulcamara, the leaves of stramo- 
nium, conium and belladonna, and the roots of yellow dock and poke (Phyto- 
lacca), to which fresh butter is added. The inspissated juice of the poke-root 
is used by some of the eclectics as a mild escharotic. fn some sections of the 
country the narrow-leaved dock-root, used locally and internally, is believed to 
cure all cancerous complaints. Cosme's ** cancer powder" is composed of 
white arsenic, 9ij. ; charcoal, grs. xii. ; cinnabar, 3 ij. — well powdered and 
mixed. Dr. Fells* celebrated application, used in St Bartholomew's Hospi- 
tal, and borrowed from a New York quack, is chloride of zinc and blood-root ! 
These may serve as samples for the whole. 


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834 Remarks on GoncerUrcUed Preparations^ <tc, 

seems too well established not to have some foundation to rest 
upon. We have seen and known enough of its use to satisfy ns 
that it is well calculated to ftdfil all the indications usually met 
by medicines of the tonico-astringent class. In certain diarrhoeas, 
dysenteries, and other fluxes, especially in the bronchorrhea of old 
people, and that which occurs after measles in patients much de- 
bilitated, and in the various hemorrhages, for which other astrin- 
gents are prescribed, this article will be found well adapted. 

The Oribanche Americana {broom rape)4ias astringent and tonic 
powers similar to those of the epiphegus, though- less strongly 
marked. In the Western States it is very generally regarded as 
a specific for gonorrhoea and syphilis: it is also used in obstinate 
ulcers, apthae, and herpetic affections. 

Preparations, — The preparations of these plants are the same as 
the other astringent substances already described^ viz.: decoction, 
infusion, fluid extract, syrup and tincture. No fluid extract of it 
is yet prepared. The decoction and infusion would only take up 
a portion of the active principles. 

A few other indigenous astringents remain to be considered, 
which will be treated of in the ensuing number of the Journal. 

Remarks on Concentrated Preparations, Simple Tests, and 
Easy Method of Analysis. 

In our last we indicated a general process for ascertaining the 
substances with which Goncentrated Preparations are often adulter- 
ated, and which are likely to be employed for that purpose. 

We now purpose, before treating upon each article separately, 
giving the general process of analysis, quantitatively : — 

Class I. 

1. Mixture of Besinoid with Alcoholic Extracts, — Take ten grains 
of the substance to be analyzed, dissolve it in concentrated 
alcohol, evaporate to a syrupy consistence, add water (which 
will give a precipitation of the active principle), filter, and 
dry. The water holds, in solution, a portion of the extract 
which has been mixed with it If the article is pure, the 
loss of weight by analysis will be comparatively small. 

2. Mixture of JResinoid ivith Ifydro-Alco/iolic Extract, — Take ten 


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Bettiarks on Concentrated Preparations^ &c, 886 

grains of the substance, treat with alcohol as in 1 ; the part 
insoluble in alcohol should be treated by diluted alcohol, or 
proof spirit, evaporated and weighed ; or, treat the article 
first with diluted alcohol, which will dissolve the hydro- 
alcoholic extract 

-8. Mixture of Besinoid with Aqueous Extract — Treat ten grains 
of the substance by hot water, which will dissolve the aque- 
ous extract; evaporate to dryness, and weigh. The resi- 
dium insoluble in water, dried and weighed, gives the quan- 
tity of active principle present. 

4. Mixture of Besinoid with Sugar of Milk, — Treat ten grains of 
the concentrated alcohol, and filter; collect the insoluble 
residium on the filter, wash it with alcohol, dry, and weigh. 
This gives the sugar of milk; the alcohol solution evaporated 
to dryness gives the amount of active principle. 

•6. Mixture of Besinoid with Salt. — ^Proceed the same as in 4. 

6. Mixture of Besinoid wWi Magnesia^ or Carbonate of Magnesia, — 
Proceed same as in 4. 

7. Mixture of Besinoid with Dried Plants {in powder.) — Proceed 
same as in 4. 

Class IJ. 

1. Alcoholic extract alone. 

2. Mixture of alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extracts. 

8. Mixture of alcoholic and aqueous extracts. 

4. Mixture of alcoholic extract and sugar of milk. 

5. Mixture of alcoholic extract and salt. 

6. Mixture of alcoholic extract and magnesia, or carbonate of 

7. Mixture of alcoholic extract and dried plant. 

The process of analysis for determining the abo re are the 
same as described in class I. — 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 

Class III. 

1. Hydro-Alcoholic Extract alone, — Treat ten grains of the mix- 
ture by alcohol (proof), which will usually dissolve the 
whole. Should it not, employ alcohol of 56°. 

2. Mixture of Hydro- Alcoholic and Aqueous Extract, — ^Treat ten 
grains by alcohol at 56°, which will dissolve the hydro - 


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336 Remarks on Concentrated PreparaiismSy Ac, 

alcoholic extract; evaporate to dryness, and weigh. This- 
gives the hydro-alcoholic extract Treat the insoluble resi- 
dium by water, evaporate to dryness, and weigh. This 
gives the aqueous extract. 

3. Mixture of Tlydro- Alcoholic Extract and Sugar of Milk, — Treat 
ten grains by alcohol (proof), which will dissolve the hydro- 
alcoholic extract; evaporate to dryness, and weigh. We 
then have the quantity of hydro-alcoholic extract The insolu- 
ble residium, dried and weighed, gives the sugar of milk. 

The diluted alcohol, or proof spirit, may contain a little 
sugar of milk, dissolved by the water present To deter- 
mine the quantity, if desired, pass the solution through ani- 
mal charcoal, evaporate to dryness, and the weight of the 
residium gives the quantity of sugar of milk. 

4. Mixture of Hydro- Alcoholic Extract and SalL — Treat^ ten grains 
with water. To the solution add an excess of nitrate of sil- 
ver; filter, wash the precipitation, dry, and weigh it Its 
weight (x) gives the quantity of salt by the following equa- 
tion : — 

X + 56,5 

=-x salt 

If the conveniences for the above process are not at hand, 
treat ten grains by cold water; evaporate the solution to 
dryness, and weigh. Its weight gives approximately the 
quantity of salt present 

0. Mixture of Hydro- Alcoholic Extract and Magnesia, or Carbon- 
ale of Magnesia. — Treat ten grains by alcohol (proof), and 
then by water; evaporate both solutions to dryness, and 
weigh. This gives the quantity of extract present The 
insoluble residium, dried and weighed, indicates the magne- 
sia, or carbonate of magnesia, present 

6. MLctare of Hydro- Alcoholic Extract and Dried Plant. — ^Pro- 
ceed same as described in 5. 

Class IV. 

1. Aqueous Extract alone. — Treat ten grains by hot water, which 
should dissolve it entirely, or treat by strong alcohol, which 
will dissolve the coloring matter and some other principles • 
filter, dissolve the residium in a small quantity of water. 


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Report on Home Adulteraiiona. 887 

evaporate to a syrupy consistence, add concentrated alcohol, 
which will precipitate the gum, albumen, &c. 
2. Mixture of Aqueous Extract and Sugar of Milk, — Take ten 
grains, dissolve it in a small quantity of water, add a small 
quantity of alcohol to precipitate the gummy and albumen- 
ous matter; filter, boil the filtered liquor for fifteen minutes 
with animal charcoal, filter, and evaporate the filtered solu- 
tion to dryness. The weight of the residium gives the quan- 
tity of sugar of milk present 
-8. Mixture of Aqueov^ Extract and Salt. — Process same as in 

class m. — 4. 
4. Mixture of Aqueous Extract and Magnesia, or Carbonate of 
Magnesia. — Treat the mixture by water, filter, wash the resi- 
dium, dry it, and its weight will give the magnesia or car- 
bonate present 
6. Mixture of Aqueous Extract and Dried Plant {in powder.) — 

Process s.ame as in class TIT. — 6. 
Such are the methods to be employed generally. There are 
Tinany exceptions, as we have previously mentioned, and shall 
fnore fully point out as these preparations are a mixture of two 
or three different principles, we will, in fiiture numbers, give the 
principal properties, reactions, &c., of each article, and the parti- 
•cular processes to test their purity. 

Jl valuable Report to the Phaxmaceutical Convention on 
Home Adulterations. 

By 0. T. Cameij. 


Specimen No. 1. — This Ls an adulterated article of cubebs, with the false 
berry used for the purpose. These cubebs wei^o purchased as a select and su- 
perior article ; the fraud existing in them was not discovered for some time. 
The false berry is readily distinguished, however, as it is ^Mobed, while the 
-cubeb is a single lobed berry. There exists in the lot of cubebs from which 
these were taken sixteen per cent of false berries, ly weight; they are heavier 
than the cubebs, and are, on that account, easily added in sufficient amount to 
vitiate the drug without attracting notice. Your committee have endeavored, 
•svithout success, to ascertain the name of this faLse berry ; it ap[>ears to be in- 


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888 Report on Home AduUercUiom. 

ert and worthless, not possessed of any deleterious property other than that of 
i*educing the strength of the powdered cubebs, which, in the amount present 
in sample under consideration, it does quite perceptibly. 

Specimen No. 2 is French Lycopodium, which is adulterated with the starch 
of some species of lentil, apparently. The microscope reveals this adultera- 
tion at onoo, which otherwise might not be suspected. If treated with water 
and the solution of iodine, the presence of starch may also be detected. This 
drug is often adulterated with starch, pulverized gypsum, and even boxwood 
powder. By separating with yrKter the heavier adulterations, they can be 
examined and recognized ; the wood powder can be separated by means of s^ 

The specimen under examination is part of a lot purchased in one-pound, 
bottles, with a French stamp and label upon it A portion of it having acci- 
dentally been wet the starch became ** musty,*' revealing its presence, other- 
wise unsuspected. Subsequent examination, as above, furnished further proo&i 
of its existence. 

Specimen No. 3 is Para balsam copaiva. This contains from six to eight 
per cent of heavy or fat oil. 

Balsam copaiva is very largely adulterated. It often contains the resinous, 
extract, by decoction, of the branches and bark of the copaifera, turpentine,, 
colophony, and fat oils, particularly castor oil The balsam adulterated with 
turpentine is not of so heavy consistence as the true balsam ; it is more viscid, 
and sticks upon the sides of the bottles holding it It may be very easily 
proved whetlier turpentine is present or not, by simply heating a drop of the 
suspected balsam, upon a sheet of glazed paper, over a spirit lamp ; the oil of 
copaiva is first volatilized, and the odor of the turpentine is at once apparent 

Castor oil is tlio most dangerous adulterative, owing to the great similarity 
between that and true balsam. This may be detected by mixing three parts 
of the suspected balsam with one part sulphuric acid, and shaking with fifteen 
or twenty parts of alcohol of 36°. If the mixture separates, it indicates that 
the balsam is adulterated with castor; when pure there is no separation. This 
test will detect not less than one-ninth part of adulteration. 

The presence of castor oil may also be detected by adding two parts of am- 
monia (22° Beainne) to five parts suspected balsam, and shaking them together 
in a stoppered bottle. The mixture becomes viscid and *'ropy," but very soon 
clears itself and becomes transparent, if pure. 

It is whitened by agitation, on the contrary, if it contains castor oil. The 
only precaution to be taken, however, is that the temperature of the mixture 
should be from 50° to 00° Fah.*; above or below this point the result is inac- 
curate, as, from 68° to 76° Fah. the mixture is transparent, whether pure or 
adulterated, and at 32° to 40° Fah. the pure balsam remains clouded. 

The fixed oils may be discovered by heating a drop or two of the balsam 
upon paper. If the balsam is pure the volatile oil is driven off, leaving the 
resin homogeneous, transparent, and brittle ; if it contains heavy or fixed oil 
the resin is surrounded by a greasy aureole, and is less brittle. 


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Report on Home AdiUtercUions. 839 

Finally, balsam copaiva is ^^ made up" of the fat oils, as poppy and rape 
seed with turpentme. These mixtures, however, would deceive only the inex- 
perienced. In all cases etherial alcohol (four parts alcohol and one part ether) 
serves to recognize this fraud, this liquid dissolving only the true balsam, leav- 
ing the foreign matters. 

Specimen No. 4 is powdered opium. This is a very poor specimen t>f pow- 
dered opium. It was sold at a high price, to a person not perfectly fiuniliar 
with drugs, but to him it appeared so different from his idea of the article that 
he requested an examination of it It is found to contain less than three per 
cent of impure morphia, which is but one-third or one-fourth the amoimt con- 
sidered to be the standard yield by United States Dispensatory. It is evident 
that this powder of opium could scarcely fiul to disappoint the expectations of 
the physician. What article is used for adullterating this, your ccmimittee 
have not decided. It is possible that the opium was exhausted, in part, before 
drying and powdering. 

Specimen No. 5 is balsam tolu, containing sixteen per cent common resin. 
Balsam tolu is often adulterated with turpentine and various resins. It is easy 
to detect this fraud, by the peculiar resinous odor which the adulteratedartide 
gives off when burnt It may also be distinguished by testing with sulphuric 
add. The concentrated add, added to the pure balsam, gives a cherry red 
liquor, without disengagement of sulphurous add; the same add, added to 
balsam adulterated with resin, gives a blackish brown liquor, with abundant 
disengagement of sulphurous add. 

Spedmen No. 6 is powdered tartar emetic. This is largely contaminated 
with foreign bodies, containmg as much as twenty-one per cent of impurity. The 
impurity in it is doubtless owing to careless manufacturing, and as this artide 
in powder is often made without proper and sufficient care being used in its 
manufacture, it is best for the pharmaceutist to buy none but the crystals, 
and, being assured of their purity, powder them himself 

The impurities mast generally present in tartar emetic are uncombined 
cream of tartar, chloride of calcium, or potassium and sulphate of potassa. It 
also sometimes contains, as accidental contaminations, iron and tin. The 
uncombined cream of tartar may be detected by an acid solution of acetate of 
lead; the solution is made of thirty -two parts distilled water, eight parts 
crystalized acetate of lead, and fifteen parts acetic acid of 0"^. The presence 
of cream of tartar is shown by the white precipitate produced in a solution of 
tartar emetic on adding a small portion of the lead reagent 

Chlorides of potassium or sodium, or chlor-hydric acid, may be detected by 
their affording a white " curdy" precipitate upon adding to a solution of tartar 
emetic a few drops solution nitrate of silver. This white precipitate, if chlo- 
rids of Hirer, should be entirely soluble in ammonia. 

This spedmen under examination contains eight per cent of chlorides. Sul- 
phate of potassa may bo detected by the white precipitate, insoluble in nitric 
add, which is afforded by solution chloride of barium or nitrate of baryta. 

The specimen under examination contains thirteen per cent, of sulphates. 


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S40 Report on Hoine AduUerations. 

Specimen No. 7 is cream of tartar. This artide is one used largely, both as 
^ medicine and in the preparation of food ; it is worthy careful consideration, 
And your committee have given considerable attention to it. 

Cream of tartar is very largely adulterated. Some of the articles used for 
that purpose are, in one sense, harmless — that is, not injurious to health — ^but 
many of them are decidedly pernicious, and all of them are to be condemned, 
because sold to deceive the community and enrich the adulterator. 

Cream of tartar is adulterated with tartrate of lime, chalk, finely powdered 
white marble, sulphate of lime, sand, nitrate of potassa, alum, sulphate of 
«oda, potassa, and chloride of potassium. It has been found to contain, as 
impurities, iron, copper, lead and arsenic 

The addition of starch, arrow root and other amylaceous substances, is well 
known ; and the specimen under examination is only remarkable from the 
^M^t that it contains 68.83 per cent of farinaceoas substances as adulteration. 

This was sold as pure cream tartar. The easiest way to detect the adulter- 
4ition with starch or farinaceous substances is by testing a cold solution of the 
<nream of tartar with solution of iodine. The characteristic blue ^* iodide of 
:8tarch'' will at onoe be apparent 

If we treat the cream of tartar with boiling water we dissolve all soluble 
^substances, leaving behind the tartrate of lime, quartz, clay, sand, sulphate of 
lime, and other insoluble impurities. 

Chalk or white marble may be discovered by the effervescence produced by 
the addition of a weak acid, as chlor-hydric or nitric. 

Alum and sulphates of potassa or soda are shown to be present by the 
white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid, produced by solution of chloride of 
barium ; if a precipitate is produced in same solution by oxalate of ammonia, 
^'e know that lime is also present Chloride of potassium is shown, by the 
white ** curdy" precipitate, entirely soluble in ammonia, formed by adding 
solution of nitrate of silver to the cream of tartar solution. 

The iron, lead and copper come from the vessels of tnese metals in which 
the cream of tartar is purified. 

The solution of cream of tartar, tested with tincture of galls, takes a hlach 
<x>lor if iron is present ; with ammonia, a blue color if copper be present ; with 
iodide potassium, a yellow, if lead is present 

The presence of arsenic in cream of tartar, according to Dr. Bley, comes 
<h>m the ars^cal sulphur used in the ^^ mudige," or process for arresting fer- 
mentation in the "must" of grapes, which consists* of burning sulphur in 
the casks, thereby liberating sulphurous acid. The arsenic may be detected 
by Marsh's apparatus. 

Specimen No. 8 is acid sulphate of soda. This is the residue from nitric 
acid manufacturing. The nitrate of soda, or Chili saltpetre, is decomposed by 
:sulphuric acid, and this article remains. It is largely used to adulterate cream 
of tartar and this. 

Specimen No. 9 is one which contains this adulteration. This acid sulphate 
ai>ay be considered one of the injurious adulterations. 


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Report on Home Adulteratiom, 841 

There is one drawback to its use, however, as a substitute for cream of tar- 
tar, and that is its deliquescence, or property of taking moisture from the at- 
mosphere. It was once attempted to substitute it for cream of tartar in a 
'^ yeast powder," but, after having been put up, the article was obliged to be 
withdrawn from the market, because it destroyed the cans. Query ? — ^Will 
the human stomach bear it better than a tin can ? 

Specimen No. 10 is the "great adulterator.'* This article, known by the 
above name, is selenite or sulphate of lime. It is imported into New York, 
and there powdered for use. 

Specimen No. 11 is the "great adulterator" in its natural state, before 
being powdered. ^ 

Specimen No. 12 is cream of tartar, which is adulterated with the "great 
adulterator." As this substance is almost insoluble, any one can judge of the 
biiieiit to health that might arise from a long 'continued use of the article in 
the daily food. 

The specimen of cream tartar under examination contains twenty-five per 
cent, of the " great adulterator." 

Specimen No. V) is a fatty residue from oil of lemon. This was obtained 
i'l'om a sample of oil of lemon of suspected purity, the last winter, and amount- 
ed to twenty-two per cent, of the whole weight of the oil. In cold weather it 
has a butyraceous consistence, but as it now appears is more fluid. 

It i.s soraewliat unusual to find an article of oil of lemon adulterated in this 
way ; and your committee would call the attention of pharmaceutists to this 
fact, as being evidence of a new practice in the way of fraud in this article. 

Specimen No. 14 is capsicum, with adulteration of conmion salt This can 
be detected by exhausting the pepper with water, evaporating to dryness, and 
testing residue by nitrate of silver for chlorine ; the goda imparts its character- 
istic color of yellow to flame of burning alcohol. 

Corrosive sublimate, sent from Kentucky, was proved to be adulterated 
with chloride of sodium (common salt), by the usual tests. The sample was 
too small to estimate the amount of impurity present, and we cannot show a 
specimen of it because it was all consumed in examination. 

Specimen No. 15 is lunar caustic. This was sent from Kentucky also, hav- 
ing been purchased in New York, at a cost of $1.20 per ounce, as impure 
article. A great imposition was practised either by the seller or the manu- 
facturer. Upon a careful examination it yielded only fourteen per cent, of 
chloride of silver, equivalent to about ten per cent, of metallic silver. 

Had it been pure nitric it should have yielded sixty-four per cent, of metallic 

Specimen No. 16 is piperine, adulterated with yellow prussiatc of potassa. 
This fraud can be easily detected by testing a solution of the suspected piper- 
ine with a per-salt of iron. The blue reaction is instantly produced, caused 
by formation of ferro cyanide of iron. 

This reaction taking place while combining a recipe in which the piperine 
and a salt of iron was ordered, led to the detection of this fraud, otherwise un- 


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3-i2 Rep(/rt on llvnu' Adulteratiout. 


Fl.Aveis or oxiJe of zinc: ;;!! spcriuitns cxaiuiiunl, e.\i\'j>^ soiuo (i».ii..a.i, 
provo'i to })e merely the carlionato. 

Spet-iiuen No. 17 is oil of bergamot. A lot of oil of bcr^aruot, purcluL-od 
at Uie Diarkct latos, and to all appearances a very fine artic le, proved to e(»u- 
tain thirty per cent, of alcohol, by the usual test with graduated lube, and 
treatment with water. 

8p.^^cimen No. — is oil of wormwood. As rei^Jirds snrjll iiud ta^te tliisoil is 
unexceptionable. Its specific gravity is so low as to excite suspicioiL, and it 
proves to Ke adulteratetl with ether, upon a careful examiiiation. 

This fraud can be easily detected by the low boilinj; point, and .specific 

Gamboge (powdered) — Gamboge, 100 lbs. ; tartrate of lime, 2o lbs. 

Socotrine aloes are pure Bonaire, without adulteration. 

Cream of tartar is adulterated with from ten to sixty-live per cent, of terra 
alba, or tartrate of lime, with about three per cent tartaric acid. 

Tartaric Acid (powdered) — Tartaric acid, 1000 lbs. ; alum, from ten to thirty- 
five per cent. 

Scammony, Aleppo (powdered) — Virgin .scammony, 30 lbs. j cocoa beans, 
80 lbs. ; biscuit, GO lbs. ; lamp-black, q. s. (sufficient quantity) to color. 

Bird Pepper (powdered) — Chilics, 1000 lbs. ; rice, bO(» to 12o0 1l»s. ; curcu- 
ma and Venetian red to color. 

Powdered Fenugreek — Fenugreek se»xls, 1000 lbs. ; biscuit, luOO lbs. ; cur- 
cuma, q. s. to color. India Rhubarb (powdered) — Ea,st India Khubarb, loO lbs. ; English 
do., 00 lbs. 

English Rhubarb (powdered) — English rhubarb, 100 lbs. ; bi>oait, -30 ll>s. ; 
curcuma, to color. 

Turkey Khubarb (powdered) — East India rhubarb and Turkey rhubaib, 
equal parts. 

The tartrate of lime referred to is more properly sulpiiate of liuie, with a 
small portion of tartrate. The ship biscuit Is the hard and often wonii-eaten 
cakes brought in by ships after a long voyage. 

One of the members of your committee, who is acquainted with a gentle- 
man formerly in the drug grinding business, in New York, has been kindl}- 
furnished by him with some formulas by which "pure and genuine di'ugs", 
were prepared when he was at the mill referred to : — 

Powdered Cape Aloes — Cape aloes, dried, 100 lbs. ; ship biscuit, 100 lbs. ; 
curcuma, q. s. to color. 

Common Ginger — African ginger, 200 lbs. ; ca})sicum hulls, 25 lbs. ; bis- 
cuit, 1000 lbs. ; curcuma, q. s. to color. 

Ipecac, (powdered) — Ipecac, 100 lbs. ; ship biscuit, 25 to 40 lbs. 

Opium (powdered) — Turkey opium, 50 lbs. ; Egyptian opium, 25 lbs. ; bis- 
cuit, 40 lbs. 

Your committee have noticed, in making a number of examinations of arti- 


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A*^yv>r/ on Uijiue Adulterations. c4o 

cles farnlsliocl by manufacturers, as ascetic, nitric, muriatic ac' i. arjua aiiuiio- 
nia, oxide of yanc, ^ub-«';ivb<>af'tL* of ii'»n, ami orlicis. that but little aitc.uion 
is paid to the requirements of the Phnnnacopd'ia, as every i»!iarmaceuti>t vi\n 
ascertain with but litth^ trouble. 

We think it important, and would sugp^est to this a<soci;ition the propriety 
of calling special attention to this point, that while we hace a standard our 
manufacturers should furnish articles that cm be depeuded ujion for purity 
and for officinal strength. 

In ^ onclusion, your committee express the hope that the effort made by 
them to awaken more of an interest in the subject of adulterations may meet 
with favorable support from the association. 

We feel that we have barely touched upon the subject — very many in- 
stances of fraud and deception are not alluded to — ^but what we have said^and 
done we trust may be for the benefit of the public and of our profes-iion at 
large. We cannot take leave of the subject, however, without expressing the 
satisfaction we feel as we refer to very many members of our profession who 
strive to raise the standard of their business by discountenancing, in every 
way in their power, all fraud and deception. 

The stigma of adulteration does not belong to the drug trade alone ; in 
fact, very many articles of food are systematically and almost always adulter- 
ated, so that to obtain them in their absolute purit}' is almost the exception. 
Of such are the ground sjjices, coffee^, &c. 

AVe are aware tnis is a strong assertion, f.»at proof can be produced, were it 

(.)nc article referred to, that of jj^iound coffee, we can give the fonuula by 
which it is made. 

This coffee, put up in one-pound papers, and labelled ''fine old Java," is 
made -as follows : — For ever} one hundred pounds there are sixty i)ounds of 
peas, twenty pounds of chickory, and twenty pounds of coffee. 

ThLs compound sells for 12Je. per pound, and any person can judge of the 
value of it as cotleo, containing as it does but twenty per cent, of that .sub- 

There are many upright and honorable men, however, vvho discountenance 
any such hnposition upon the public, in all branches of trade ; and we feel a 
proud satisfaction in referring to them, whether members of oiu: profession or 
not In our oicn ranks we know there are many upon whom the public can 
rely ; and, in closing, we can only urge upon this association, once more, the 
importance of this subject, earnestly soliciting the hearty co-operation of 
every member to raise the standard of our profession, and as far as possible to 
difjcourage and expose fraud and deception. 

Subsequently. Prof. Charles T. Jackson, who had listened to the reading of 
the report, made ^ some remarks about adulterations that had come within hi^ 
knowledge. In Boston and vicinity corn meal and bran are used in adultera- 
tion, instead of ship-bread, as in New York, and bran is substituted for red 
lead in the manufacture of red pepper. Com meal is used in mustard to the 


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344 Emphyment of Yeralina. 

extent of from thirty to fifty per cent The cream of tartar used in makmg 
bread is made up, in part, of ground rice and alum. Gum tragacanth enters 
into the composition of opium, and spices and blistering flies are ground in 
the same mill. At the request of Mr. Brewer, of Boston, he also explained 
his method of ascertaining when leather was colored by Nicaragua wood in- 
stead of cochineal. 

Remarks upon this subject were made by several other gentlemen. 

Mr. HoUis, of Boston, said com meal was used in ground cinnamon, and 
soda ash was sold for saleratus. 

Mr. Dix, of New York, said that it was within his knowledge that one firm 
in that city used annually 100 tons of soda ash in manufacturing saleratus, 
and other establishments used smaller amounts. 

Remarks were also made by several gentlemen upon the importation of im- 
pure scammony, from Smyrna, and the discussion was kept up till the conven- 
tion took a recess, at six o'clock. 

Employment of Yeratria in Acute Diseases of the Chest. 

M. Aran has called the attention of practitioners to the remarkable effects 
produced by the internal use of veratria in febrile diseases, and especially 
pneumonia. In the Sardinian Medical Gazette an article has appeared, in 
which Dr. Ghiglia, without any knowledge of M. Aran's researches, recom- 
mends the use of veratria in the same circumstances, except that he never em- 
ploys this alkaloid alone, but associates it almost always with opium, some- 
times in the form of pill, sometimes as a syrup. The dose of veratria is five 
millegrammes (.077 of a Troy grain) in a pill, with the same quantity of opi- 
um, and the number of piUs to be taken in the twenty-four hours varies from 
six to seven, and even twelve, according to the circumstances. In this dose, 
according to M. Ghiglia, vomiting rarely occurs, but nausea and the other de- 
pressing effects of veratria are present. The results obtained by M. Ghiglia 
in certain cases of pneumonia, bronchitis, and broncho-pneumonia hdve been 
sometimes most remarkable, and the following are the results arrived at by 
this author: — "1. The inflammation of the respiratory organs, when they 
have arrived at such a period as to produce disorp;anization of the parts, arc 
not improved by the use of veratria. 2. The action of this substance is the 
more favorable in proportion as the disease is more recent. # -3. The tolerance 
is very various, accoruing to individual habits, and perhaps also according to 
certain peculiarities which are not well understood. 4. The more easily the 
tolerance ceases the more marked is the depression. 5. Veratria is, in 
many respect^, a preferable medicine to others which are more constant in 
their action but less easy to take. And 0. It is perhaps prudent, in severe in- 
flammations of the respiratory organs, to order a few bleedings before pre- 
scribing the veratria. — Bullet hi General lU Theraiytntiiiue, January CO, 


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Cure of Faded Neuralgia. — Tannin, 346 

Easy and Certain Cure of Facial Neuralgia. 

By Dr. Burdadi^ of Luckau, 

Dr. Burdach recommends corrosive sublimate as a specific, never- failing reme- 
dy, in cases of facial neuralgia. lie has used it for more than thirty years, 
and always obtained a prompt and certain cure, no matter how severe a form 
the disease had assumed. The formula he employs is the same which he re- 
commended in Hufeland's Journal for 1820 and ls:^0, in the treatment of rheu- 
matic gout. It is the following : — 

IJ. — Liquor. Hydrarg. Bichlorid. corrosiv. (Pharmac. Borus.) 3 jss. ; 
Vini Semin. Colchici, fss. — M. 
S. Thirty to sixty drops every two hours. 

Cases re(iuiring the latter dose were extremely rare. (The LU\. Hydrarg. 
Bichlorid. corros. of the Prussian Pharmacopoeia contains corrosive sublimate 
and hydrochlorate of ammonia, one grain of each to the ounce uf water.)" 
Each dose of the medicine should be followed by a draught of the species ad 
deooctum lignorum, (the species ud decoct, lignor. consists of guaioum-wood, 
two parts ; lappa and saponaria, one part of each ; liquorice-root and sassafras, 
half a part of each. One ounce of this inixturc is used to a pint of water.) 
There is about one-thirtieth to one iiflctnth of a grain of sublimate given in 
each dose, a quantity which is jxencrally well borne by the patients. In 
order to assist the cure, Dr. Burdach sometimes ordered the local application 
of veratria ointment, but in the generality of cases it could be dispensed with, 
as the sublimate acte<l promptly without it. In very sensitive patients, acetic 
acid, chlorofonu, or tincture of opium, might be added t6 the given formula ; 
such an addition, however, is not to be recommended. 

To obtain prompt action of the remedy, it is absolutely necessary to give it 
in fluid form, and at the inter\als prescribed above, for in the form of pills it 
seems to exercise but little control over the disease. — Mtdizinische Cent. 7Ae- 
tung^ and North Amer. Med. Ghir. Reciew. 

Employment of Tannin in Large Doses in Albuminous 


By Dr. P. Oamier. 

Although the internal use of tannic acid is still very limited in France, its 
employment in large doses has been much recommended lately in other coun- 
tries, and has been extended to numerous cases which, while proving its in- 
noxious character, appear to exhibit it as possessing some totally new proper- 
tics. It has been shown to be useful in all cases where it is required to arrest 
hemorrhages, to give tone to organism, or to remedy morbid secretions. It 
has been employed, for example with great benefit, in albuminuria, diabetes, 
and serous infiltrations. 

From these considerations, Dr. Qarnier has been induce! to employ tannic 


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34.(y Tanniu, — Xcv: Disinfecting G>)nposiiion. 

acid in the albuminous anajiarca consecutive to scarlatina ; and he adduces 
several cases illustrative of this mode of treatment, drawn from his own expe- 
rience and cases recorded by other physicians. The cases all prove that in 
the general serous infiltration of the tissues complicated with albuminous 
urine there is a rapid and simultaneous disappearance of these two morbid 
phenomena imder the influence of tannin alone, admin isterod in a large dose. 
The conclusions drawn by Di*. Gamier are, that tannin, employed in doses of 
two to four grains a day (3ss. to 3j.) cures ana.sarca or a»dema developed 
passively and occurring simultaneously with albuminous urine ; that its cura- 
tive action is manifested by abundant urine, gradually resuming its physiolo- 
gical characters, by perspiration, easy alvine evacuations, return of appetite, 
&C. : that these signs appear fi*om the second day of the administration of the 
tannin ; that, given in solution in doses of twenty to fifty centigrammes at a 
time, tannin causes no unfavorable symptoms affecting the digestive passages ; 
and lastly, that the action of tannin appears to be exerted primarily upon the 
fluids of the economy, the albuminous principles of which it coagulates and 
rendei-s plastic, and that its <'ons«cutive action on the solids appears to be 
tonic and astringent. — Archurtu Oeneralen fff Medichr^ Jannari/y 185P. * 

New Disinfecting Composition. 

M. Velpeau has recently comnuuucated to the Academy of 8cienc-es a i>apcr 
from Drs. Dcuruux and (-orno, describing a disinfoctint!,- composition, which is 
said to be <»t jrroat ctficafy. Tt is intioduced, with tlic- Jivcrani of scientilic 
trumi»olinp, which is peculiui*, on the other side of the Channel, to medical 
practitioners, who have furbished up an old notion, or had the good luck to 
hit upon a novel expedient, of which the eccentricity is but too often the chief 
merit, and which is but only emulated here by the lessectf of operatic or dra- 
matic enterprise. AVe trust that the lofty claims which have been put forth 
may in some degree be realized on this occasion. This discovery, which is 
described as being of the "highest importance in surgery," and as entitling 
its inventors **to rank high amongst the benefactors of mankind,'' &c., con- 
sists in the application of a compound which " absorbs pus, and destroys its 
fetid smell/' dispensing also with the necessity of employing lint The pre- 
scription is as follows : — Take one hundred parts of plaster of Paris, finely 
powdered : of coal tar, from one to three parts, and mix in a mortar ; add a 
suflBcient quantity of olive oil to reduce the mixture to the consistence of 
ointment, and preserve for use in a close vessel. This mixture is of a dark 
brown color, and has a bituminous smell. The oil binds the powder without 
dissolving it, so that the compound retains its absorbing quality when placed 
in contact with a suppurating sore; and it never dries sutliciently to become 
inconvenient to the patient by its hardness, nor can it do any injury to tlio 
sore. The application may be immediate or mediate, according to circmn- 
sU\pr«:>. irapplitd imi-h (ii.iLely Lu l!.o s )io it. c.^i'-u- lu. j^uin, auti hh.> a deter- 
sive notion favt'iiihle Lo ei.-aui/.alion. 'Ihe advai.tagt.^ \\hioh il oii\r.> ui'e sun\- 


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New Disinfecting Composition. — Iodine. — Belladonna. 847 

mod up as follows : — 1. \ gangrenous wound, emitting fetid- and abundant 
pus, is at once deprived of its bad smell. 2. After a twenty-four or thirty- 
six hours' application the bandages of a bad sore exhale jio more smell than if 
they had been applied to a common fracture. 8. A cancerous ulcer is imme* 
diatcly deprived of its fetor. 4. The s«me is the case ^th ulcers of the legs. 
5. Bandages and poultices charged 'with offensive pus are at ance disinfected 
when brought into contact with the compound above described. 6. Tt also 
stops decomposition, keeps away insects, and prevents the generation of 

Drs. Chevreuil, Velpeau, and Cloquct have been appointed by the Academy 
to report on this composition.— JC<?7irfon iMncet, Ang, 6. 

On the Effect of Long-Continued Doses of Iodine. 

By M. RiUict. 
M. Rilliet, of Geneva, relates some cases to the Paris Acad^mie in proirf 
that iodine, although administered in small doses, if continued for too long a 
period may gradually induce symptoms, the origin of which may not alwayg 
be obvious* He concludes: — 1. The prolonged absorption of an iodized salt, 
whether contained in water, the air, or in food, is not always without danger. 
2. The inhabitants of some lo(^alilies are more exposed to this inthience than 
others; and such suscepti))ility may be due to the minute quantity of iodine 
coutaiiied in the air, wator, or food, employed in such localiti«*s, ''. This iodic 
intoxication is perhaps more to be feared when the m«''Ucine i.s <:ivt n in siuall 
than in lavL'C quuiiMtl' -, ns a preventive rnthcr than as a t'urativc --^ icnt in a 
localized and confirmed diathesis. 4. It is a very exceptional oc'inrence in 
childhood, rare in adult age, and more to be feared as the subjects advance in 
life ; therefore the administration of iodine to persons older than forty must 
be especially watched, and it must be suspended on the appearance of the first 
symptoms of saturation, as bulimia, emaciation, palpitation of the heart, or 
nervous susceptibility. 5. The best remedies in this kind of slow poisoning 
are milk, restoratives, change of air, and iron. — BulUtin de V Academic. 

Poisonous Effects of Belladonna Used Externally. 

A lady, aged about forty-three, suffering from severe pain in the hypogastric 
region, was ordered to apply the following liniment twice a day : — Camphorated 
oil of henbane, thirty, and extract of belladona, four parts. Forty-eight 
hours after commencing its use she was seized with delirium. The pupils be- 
came dilate^l, and there were irregular movements, lipothymia, redness of the 
fixce, and a fixed stare. Sinapisms were applied to the feet, acidulated drinks 
were administered, and a bleeding was to be perfo»Tncil, when abundant men- 
-* .Li! \\.\v\. r,^o <;*:iiO oi', ai Crliw'".!; i\v j.r'»rfr < ;. '^'i ' >, 1 •; '■: . '/v' /*. vs. 
The ^vmptoms of poisoniinr gradually disappean.'d. 


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848 Uva UrsL — Oyanide of Potassium, — Saline InjectUms, 
Uva Ursi a Substitute for Ergot of Rye. 

It has for some time been known that the foetus may suffer from the ad- 
ministration of ergot to the mother ; and M. St Claire Deville has recently 
brought forward statistics which would tend to show that the fears entertained 
on the subject are not exaggerated. (Vide the Lancet^ vol. i., 1859, p. 62G.) 
Struck by these facts, M. Gauchet (Bulk tin de T/tempeufique, June loth, 
1850,) gave the uva ursi a trial in a case of lingering labor. 

The patient was forty yeai's of age, and pregnant for the fourth time. After 
ten hours of great suffering, little progress had been made, though the os uteri 
was soft and tolerably dilated. Balf an ouncQ of uva ursi leaves were now in- 
fused in a quart of water, for an hour, and a teacupful of this infusion was 
taken every half hour. After the first three doses, the contractions, which 
had almost entii;ely ceased, became vigorous, and the patient was delivered 
of a living child three hours after taking the first cup. 

Poisoning by Cyanide of Potassium. 

At Ji late meeting of the New York Patholoj^iral Sofi%.ty, T)r. rirncll yn^- 
scnted a sperimcn of a stomach removed from a p'lticnt w^o was junvonod 
by cyanide of ])ota^sijun. The patient AA'as a d.'i'.cuerrian artist. He swal- 
lowed a piece of salt as larirc as tlie end of the finger. Iminediatoly he cried 
for water, but before he coidd get his month to the ])ipe of the hydrant be 
died. Death took place in from three to five minutes after he swallowed the 

In answer to a question from Dr. Clark, he stated that the S3'mptoms ol 
poisoning by this salt were very like those from poisoning b}^ prussic acid. 
The death was verV rapid This was the third case he had met with. This 
man lived but three minutes, another lived twelve minutes, and a third he 
was not certain how long he survived ; it was a very short time, however. In 
each of the cases the stomach was intensely reddened. 

Dr. Dalton thought it was important to know that injection of the stomach 
took place in so short a time as three minutes, unless most of the change was 
post-mortem. — Xashtille Monthly Record. 

Saline Injections in Diptheritis. 

M. Roche states that he has been so successful in some cases in which he 
has tried the injection of a solution of chloride of sodium into the throat, that 
in his next case he is disposed to employ it as the sole means of treatment 
He practises, in fact, a continuous, or almost continuous, irrigation of the 
throat, by means of Eguisier's irrigator, provided with a canula having a very 
small jet. He believes that it is in such irrigations, whether employing salt, 
alum, or the chlorates, we should seek for curative agents. — Union MSdicale, 


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PhanncLcy. 34& 



Take twenty parts of bitartrate of potash, eight part^ of hydrat^d sesqut 
oxide of iron, one part of pure iodine. Make a tartrate of potash and iron by 
the ordinary process. Dissolve afterwards three grammes (40 i^ grs.) of this 
new salt and sixty grammes (two ounces) of hot distilled water, filter, put the 
solution in a quart bottle, and add gaseous water. 

Usually the preparations of iron are given in a solid state, and in cases of 
weak and exhausted stomachs are not well received. The lemonade of iron 
has cmmenagogue properties in the highest degree. Succeeds well in phthsis 
cliloiosis, amcnorrha»a, t^c. — Reportolre de Pharmacle. 


The Journal *lc Ml ndne et th ('hlrurrjic Pr*ifo/iic publislus the following 
formula, by Dr. Clerc: — 

' U . CuLcl>s, C)0 grammes. 

Cop;ii))a, 20 

Catechu, 5 *' 

Coiis'vTvo roses, q. s. 

The patient should take, twice a day, a piece of the compound, ol the size 
of a walnut. Sometimes Dr. Clerc directs it to be divided into eighty parts, 
giving from four to six at intervals during the day. 


M. Basin gives iodide of potossium in this disease, in doses of tive to seven 
and a half grains, till seventy -seven gi'ains are given. Seldom had occasion to 
give more, lie prefers the following formula: — 

IJ. Bi-iodide of mercury, 8 grains. 

Iodide of potassium, 2^ drachms. 

S3rrup of saponaria, 18 ounces. 

Dose — ^B^n with two teaspoonsful, twice a day, and increase until four tea- 
spoonsful are taken at a time. 

Hf/ Marechal (Z)e Calvt), M. D, 

3- Iodine, 15^ grains. 

Iodide df potassium, 31 *' 

Distilled water, 3 pints. 

Apply compresses soaked in this liquid to the wounds, changing them seve- 
ral times a day, or, without changing the compresses, keep them saturated 
with the iodized solution. — Reportoire de Pharmacie, 


3 . Liquid chloride of zinc, 24 to 36 drops. 


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350 PluDmacy, 

Distilled water, 3 ounces. 

Agitate and filter. 
Apply two or three injections a day. Each injection to be made with a 
small syringe, with very little of the liquid. — Reportoire dc Pharma^ie. 


Jdly of GlycertTie, 

5 • Gum tragacanth, i ounce. 

Lime water, .'. 4 " 

Glj'cerine, 1 " 

Rose water, ^i " 

Make into a soft jelly, convenient to be used as an embrocation. 
Lotion of Glycerine. 

IJ. Biborate of soda, 3 to 6 grains. 

Glycerine, 1 ounce. 

Water, 4 " 

[Repertoire ih Pharmaeie, 


The preparation of the lemonade with citrate of magnesia has become so 
popular that there is no little curiosity prevalent for the ynodus oi>crmi(li of a 
preparation so agreeable, and which keeps for several months. 

In a njiort made to the Sooiete de Pharmaeie we find mcniioiud a process 
which ha< for its ohjeot the snpplyinj; of this creat desidiratnni. 'J'he formu- 
\tv given are for loTnonade of flifforent degrees, the weight of firticles used 
being expressed in full numbers, so a.s to form the citrate of magnesia, with 
twelve eijuivalents of water : — 

1. Lemonade of thirty grammes — 

Citric acid, ... 11 grammes. 

White magnesia, 12 " 

2. Lemonade of forty grammes — 

Citric acid, 17 grammes. 

White magnesia, 16 " 

B. lemonade of forty-five grammes — 

Citric acid, 20 grammes. 

White magnesia, 18 " 

4. Lemonade of fifty grammes — 

Citric acid, 24 grammes. 

White maf>:nesia, 21 " 

5. Lemomade of sixty grammes — 

Citrio acid, 28 grammes. 

White niagiKsia 24 " 

]♦;;.. 'r .he <*ar^ (.1. it -A Lr<-n(s..v, in a ukm /tv, \\ith t\V(. Lu.i'I^mI ;u..i tifty 
or five ];ui. Ired <j;ram]i;('S of water, according to the quantity It is de-^ired to 


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' Pharmacy. 351 

:make ; the mixture is then introduced into a bottle of very strong; glass, the 
add then added in crystals, and the bottles carefully and tightly corked. 
After six, eight or ten houi*s, according to the strength of the lemonade and 
the quantity of carbonate of magnesia used, all the carbonate will have 
disappeared. The bottles should be kept cool, in a cellar, taking the pre- 
caution to see that the bottles are kept well corked, so that they will re- 
tain all the gas ; if allowed to escape, insoluble carbonate of magnesia will be 
•formed. To prepare the lemonade^ uncork a bottle, pour the very gaseous 
solution upon a filter, and receive the liquid in another bottle containing eight 
grammes of citric acid and fifty grammes of syrup of any kind. The syrup 
preserves the crystals of acid from the action of the liquid, and the solution 
of citrate and bi-carbonate of magnesia is readily filtered, without decomposi- 
tion of the last salt. Fill the bottle with ordinary water, and cork well. 
Upon shaking the bottle the syrup is dissolved ; the citric acid decomposes 
the bi-carbonate of magnesia, and forms citrate of magnesia and carbonic acid, 
which remains in solution. Lemonade made by this process will keep two or 
"three months without becoming turbid. — Abeilh Medicate. 


The valerianates are often adulterated, the adulteration consistinjjj of the 
mixture of some salt with a certain quantity of essential oil of valerian. ' M. 
Monnerat has given some easy methods of detecting these adulterations. lie 
found the false valerianate had a deeper color than the true, and that it was 
insoliible in alcohol and ether, and that when treated with boiling water it 
jraw, after coolinn:, a deposit of ^uhcr.rbouate of iron, ajul a con-id<'ral)le quan- 
tity of e^sentml oil of valerian Houtinj^ upon the snrfucc of th<' li(iuid. Be- 
sides, the true valerianate of iron is insoluble in water, but, on the contnxry, 
is entirely soluble in alcohol. Another character of the true valerianate is its 
acid, disagreeable, persistent smell, which is very diflferent from the pene- 
-trating odor of valerian presented by the false valerianates formed by the ad- 
dition of the essential oil of the plant. — The Drvggist^ Juve, 1859. 


M. Robineaud gives the following recipe, in the Journal de Pharyrutcie, for 
this preparation : — 

5. Citrate of protoxide of iron, 1 drachm. 

Lactate of protoxide of iron, \ " 

Distilled water, 19 fluid drachms. 

Alcohol (eighty per cent), 14 " 

Simple syrup, 20 *^ 

Tincture of lemon peel, .* \ fluid dracbni. 

Tincture of cinnamon, i 

Tincture of cloves, drops. 

Cai-nmel, q. s. 

Put ihj I-u:L-ilt' "i" ^^,u, \\\ \,o\\Ak\\ \\i aca;.-iiU, u.i'ii t'.c <'.■><":.' -i j'; 
lic:it ;;e'.illy till d'--o]s"(l; n-ld tlic prolo-citr-ite of ircT!. \\]:i<lj i^.:.->-olvc> 


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352 Pharmacy. 

promptly ; filter the solution into a bottle containing previously the syrup and 
alchohol, and lastly, add the tinctures and caramel. 


By M'lii. S. Thoinption. 

Having }>ecn requested by a medical friend to make the preparation above 
named, to contain one gi*ain of Wetheriirs precipitated extract of bark and 
two grains of citrate of iron in a teaspoonful of sherry wine, I devised the 
Ibllowing formula, after several experiments : — 
?. Solution of persulphate of iron (containing 60 

grains of dry oxide to the fluid ounce), . . . .17.V fluid drachms. 

Citric acid, C drachms. 

Sherry wine, 24 fluid ounces. 

Water of ammonia, q. s. 

Wetheriirs precipitated extract of bark, 221 grains. 

Dissolve the precipitated extract of bark in tlic wine, and filter tlirough 
paper. Dilute the solution of persulphate of iron with a sutlicient quantity 
of water (about one quart), and add a suflicjent quantity of water of 
of ammonia, to precipitiite the peroxide ; wash the precipitate in the usual 
manner, drain it on a unislin filter, transfer tlic washed nuignia to a porcelain 
dish, and add the citric acid (previously i educed to a line po\v<lei) ; then api>ly 
a gentle heat, stinioL^ eon>tantly until the oxide is dissolved, when add three 
and a half drachms of water of ammonia, taking care that the latter is not in 
excess. The bright green solution of amnion ia-percitrate of iron obtained, 
should be reduced by gentle evaporation to four fluid ounces, and then poured 
into the twenty-four fluid ounces of vinous solution of precipitated extract of 
bark, above described. 

Our medrcal friends prefer, in some cjises, the above preparation of half the 
given strength, which is prepared by using wine enough to make the whole 
measure fifty -six instead of twenty-eight fluid ounces. The flavor of the 
wine may be improved by the addition of a small quantity of strong tinc- 
ture of orange peel, or a few drops of fresh oil of orange. — Jounxal TratiB. 
Md. Col riiarm.y June, 1859. 


In place of all the complicated recipes furnished for syrups of unchangeable 
protoxide, ct id genus omne, we give the following as a simple and excellent 
preparation : — 

IJ. SodsB bicarbonatis (crystalized, if to be had),. . .1 drachm. 

Ferri proto-sulphatis (crystalized ), H drachms. 

Powder coarsely and shake up, without applica- 
cation of heat, with 

Syi*up simplicis 6 ounces. 

One ounce of the syi-up contains six grains of the proto-carbonate of 


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Mitarial $58 


Adulteration op Medicine. — ^We publish, this month, the conclusion of 
the interesting report upon adulterations, made before the Convention of 
Apothecaries at Boston, in September. The Society have very wisely con- 
tinued the Committee another year, with Mr. C. T. Carney at its head ; and 
it is hoped this subject will be pursued, and Committees continued, who will 
push their investigations until the public shall have been thoroughly enlight- 
ened concerning the frauds going on around us. 

It has been urged that the publication of the processes employtnl in adultcr- 
tion only give information whereby it will become general. The re]>ly to this 
is, clearly, that the knowledge given to the public will put them on an e<|ual 
footing with the adulterator, and, knowing his modus oj^mndi, will detect his 
frauds as readily as he perpetrates them, and will consc(iucntly avoid him. Ji 
is not to be supposed that knowing the process will act as a temi)tation to a 
skillful physician to use such remedies in his practice. This Association, 
knowing the existence of these frauds, are in duty boiuid to investigate and 
expose them: to conceal them or decline to investigate them, shutting its 
eyes to what is daily met with in every commercial i)lace, would almost consti- 
tute a connivance, and make it accessory after the fact, and deprive it of the 
confidence and supjxjrt of all respecUible apothecaries. There is but one 
course to be pursued — that is, trace out fraud and expose it. 

Adulterations, properly defined, consists in the intentional addition of any 
-article for the piirpose of cheapening its production or its cost — any sub- 
. stance, the presence of which is concealed, or, in other words, is not ac- 
knowledged or stated at the time of the sale, or implied in the name under 
which it is sold. 

One would suppose that the great object of adulteration — gain by decep- 
tion — would be defeated by intimating upon the label the absence of purity, 
-as No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, &c. The public are not allowed, in these cases, to 
know the actual proportion of pure and impure articles : they draw a kind of 
inference from the price, but this inference is a very erroneous one. Although 
the price is less, and they infer that they are only paying a proportionate 
price, they often pay fifty per cent, more than if they purchased the pure 
article. This apparent honesty is but a fraud, and it will be found that each 
are as much below the arbitrary standard assumed, or what they ought to 
he, as the secret adulteration is below the pure standard. AYere it otherwise, 
the object of reducing the standard would be defeated, and no money would 
be made by the operation. Indeed, the liability of detection in the case of the 
second quality is much less than in the pm*e, and we have often remarked 
that parties were more successful in this system of operation, by having all 
grades of purity for the accommodation of the public. 

We make the suggestion, that this Committee may procure an assortment 
of grades, as put forth by many houses, and let the public know the per cent- 
age of dilution which forms the standard, and make a comparison of price 
.and quality. 


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3Q4 3liioriaL 

1 1 should be rip:idly insisted that when grades of aiticlcs are c&tab- 

lislie'l thitl (I'c j)rup)j-ti<»n of each shouLl bo stated upon the package. - 

It orteii o fiirs that an admixture of some subst.tnoe Is necc«<ary with a 
preparation, to make it <M>iivonicut for di<pen<ing, or to preserve it. In 
such ins(an(*3 tlie kind anl pn>portion of admixture >b vild be stated, that the 
(k>se can be vsiimatetl ac. urately. 

CoNiixi IN (ioNuHiuKKA. — Wo havc scveral letters making inquiries concern- 
ing the use of this article in the above disease. It has been tried by Dr. 
Statts, of Aibiaiy, etfectually, in d','Si s of two to four grains, depending w\WTi 
the charactei- of the complaint. Dr. Dodd, of the United States Navy, says 
Dr. Fiberle "has used extra t of conium with great success; generally re- 
moved the d;>case in three or four days, but, under unfavorable circumstinces, 
the ru''e cannot be effected under eight or ten days. lie employs extract of 
conium, one di-achm ; opium, ten grains — made into ten pills, two of which 
are to be taken every two hours, until vertigo and a dmigKccahh fullness of 
the lictul is expcricMtd. Ilrs object is to put the system under the narcotic 
influence of conium, and sustain the influence until the discharge ceases,, 
which seldom requires more than two or three days." 

The Dr.MAL Cosmos. — We are pleased to place among our exchanges this 
valuable and interesting journal. Although dev(;ted to dental science and 
dental liteiatute, and lO the interests of the dental profession, it contains 
much matter valuable lo the medical prolcssion. It takes the place of the 
Dental News-Let ter, and i> issued monthly, )>y Drs. White. M^-Quillen and 
Zeigler, at No. 528 Arch street, Philadelphia. 

TuK Phv>kian*s IIand-Book of Phactice for ISiKj, by Drs. Elmer and 
Klsberg, is before us. We arc happy to notice many additioiis to the text 
since the issue for 1850. 

In thi-^ work the jdiysician has, in addition to the conmion memorandum- 
book of fonsenient si/.e for the ])0ckct, over a hundred pages of closely printed 
mattei', intended a> suggrstire -^jd for immediate reference, in the ai)sence of 
the standard medical work>, from which the .synopsis is ma<lo ; among which 
we find a cla>silication (•!' <liscases, with their leading symptoms and usual 
remedies; Dr. Hall's read}' method in asjdiyxia ; medicinal weights and mea- 
sure.-; list 01 reiuedial agent-^: medicated bath> ; writing pres^Ti|itiops; poi- 
sons and their antidotes; diagao.stic examination of urine, &c., &.c. \ followei^ 
by blanks for recording the symptoms of patients and their treatment, for 
obstetric records, for lUuly eMivie.s of visits made, and for general memoninda. 

We recommend the *' Hand-Book'' to every physician, and more especially 
to those practising in the country. 

Published by W. A Townsend, New York : i)ri'e ^1 25. Sent by mail, 
post-paid, on receipt of price. 

Correspondents will obhge by writing plainly their names, town, county and 
state. Wo have, in several instances, been unable to answer letters because 
these aie omitted. 


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Tarrant's Effervescent 
Seltzer Aperient. 

This valuable and popular medicine, prepared 
in conformity with the analysis ofthe water of the" 
celebrated seltzer spring in Germany, in a most 
convenient and portable form, has universally 
received the most favorable recommendations of 
the medical profession and a discerning public, as 
the most efficient and agreeable ^Hllne Aperient 
In U8e, and a* beln^ entitled to special preference 
over the many mineral spring waters, seifllita 
powders, and other Mmilar artickg, both from it« 
oompactuess and greater efficacy. It may be 
UBed with the best eflfect in all Bilious and Febrile 
diseaseu, sick Headache, Loss of Appetite, Indl- 
gcctioD, and all similar complaints, peculiariy In- 
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It la particularly adapted to the wants of travel- 
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persona of sedentary habits, invalids and conva- 
lescents, captains of vessels and planters will find 
It a valuable addition to their medicine chests. 
With those who have used it, it has high favor, 
and is deemed indispensable 

In a torjrid ntaie of tii^ liver it renders great 
service In restoring healthy action. In gout and 
rfuumuiism it give* the best satisfaction, allay- 
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caseii effectually curing those afllicted. lU stm- 
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and cofdiv&vem pro*g it to be a medicine of the 
greatej»t utility. Acidity of the. Htoma<ih^ and the 
di-ht rsMffivi/ *>.'..{■ /I ^fiiixo uxual dv/in(j pregnancy 
yields 8pee«lily and with mHrked success under It* 
healthful influence. It ajordn the greafeat reliej 
tothoi^t ajffiicted v ifh, or suhjerl to Vi^ Pile^, 
acting gently on the bowels, neutralizing all irri- 
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In all cases where a gentle aperient or ptrgatlve 
i« required. 

It is In the form of a powder, carefully put up 
in bottles, to keep In any climate, and merely re- 
quires water poured upon It to produce a deUght- 
tuX effervescent beverage. 

Taken In the morning, It never interferes with 
the avocations of the day, acting gently on the 
system, restoring the digestive powers, exciting a 
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creating an elasticity of mind and flow of spirits 
which give zest to every enjoyment. It also en- 
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red, and without which life is irksome and dis- 

Numerous testimonials from professional and 
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Prepared and sold wholesale and retail. 

Tarrant's Compound Extract of 
Cubebs and Copaiba, 

Sanctioned by popular opinion and high authority 
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with the greatest possible care, upon well-tested 

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ong voyages, this preparation po<:*<'t»o'»3 qmljtles 
far sur|)asblng any other— n<'ut and portable In 
form, speedy ai.d eflicarious In its oppration. suc- 
cessful both In the earlie.'»t and worH stages of 
the severest disease, while the usual nauseous 
taste and unpleasant odor of Copaiba are wholly 
avoided in this preparation. 

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Vew] DECEMBER, 1850. [SeriM 

Remarks on Uva Ursi, Gkmltheria Froomnbens, Andromeda 
Arbore^v Ledum Palustre, Comptonia Asplenifolia, Sta- 
tice Caroliniana, Nymphaea Odorata, Nuphar Lntea, Al- 
nus Rubra, Trillium Pendulum, Erigeron Annuum, and 
Spirea Tomentosa. 



Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi, {tlie Bear-Berry^ Jbc.) — ^A well- 
kaown perennial shrub, common to the northern parts of Europe, 
Asia and America, and found in dry, stony and barren spots. 
The leaves only officinal, which are to be gathered in autumn. 
They are inodorous, slightly bitter and astringent to the taste, 
leaving a sweetish sensation in the mouth. The virtues are ex- 
tracted by diluted alcohol. 

Chemical Composition. — One hundred parts yield : tannin, 36.4 ; 
gallic acid, 1.2; resin, 4.4; oxidized extractive, 6.8; supermalates -^ 
of lime and soda, 3.3 ; clorophylle, 6.3 ; gum, 15.7 ; extractive, 
17.6 ; lignin, 9.6 ; water, 6.* Tannin is evidently the chief ac- 
tive constituent, constituting more than thirty per cent., a larger 
amount than is furnished by any of our indigenous astringents. 

Therapeutical Properties and Uses, — The uva ursi may be ad- 
vantageously employed for all purposes for which vegetable as- 

* Mr. Haghes has <UscoTcred a p«oallar crysUUxable principle In (he uya onlf called by bUn w§in^ 
which he found te be dlor elic, In dowf of one gt^ix,—Am4rican Journal of rharmaey xlx., 9^. 


zed by Google 

368 Lee on Medicmal Plants. 

tringents are generally prescribed. The urine assumes a dark 
color under its use, from the conversion, by oxidation, of the 
tannic into gallic and pyro-gallic acid in its passage through the 
i^stem ; while it increases the quantity of urine, its quality is also 
modified, the lithic deposits being much diminished. It has, more- 
over, the power, to a considerable extent, of lessening the sensi- 
bility of the mucous membrane of the bladder and pelvis of the 
kidneys, so that in cases of cystic and ural calculi the sufferings 
of the patient are greatly alleviated. We are inclined to believe 
that all astringent remedies possess this power, to a certain de- 
gree. In cases of chronic cystitis, or vesical irritation, with in- 
creased secretion from the mucous membrane, the persevering use 
of the uva ursi will very frequently be attended with decided 
efficacy in diminishing or completely suppressing the muco-puru- 
lent deposition in the urine. By diminishing the quantity of li- 
thates, it thus lessens the acrimony of the urine, independent of 
any specific power over the mucous surfaces. In this way the 
paiti and frequent desire to pass urine are much relieved. It is 
no less efficacious in catarrh of the bladder, where there exists a 
secretion of graliular mucus mixed with phosphates. The cura- 
tive results are doubtless partly due to its influence over the di- 
gestive organs. In some instances it has to be continued several 
days before any decided effects will be perceived from its use. It 
well deserves a trial in chronic dysuria, so often met with in the 
aged, as well as chronic bronchial affections, with profuse mucous 
or purulent secretion. It is a good tonic alterative in most cases 
of chronic inflammation of mucous surfaces. 

Preparations, — ^Decoction, fluid extract, solid extract, tincture, 
syrup, infusion. — The decoction is made by boiling an ounce of 
the leaves in a pint and a quarter of water to a pint, of which 
one or two fluid ounces may be given two or three times a day. 
The fluid extract is now getting into general use; dose, half to 
one drachm. The dose of the solid extract is from five to fifteen 
grains ; of the tincture, made with two ounces of the fluid ex- 
tract to one pint diluted alcohol, from three to six drachms may 
be given. One ounce of the fluid extract to one pint of water 
makes a good infusion, of which one to two ounces is a dose. To 
form a syrup, add four ounces fluid extract to one pint of syrup ; 
dofle, two to four drachms. Hyoscyamus is a good addition to 


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Let on Medicinal Plants. 359 

this remedy, also conium and lactucarium. 

The Epigea Repens {Trailing Arbutus) has the same medicinal 
virtues as the uva ursi, and may be substituted for it It is a 
popular domestic remedy for gravel, and is put up and sold by 
the Shakers, under the name of the gravel plant. 

Gaultheria Prooumbens, {Partridge Berry.) — This well- 
known, small, shrubby, indigenous evergreen plant belongs also to 
the ericacecej or heath tribe. The leaves and whole plant possess 
aromatic properties similar to sweet birch, which reside in a volatile 
oil. The leaves contain much tannin, and are astringent, as well 
as a cordial stimulant — ^well adapted to cases of chronic diarrhoea ; 
chiefly used to impart an agreeable flavor to other preparations. 
The oil or infusion may be employed : has considerable reputation 
as an emmenagogue, (U. S. P.) The oil is sold under the name 
o£ oU of tvinlergreen. The oil is recently ascertained, by M. Ca- 
hours, to be a salycUite of the oxide of Tnetkyly and composed of an 
acid called the salycUitic (hitherto found only in the oil of spirea),. 
united with the etiier of wood-spirit {methylic ether). 

Andromeda Abborea, {Sorrel Tree.) — More flmn tw^ity spe- 
cies of this genus are found in North America, all of which have 
more or less astringency. The leaves and wood of the present 
species abound in malic acid, combined with tannin, which adapte 
it well to many cases of disease. Bafinesque says they form a re- 
freshing, cooling, anti-febrile drink, allaying thirst, &c; useful 
where a refrigerant astringent is needed, and very similar to the 
finit of the rhus glabrUm. 

Prepaaraiions. — ^The same as other astringents. 

Ledum Palustre and Latifolium, {Labrador Tea.) — Thia 
small evergreen shrub is common to the Eastern Continent and 
to North America. The leaves have an aromatic, camphorous^ 
bitter taste, and a balsamic odor, and abound in volatile oil and 
tannin, to which they owe their sensible and medicinal properties. 
The plant is tonic, astringent and slightly narcotic, and has been 
used successfully, both internally and externally, in some cutane- 
ous diseases, as leprosy and scabies, also in whooping cough, diar- 
rhoea, dysentery, Ac, In Germany, the leaves are used in brew- 
ingi as a substitute for hops. 

Chemical Oomposition. — ^Your analysis gives of — 


zed by Google 

360 Lee on Medicinal Plants. 

Organic matters, C650.08 

Inorganic inattei's, 349.92 

Total, 7000.00 

Gum, - - - - S03.2O 

Extract, 71.30 

Starch, 20.80 

Tannin, 165.1*i 

Particular principle, 816.00 

Sugar, 160.00 

Chlorophylle, 768.00 

Black resin, 108.33 

Soluble salts, 282.02 

Insoluble salts, 67.00 

Ligneous, 4287.44 

Total, 7000.00 

Preparations, — ^The same as above. 

COMPTONIA AsPLENiFOLiA, {Sw^t Fern.) — ^This well-known 
slirub, the only species of the genus, possesses medicinal proper- 
ties which entitle it to a place in every work on the indigenous 
medical botany of our country. The bruised leaves emit a strong 
resinous, aromatic odor. The analysis you have recently made 
diows the presence of a large per centage of tannin, resin, and a 
peculiar sweet principle. The per centage of taimin exceeds that 
of either of the three varieties of oak examined by you, and 
equal to some of the strongest astringents examined. In the East- 
ern States, espedally in Maine, it is employed extensively in tan- 
ning leather, for which purpose it is thought to be superior to any 
other astringent As a domestic remedy it is in very general use, 
and much esteemed as a tonic alterative in scrofulous and cachec- 
tic affections, in the form of beer, also as a reliable remedy in 
djrsentery, diarrhoea, hiemoptisis, the debility succeeding fevers, 
and to check night sweata Formerly, it had some reputation for 
the cure of tape-worm. It may be safely pronounced a mild 
astringent tonic, possessing considerable alterative properties, 
which adapt it well to cases where such remedies are indicated. 
We have known good effects from a mild decoction of it, sweet- 
ened, in the summer complaint of young children. In Pennsyl- 
vania, it is a popular remedy, in cases of dysentery, among the 
German population; also as a wash or fomentation in rheuma- 


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Lee on Medicinal Plants, 361 

tisrn, contusions, and poisoning by sumac. A strong fluid ex- 
tract of this plant is a desideratum. 

Chemical Composition, — Your analysis gives, of — 

Organic matters, 93.600 

Inorganic matters, 6.400 

Total, 100.000 

Qtim and albtunen, 8.66i^ 

Tknnin, sduble in alcohol and water, .... 0.968 

Tannin, 4.867 

Sweet principle, - - - 11.617 

Sugar, 1.280 

Extractive matter, 1.309 

Starch, 3.086 

Chlorophjlle, 6.271 

Resin, 11.702 

Soluble salts, 0.847 

Insoluble salts, 5.553 

Ligneous, &c., 48.992 

Total, 100.000 

8tat[ce Carolinian a, {Marsh Rosemary,) — The marsh rosemary 
is almost the only astringent vegetable, employed in medicine, 
belonging to the class of maritime plants. That agent, common 
salt, which proves poisonous to most vegetables, is the proper 
nutriment and stimulus of others, which perish when removed 
from their pative marshes. The statice is exclusively a marine 
plant, and well known from its purple flowers appearing among 
the grass, during the summer months, in our salt meadows, and 
belongs to the natural order of Plumbaginaceae, or lead- worts. 
The root is the officinal part. It contains twelve per cent of tan- 
nin, and is one of our most powerful indigenous astringents. 
Bigelow declares it " one of the most intense and powerful in the 
vegetable materia medica." He also detected in it gallic acid. 
Its active principles seem wholly soluble in water ; hence it con- 
tains little or no resin or volatile oil. Prof. V. Mott made this 
the subject of his inaugural thesis in 1806. lie states that the 
astringency, indicated by the sulphate of iron, is greater in the 
tincture than in the infusion, under experiments precisely similar; 
from which it might be inferred that alcohol is abetter solvent for 
this root than water. He found the cold infusion more powerful 


zed by Google 

362 Lee on Medicinal Plants. 

than the hot, which may have been owing to the escape of a part 
of the gallic acid by evapon^tion. The astringency was found 
fully equal to that of galls, and ink, made fix)m equal quantities 
of the two, similarly treated, was equal in blackness. 

The therapeutical uses of the marsh rosemary are those of the 
more powerful class of astringents. Dr. Mott praises it very 
hi^ly in dysentery, after the acute stage is passed, and says:— 
'^ It has restored patients to health, after various tonics and astrin- 
gents had been used to no eflfect" — {Inaug. Dissert) In Maasa* 
chusetts, and other Kew England States, it has long enjoyed a 
high reputation in cases of cynanche maligna, or putrid sore- 
throat, used locally as a gargle, and also internally. It is almost 
universally kept in the cpuntry drug stores, and, according to 
Bigelow, larger quantities sold than of any other indigenous arti- 
cle. In popular practice it is chiefly employed in apthous ulcera- 
tive affections of the mouth and fences. It was regarded as a 
useful astringent in the time of Pliny. It has emetic and sudo- 
rific properties. 

A strong decoction or cold infusion of the root is the only 
preparation in present use, though a fluid extract, tincture and 
syrup may easily be prepared, and in some cases may be prefer- 

Nymph^a Odorata, {Sweet- Scefntcd Water Lily.) — This beau- 
tiful plant was well known to the ancients, and is described by 
Galen, Dioscorides, and the Arabian authors, Rhazes, Serapion, 
Avicenna, &c. The Greek and Latin authorities describe it as 
possessed of desiccative powers, without pungency : constipating 
the bowels, and useful in female flux, &c. The Arabians adminis- 
tered the syrup for coughs and pleurisy, and state that it induces 
sleep and cures vertigo, but is debilitating. The Oriental nations 
use it still for medicind purposes. 

Most of the tribe to which this plant belongs are natives of the 
torrid zone, and this, as well as the nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily), 
only support the cold of our latitude by the depth of water in 
which they vegetate, the roots being placed at such a depth, 
that the frost never reaches them. The roots of the nymphaea 
arc rough, knotted, and as large as a man's arm, while the porous 
stalks are buoyed up by the large quantity of air contained in the 
cellular tissue. The upper surfaces of the leaves are highly 


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Lee on Medicinal Plants. 868 

poliflhed, and repel the water, as if coated with varnish or oiL 
The flowers, which have a peculiarly fragrant odor, expand in the 
morning as soon as they feel the warmth of the sun, and float 
upon the water, owing to the concavity of the calyx and petals. 
The flowers close at night, and often sink beneath the surface till 
the next morning. As the flower decays, the germ, or seed, sinks 
to the bottom, and there ripens its fruit. The roots of this plant 
are extlremely styptic and bitter to the taste, and contain a large 
amount of tannin and gallic acid.* This is evident from the in- 
tensely black color which is struck by a solution of sulphate of 
iron, and the copious precipitate from the adition of gelatine. 
Alcohol throws down a flooctdent substance resembling starch. 
The perfume yielded by the flowers is not surpassed even by that 
of the rose, but is only perfect when the flowers are fresh. It is 
very evanescent, and no method has yet been discovered by 
which, like that of the rose, it can be isolated and preserved. 
The stamens possess more of the odorous principle th^ the petals. 
The roots of this plant are kept in many of the shops, and used 
in domestic practice to form poultices. ^ In the regular practice 
they are more often prescribed in cases where saturnine applica- 
cations and alum curds are employed. The European species, 
nuphar alba, which possesses similar qualities, has always been 
regarded as antiphrodisiac,t and extensively employed in dysen- 
tery and other morbid discharges. Our own species has long 
been employed as a popular remedy in bowel complaints, and as 
an astringent in gleet, fluor albus, &c. It has also been found a use- 
ful gargle in tdcerated sore-throat This is one of the Thomsonian 
remedies, and used for purposes above mentioned. Whether it 
possesses any antiphrodisiac and narcotico-sedative properties, as 

* ML Horln de Reunes, a French chemist, found the nymphea alba to contain starchy tannic, (^m, 
fainc acid, 'retln, a regeto-anlmal matter, and certain vegetable acids and salts.— Jfera^ and Ds 

t Herat and De Lens state that the name alone of (his genus {*^n6nuphar**-^n^mphea,) suggesta 
Its sedative, calmative, and especlallx its antiphrodisiac, properties. The latter property was wdl 
known to the ancients, and may have been suggested, as these writers state, by its habitation In tba 
water and the virgin whiteness of its flowers. The French poeU and naturalists have lavished their 
highest enconiums upon this plant as an antidote to the sexual passion, kc. History informs us that 
the pious cenobites of the desert made Arequent use of It, and that It was extensively used In religions 
ddsten, convents and seoiinaries, and that Its sedative powers were esteemed so great that It was be- 
■eved to have the power of causing impotence and sterility. Singers also employed it to preserve the 
voice, physicians recommended it for erotic walceftilness, Ac. 


zed by Google 

364 Lee on Medicinal Plants. 

claimed by the ancients and recent French writers, may well be 
doubted. All the species contain a large quantity of fecnla, which 
after repeated washings is employed for food. The nuphar htu'^ 
of Egypt not only furnished magnificent flowers, with which to 
crown the heads of their gods and kings, but also served as food 
for large numbers of the people, especially in times of scarcity. 
Lotus eaters still abound, not only in that country, but all over the 

The Nuphar Littea and Advena {smaU-Jlowered yellow pond 
lily and common yellow pond lily) possess similar properties with 
the nymphcECLf and may be employed in the same cases. The nu- 
phar advena is a popular astringent tonic, containing much tannin 
and starch, and used, when fresh, to form poultices. The roots of 
all the water lilies are edible, and, though acrid when raw, are 
bland and nutritious when cooked ; the petioles and leaves are 
eaten for greens. The leaves form a good dressing for blisters, 
cooling and emollient, while the flowers have proved successful 
in dysuria. 

The above remarks will also apply to the nelurnhium liUmm 
{great yellow water lily), found in our northern lakes, the rhizomes 
of which resemble those of the sweet potato, and by some are 
esteemed equally agreeable, farinaceous and wholesome. The 
Indians, aa well as Tartars, make great use of them for purposes 
of food. 

Alxus El'BRA, OH Sekrulata, {Covimon Alder: Tag Alder.) — 
The common alder is a well-known shrub, growing in clumps, and 
forming thickets on the borders of ponds and rivers, and in 
swamps. Several other species are found in North America, all 
having similar properties. The leaves and bark have a bitter 
and astringent taste. The inner bark is emetic. Analysis shows 
that the plant abounds in tannin, bitter extractive, some gallic 
acid, &c. It has been, and still is, extensively employed in popu- 
lar practice as an astringent alterative tonic in abdominal fluxes, 
the various hemorrhages, and as an external application to wounds 
and ulcers. The plant is used in tanning leather, and for dying 
brown, black and yellow, with different mordants. The late Dr. 
Williams, of Deerfield, was very partial to its use in hiematuria. 
As an alterative, it has considerable reputation in scrofulous and 
cutaneous affections ; as a tonic in some forms of dyspepsia, it has 


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Lee on Medicinal Plants, 365 

also proved successful. Botanic physicians extol this article as a 
powerful alterative, and very valuable in the treatment of chronic" 
rheumatism, erysipelas, gonorrhoea, gleet, syphilis, gravel, cystitis, 
&c. The alnuin is a dry, powdered extract, obtained by digest- 
ing the plant in diluted spirit. It is of yellowish-brown color, 
very bitter and slightly astringent taste, and recommended in 
doses of three grains three times a day ; it is also advised in com- 
bination with macrotyn^ phytolaciny euonymim, &c. In some cuta- 
neous diseases of a chronic kind, as impetigo, herpes, &c., the 
alnuin produces very good efiEects. In syphilis and the various 
forms of scrofula it is also well worthy of triaL In some cases — 
perhaps a majority — the fluid extract^ now kept in the shops, will 
prove the best form of administration : dose, one to two drachms ; 
or the infusion may be used, made with 3 ij. of the fluid extract 
to one pint of water. The dose, of course, to be regulated by 
the age and other circumstances of the case. 

Trillium Pendulum, {Birt/i Boot: Wake Bobtn, etc.) — This 
is but one of eight species of trillium growing in the Northern 
States. Few of our indigenous plants surpass them in elegance 
and beauty, and they are all Qndowed with active medicinal pro- 
perties. The root of the 71 airopurpurcum, or purple species, is 
generally believed to be the most active. 

The trillium has somewhat tuberous roots, having a faint, 
slightly terebinthinate odor like cedar, and a peculiar aromatic 
taste. When chewed they excite the salivary glands, and leave a 
sensation of heat in the throat and fauces. As the plant 
not yet been analyzed its proximate principles are chiefly un- 
known. Tannin and bitter extractive, howerer, form two of its 
active ingredients, to which its medicinal effects are doubtless 

From all I have observed, or can gather from others, I am led 
to believe that the trillium is one of our most valuable tonico- 
astringent alteratives, and especially beneficial in most cases of 
passive, atonic hemorrhage, as menorrhagia, &c. Less astringent 
than many other plants already noticed, it is far more alterative 
and tonic; yet it has decided efficacy as an astringent where this 
indication is present. The late Dr. Williams used the powdered 
root in all kinds of active hemorrhages, in doses of one drachm 
to an adult, repeated according to the urgency of the symptoms. 


zed by Google 

S66 Lee on Medicinal Plants. 

Dr. Stone, of Greenfield, Mass., has made very extensive use of it 
in all forms of bleeding, especially from the womb and lungs, and, 
2& he thinks, with great and decided benefit In the various 
forms of scrofula and cutaneous disease he has also seen great ad- 
vantage from its use. In popular practice the birth-root is used in 
parturition, and is believed to facilitate the birth of the child. 
Hence its name. 

I found it employed extensively for this purpose among the 
Chippeway Indians, on Lake Superior, while sojourning among 
them in 1848. They also believed it a certain specific for the bite 
of the rattle-snake. It seemed to be their favorite remedy in all 
female complaints, especially those attended with discharges. In- 
deed, the evidence in its favor, in cases of vaginal and uterine 
leucorrhea, is vejy strong and satisfactory : also in passive bron- 
chorrhea and haomoptysis. 

The preparations of this plant are : the decoction, fluid extract, 
tincture, syrup and trillin. The latter is the powdered hydro- 
alcoholic solid extract, and of course combines, like the fluid ex- 
tract, all the active virtues of the plant. The dose of it is from 
three to eight grains. It is a good preparation, and coming 
into very general use in scientific practice as a tonic alterative. 
The trillium deserves a higher rank in our vegetable materia 

Erigekon Annuum,* {Flea-Bane, Sweet Scabious, Jhc.) — This 
plant occupies a place in the secondary list of the U. S. P., under 
the name of jK heterophyUum. There are several species of the 
genus, identical in their medical properties, and employed indis- 
criminately. The whole plant is ofiicinal, and to be gathered 
during the flowering season. From the experiments of the late 
Dr. De Puy, of New York, we learn that this plant contains tan- 
nin, volatile oil, bitter extractive, albumen, gum, &c. The oil is 
of a pale yellow color, fluid as water, acrid to the taste, and a 
strong lemon-like smell. The leaves are bitter and astringent to 
the taste. 

Chemical Composiiio^i. — The recent analysis in your laboratory 
gives, of — 

• The K. Canadenne^ or Canada flea-baoe, la anoUier upecles. 


zed by Google 

Lee on Medicinal Plants. ' 367 

Organic matters, 6416.08 

Inorganic matters, 588.02 

Total, 7000.00 

<5um, 341.12 

Extract, 262.40 

Amidon, 23.68 

Tannin, 148.04 

• Sugar,' 146.92 

Particular principles, 715.62 

Oil, 161.12 

Chlerophylle, - . , 896.64 

Soluble salts, 274.72 

Insoluble salts, 308.48 

Ligneous, -v . . 4221.76 

ToUl, -..-.... 7000.00 

This plant has tonic astringent powers, and has been success- 
fully used in a variety of diseases, such as diarrhoea and dysen- 
tery, after the acute stage, and as a styptic in the various forms of 
hemorrhage, external and internal The late Dr. Gilbert Smith 
employed it with great success in the New York Aims-House, in 
1812, using the decoction and infusion of the plant. Dr. De Puy, 
who wrote a history of the plant, {Ti-an^, of Physico. Med, Soc, of 
New York^ 1817,) also derived great benefit from its use in simi- 
lar cases, as well as dysuria, prefering the tincture and extract. 
Its diuretic virtues are well kno¥ra, and it has long been a popu- 
lar remedy in dropsical cases. An infusion of the flowers is a 
useful nervine and antispasmodic, and has been much employed 
in nervous and hysterical affections. The oil from this plant is 
supposed to exert almost a specific power as an astringent in 
hemorrhage ; indeed, to be one of the most powerful styptics 
known. An infusion of the plant was a favorite remedy with 
the late Drs. Dewees and Physic in dysury, especially in children. 
Dr. Barton extols it for relieving painful micturition, attendant 
on nephritis. It has some emmenagogue properties, and, being 
used by the Indians for this purpose, is often called squaw- 

The preparations are: decoction, infusion, fluid extract, tinc- 
ture, syrup, oil, &c. The oil is supposed to be most astrin-, 
^ent. For diuretic purposes the infusion and fluid extract arc 


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368 Lee on Medicinal PlayiL^f, 


Spir-EA Tomextosa, {Hardback.) — This beautifal shrub is com- 
mon in low, moist grounds, in most parts of the United States. 
It was known to the Indians as an astringent before it was adopt- 
ed into regular practice. The bark and leaves contain most of 
the active principles, though the U. S. P. declares the root to be 
officinal. It is kept in the shops, in the form of square, pressed 
packages. The leaves have a bitter astringent taste and a 
smell like black tea. They contain tannin, gallic acid, bit- 
ter extractive, gum, &c. It yields its medicinal principles to 

The hardback is a very reliable tonic and astringent, and sel- 
dom disagrees with the stomach. It was much used by the late 
Prof. Tully as an astringent, and recommended highly in diar- 
rhoea, dysentery, hemorrhage, &c. The solid extract is equal to 
catechu, and might, as Griffith thinks, replace it Dose, five- 
grains to one scruple. The fluid extract, now kept in the shops,, 
is an excellent and reliable preparation, in doses of five to twenty 
drops. As a tonic in pure debility, the spiroea is one of our best 
indigenous articles. 

Spiu.ea Salicifolia, {Queen of Vie Meiuloiv.) — Chemical Com- 
jxksition. — Your recent analysis gives, of — 

Organic matters, 6416.08 

Inorganic matters, 583.02 

Total, 7000.00 

(Jum, 370.56 

Extract, v 334.66' 

Amidon, 128.86 

Sugar, 143.62 

Tannin, 115.20 

Bitter principle, 466.88 

Particular principle, 627.86 

Clorophyle, - 466.56 

Soluble salts, ' 370.88 

Insoluble salts, 212.32 

Lignin, : - 3768.30 

Total, 7000.00 

Medicinal properties and preparations the same as those of the 


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Therapeutical Properties of Veratrum Mindc, 869 

Therapeutical Properties of Veratrum Viride. 


TiiK indications which veratrum viride seems to be capable of 
^Ifilling are numerous. As a sedative no other medicine is equal 
to it, reducing a pulse of one hundred and thirty beats to seventy, 
in fix)m three to four hours. 

The j>reparationa most used at present are the fluid extract 
and tincture. I prefer the fluid extract, as prepared by Tilden 
A Co. 

Pneumonia is the disease in which veratrum viride is particu- 
larly indicated. It seems to have niore controling power in this 
than any other disease, reducing the inflammation and £Bivoring 
expectoration in a very few hours. In some instances vomiting 
is induced, which is generally tough, viscid mucous ; the pulse 
now rapidly declines, if not affected before; the breathing be- 
<x>mes easy, and the patient falls into an^easy sleep, with, per- 
haps, a gentle perspiration. The dose now is to be so managed 
as to sustain the depressed state of the circulation. If the vera- 
trum cauaes much nausea, it may be conteracted by giving a lit- 
tle of a solution of morphia or tincture of opium. 

I find that in pneumonia it is better to reduce the pulse as soon 
as possible: the inflammation being in a degree arrested, the 
lung is saved from the more severe consequences of the second 
^tage or that of red hepa^tization of Saennec; for the concrete 
fibrinous exudation being caused by a peculiar inflammatory ac- 
tion — ^thus the cause being, in part, removed — ^this exudation is 
in a great degree arrested, and the patient, in a majority of cases, 
enters into a fiivorable convalescence. 

Having used the veratrum viride, for the past two years, 
in most cases of pneumonia, I will give the outlines of a few 
well-defined cases : — 

Cask No. 1. — March 18th, George P., aged ten years, was 
taken with chiU, followed by febrile reaction ; pulse, one hundred 
and thirty per minute ; difficult breathing, cough, severe pain in 
the left side, and rust-colored sputa. 

Physical Symptoms, — Crepitant rale over lower part of left 
lung ; percussion not much changed. Treatment : fluid extract 


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370 T/ierapeultcal Properties of Veratrurn Viride, 

veratxmn viride, four drops ; fluid extract senna, one drachm — 
the senna as a purge. Continued the veratrurn viride, in two- 
drop doses, every three hours, in connection with ten drops of solu- 
tion of morphia as an anodyne. 

14th — ^Pulse, one hundred — sharp ; breathing more free, cough 
less, rust-colored sputa, restless and wakeful ; rales the same, or 
nearly so. Continued veratrurn viride, in two-drop doses, and 
solution of morphia, twenty drops, every three hours. 

15th — Pulse, eighty per minute | less pain in the chest; expec- 
torated freely a yellowish mucous, slightly tinged with blood; 
crepitant rale less ; mucous rale in the upper part of the left lung. 
Continued the veratrum viride and morphia. 

16th — ^Pulse, seventy-five per minute; tongue cleaning; ex- 
pectoration copious and easy; rested well through the night; 
skin soft and moist Q-ave the following mixture : — Syrup garlic, 
3 L ; veratrum viride, eight drops ; morphia, quarter grain.. 
Dose — Half a tea8p#onful every four hours. Diet — ^Milk and 

19th — ^No febrile excitement ; cough and expectoration dimin- 
ished; sat up two hours. He was now placed upon wine 
and quinine, and the patient recovered without further treat- 

Case No. 2. — ^March 19th, R. S., aged twenty-one years, was 
taken with chill, followed by fever, and pain in the inferior part 
of the left lung ; pulse, one hundred and twenty-five ; expectora- 
tion scanty ; tongue covered with a brownish far ; restless and 

Physical Symptoms, — ^Healthy resonance dimished over lower 
portion of left lung; crepitant rale in lower portion of left lung. 
Treatment — ^Castor oil, two ounces, as a purge ; veratrum viride, 
four drops, increasing one drop every three hours, with mucilage^ 
gum arable. 

20th — ^Pulse, one hundred, soft and regular; rust-colored sputa; 
pain less; cough hard ; breathing easy; tongue a little enlarged; 
decubitus dorsal ; head and shoulders raised ; not as much rest- 
lessness ; rales similar. Gave the following pill : — ^Podophyllin^ 
one grain ; leptandrin, two grains ; solid extract apocy, canabi.^ 
one grain — as a cathartic and alterative. Gave veratrum viride^ 


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Therapeutical Properties of Verat^m Viride. 371 

three drops every three hours, with half a grain quinine and mu- 
cilaginous drinks. 

21st — Much improved; no pain in the chest; pulse slow, sLjcty 
per minute; cough loose; tongue cleaning and moist; crepitant 
and mucous rale on oscultation. Gave veratrum, two drops; 
quinine, one grain ; wine, one drachm, every four hours. 

22d — Rested well ; symptoms all improving. Continued vera- 
trum, quinine and wine. 

28d — Coughed much through the night; pulse regular; sat up 
this morning one hour ; appetite returning. Gave of the following 
mixture : — ^Fluid extract veratrum viride, 3 i ; quinine, gr. 10 ; 
wine, 5 y- ' syrup of morphine, 5 i. One drachm four times a 

24th, 25th, and 26th— Coughed but little for the past three 
days ; tongue mostly cleaned ; sat up four hours ; ordered mix- 
ture to be taken occasionally. He recovered without farther 

Other cases might be given ; but I would say, that where the 
veratrum has been used the patient has not fidled to recover, ex- 
cept in two cases. 

I have used the veratrum viride in acute rJieuniaiismj but 
its influence was not so prompt and decided as in pneumo- 
nia. Perhaps it could be accounted for, as it was not given 
in as large doses, and more morphia was given' in connection 
with it. 

The average duration of the disease has been nine days. I 
usually use the following formula : — 

5. — Fluid extract veratrum viride, 31. 

Wine, I iv. 

Sulphate of morphia^ gr. vii. 

Dose — Teaspoonful every three hours, using, at the same time^ 
acidulated drinks, and sponging the patient freely with an alka- 
line solution: keeping the bowels open at the same time with 
sulphate of magnesia. 

I have used it in dysentery, as recommended by Dr. TuUy, 
with good effect, and can confidently recommend it, in con- 
nection with morphine, as one of the most efficient remedies, in 


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372 Theraj>€uticdl Properties of Veratrum Viride, 

the treatment of simple dysentery, that we have. 

I have used the remedy in many cases of idiopailiic fever with 
much benefit, although it is in enteric or typhoid fever in which the 
remedy seems to have the most beneficial influence, especially 
when we have a frequent pulse and a sthenic condition of the 
system. In those cases I usually give it combined with morphia, 
and in the asthenic cases with quinine. 

I find that in enteric fever it is better to reduce the pulse 
gradually, and use the veratrum in as small quantities as pos- 
sible, and always combined with morphia; and from two to 
three days is soon enough to reduce a pulse of one hun- 
dred and twenty beats to seventy, which it is very essential to 
maintain, as it is very difficult to reduce the pulse a second 

In asthenic cases I use the following mixture: — 

5 . — Veratrum viride, Two drops. 

Solution sulphate of morphia, Half drachm. 

Sulphate of quinine, Quarter grain. 

Aromatic sulphuric acid, Two drops. 

Mix, and give every four hours, adding more of the veratrum 
if the pulse is not aflPected in from eight to twelve hours ; and we 
can, in fact, say that veratrum viride is applicable to all stages of 
enteric fever^ if properly combined with other medicines, and given 
in requisite quantities. 

In coughs, resulting from an inflammatory action, veratrum 
viride is one of the best remedies we have. The following makes 
an excellent cough mixture : — 

5. — Tincture sang, canad., 3 ii. 

Vini. ipecac., 3 "i. 

Fluid extract yeratrum viride, , Si* 

Sulphate of morphia, gr. vL 

^ Alcohol, 3 "• 

Simple s>Tup, 5 lii. 

Dose — Teaspoonful four times a day, for an adult. 


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Foreign cmd Indigenous Medicinal Pianis. 873 

On the Therapeutio Value of Foreign and Indigenous 
Medioinal Plants. 

(From Hie Proceedings of the American PJutrmacetUical AssodaUon,) 

The question relating to the comparative therapeutic value of 
foreign and indigenous or cultivated plants, assigned to me at 
the last meeting of your Association, I shall be able to report 
upon but partially this year. 

To determine this question satisfiictorily, or conclusively, in- 
volves experiments and observations of two or more seasons; and 
inasmuch as the sessions of the Association occur in advance of 
the season for the maturity of most medicinal plants, I am limited 
to such as have arrived at maturity, and can, from the limited 
time allowed, give only such portions of the several experiments 
concerning each as have been concluded. 

No way presented itself of determining all the points involved 
in the question, inasmuch as the narcotic plants are perhaps the 
most important, or more particularly referred to in the question, 
but to make them, as a class, the subject of particular experiment 
and examination, somewhat after the following plan; — 

1. An analysis of five specimens of belladonna, hyoscyamus, 
aconite, conium and digitatis : each specimen of the different plants 
of different importation. ' 

2. The preparation of an extract from each specimen ; the ex- 
amination of each extract to determine the quantity of alkaloids, 
resin, &c., in each ; an analysis of the ashes of the extract of 
each plant, to determine the inorganic constituents of each, and 
comparison with tiie analysis of the plant, that we may infer 
the nature of the soil upon which each grew. 

S. An examination of extracts of the same plants of foreign 
manufacture, and comparison with those made here from foreign 

4. The analysis of the soil upon which the several plants are 
grown here, in general culture, before sowing and also after the 
maturity of the plant. 

5. An analysis of the plants at various periods of growth to 


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874 Foreign and Indigenaus Medicinal FJanis. 

6. Treatment of each plant npon the same soil with specific 
manures, as guano, nitrate of potassa, nitrate of soda, and also 
iriih a compound of the three. 

7. Analysis of the soil specifically manured after the maturity 
of the plant 

8. The preparation of extracts of each plant specifically treat- 
ed, as well as of g^aeral culture : analysis of each« 

9. The organic analysis of very many of our indigenous medi- 
cinal plants which are extensively cultivated, causing the plant, 
both cultivated and wild, to be collected once a month : analysis 
cf both, that we may determine at what period of growth the 
largest amount of medicinal principles are present 

Pursuant to the general plan, I caused different sections of a 
large field of hyoscyamus, of the second year's growth, to be 
watered— -one with a solution of nitrate of potassa, another with 
a solution of nitrate of soda, and another with a solution of guano 
— xmtil the plants had reached maturity or the period of full 

The plants watered exhibited marked difference in vigor of 
growth over other portions of the field, that portion upon which 
nitrate of potash had been applied being of a much darker green 
color than that watered with nitrate of soda, and both much 
greener than that watered with solution of guano. The same 
difference in appearance was observable in a field of the same 
plant of the first year's growth. 

At maturity the plants were collected and submitted to an uni- 
form process of crushing, expression, and subsequent maceration 
of the pulp in alcohol. The expressed juice and alcoholic solu- 
tion were evaporated to a pillular consistence. 

A portion of each extract was dried, and treated by strong alco- 
hol to dissolve the chlorophylle, alkaloid and resinous principles 
evaporated, and treated with hot water to separate the resin and 
chlorophylle. The solution in hot water was boiled with oxide of 
lead, to separate the coloring matter, filtered, and the filtrate eva- 
porated to dryness, giving a nearly white substance having 
marked alkaline reactions. Per centage in the extracts, as fol- 
lows: — 


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Foreign mhd Indigmons MedAcirud Pldnis. 



Impure alkaline sub- | 20.800 

tanoe, ■ 

ColoriDg matter^ | 14.855 









The alkaline principle, heated in a tube witli potassa^ disen- 
gaged ammonia largely, showing the presence of a large amount 
of nitrogen^ and indicating the presence of a vegetable alkaloid. 

The precise character of this impure alkaloid, to which the 
pltot undoubtedly, to a great extent, owes its activity as a medi- 
cinal agent, we are now unable to state : reserving this for far- 
ther examination. 

The disengagement of strong ammonia indicates the presence 
of an alkaloid, probably hyoscyamia^ as found by Brande. 

The variation of this principle in the different extracts, afi 
shown by the table above, enables us to draw the inference, fair- 
ly, that the different methods of treatment of the plant, or culti- 
vation, produce a marked difference in its development; and we 
have no doubt, from the difference in the ammoniacal odor per- 
oeptible when each are tried with potash, that the pure hyoscya- 
mia will be foxmd to vary in similar proportion. 

The chlorophylk and resin were separated by disaolving the resin 
in alcohol of the specific gravity of 90°, filtered, and the filtrate 
e(vaporated to dryness. 

The residuum insoluble in alcohol was treated by cold water, to 
determine the starch; the soluble portion evaporated to a synipy 
consistence, and the gum and albumen precipitated by alcohol. 

The coloring matter contained in Ae aqueous part, together 
with the sugar, were not determined. 

The result of the examination of this portion was as follows : — 

Soluble in alcohol, . 
Alkaline and color- 
ing matter, 




Gum and albumen, . 





5.490 * 









IflTBATX or 



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Foreign and Indigenous Medicinal Plants. 

Another portion of each extract was dried and incenerated; 
the combustion was not carried far enough to produce entire de- 
struction of the carbon. The ashes were then treated as fol- 
lows : — 

The carbonic acid gas was determined, by weighing, by hydro- 
chloric acid, on the apparatus of Will ; the solution was then 
placed in a porcelain dish, and evaporated to dryness, then dis- 
solved in water, acidulated with a little hydrochloric acid, and 
filtered — the residuum upon the filter giving carbon and silica. 
From the filtered liquor all lime was precipitated by oxalate of 
ammonia, filtered, and the lime estimated in the state of sulphate 
of lime. The filtered liquor was evaporated to dryness, to expel 
the salt of anamonia previously added and the residuum dissolved 
in water. To the solution was added ammonia, which precipi- 
tated the phosphate of magnesia, oxide of iron, and alumina. 
These were separated fix)m each other by the usual known pro- 
cess. From the filtered solution free phosphoric acid was precipi- 
tated by sulphate of ammonico-magnesia. 

Another portion of the ash was dissolved in water, acidulated 
with nitric acid, filtered, and divided into three portions. One 
portion was treated by nitrate of baryta, to determine the stilphurie 
acid and by nitrate of silver, to determine the chloinne. 

A second portion was treated by antimoniate of potash, to de- 
termine the soda ; a ihirdj by chloride of platina, to determine the 
potassa, and the nitric acid was estimated from another portion of 
the ash, by Pelouse's process. 

The several extracts gave as follows : — 


Phofiphate of lime, . 
<^bonate of lime, . . 
Phosphate magnesia,. 
Carbonate potash,. . 
Sulphate potash,... 
Chloride potash, . . . 

Nitrate potash, 

Oxide of iron, 


Nitrate of soda,. , . . 
















































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Foreign and Indigenous Medicinal Plants, 


Carbonate of soda, . . ; 


Total, ! 100.000 


Total salts of potassa, 
Total salts of soda,.. 

Total both,.... 
Total phosphates, . . . 















88. 37 (J 

It should be observed that the sections watered were sufficiently 
near as not to cause any variation in the character of the soil. It 
will be seen that potassa exists in the ordinary extract natui^ly, 
and is increased by special treatment nearly fifty per cent., while 
soda does not, and by treatment with soda the potassa is lessened^ 
from the natural proportion about thirty per cent; the total 
of soda nearly equals the total of potassa in the natural, and the 
nitrate of soda and nitrate of potassa taken together, exceeding 
the nitrate of potassa in the one treated by it, leaving the infer- 
ence that when potash exists in the soil and soda does not, that 
the latter should be u.sed, so as to afford the largest amount of 
nitrates, and showing the disposition of the plant to take up both, 
unless it shall be shown by further investigations that the plant 
in which nitrate of potash exists naturally affords the largest 
amount of alkaloid, which is hardly probable. 

This analysis explains the cause of the appearance of nitrate 
of potash, in crystals, upon the surface of the inspissated extracts 
of hyoscyamus. 

It is not difficult to determine the different matters of which a 
plant is composed, but it is quite another field of investigation 
to determine the manner in which these substances are produced, 
and follow the complicated processes which constitute vegetation. 
The multiplicity of operations continually going on in vegetation 
at the same time, the variety of substances formed out of the 
.same compound, the harmony, skill and certainty which attends 
all the operations, are too wonderful to pass our observation, and 
too important not to challenge thorough investigation. 

The researches and discoveries of agricultural chemistry fuller 


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378 Beniarks on Qmcenirated Pteparations^ <tc. 

establish the fact that plants require for their growth and perfect 
development certain inorganic constituents, which are different in 
different classes of plants. And the object of our inquiry is to 
ascertain what inorganic constituents are indispensable for the 
growth of the cultivated narcotics and perfect development of 
those principles, upon which their value as a medicinal agent de- 

The utility of alkalies in the form of nitrates, or, indeed, in any 
"form, cannot be doubted; nor can their utility in the formation 
of organic alkaloids in plants be considered a question. 

Liebig says " the existence of vegetable alkalies in combination 
with organic acids gives great weight to the opinion that alkaline 
bases in general are connected with the development of plants ;" 
and it remains to be determined, by further experiment and 
analysis, which salt is most efficient in the development of the 
peculiar alkaloids upon which the medicinal activity of each 
narcotic appears to almost entirely depend, establish the true 
source of the active principles of other classes, and ascertain by 
what process the development of resinous and neutral principles 
likewise depends. 

Remarks on Concentrated Preparations, Simple Tests, and 
Easy Method of Analysis. 

Having given, fully, the general rules for the analysis of con- 
oentrated preparations, we now propose to consider each one sepa- 
rately, its composition, reactions, purity, and how to ascertain its 

When prepared, some of these preparations are dry, and capa- 
ble of being easily reduced to a fine powder ; others, after the 
evaporation of the water, are yet greasy or oleagenous, and can- 
not be made into a powder except by the admixture of a foreign 
substance — inert or without medicinal properties — which, uniting 
with the oily property, facilitates the pulverization of the prepara- 
tion. That usually employed is sugar of milk. Latterly, the 
powder of the substance from which the article is made is em- 
ployed. Whatever it may be, it should be stated upon the pack- 
age, that the per centage of admixture inay be known to the phy- 


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Bemarks on Qmoentraied Preparations^ Sc 


These preparations are finding oonsiderable &ror with the medi- 
oal profession, and are increasing in number. I have now inves- 
tigated forty-four, those most in use by the profession. 

For convenience of consideration, I have divided them into 
two classes: — 



DinsioN L 
Pure Resins, Alkaloids, or Neutrals. 
Podophyllin, Caulophyllin, Hydrastina, 

Jalapin, Sanguinarin, Corydalina, 

Cimicifugin, Sanguinarina, Salicin. 

Division IL 
Resin Mixed with Alkaloid, Neutral, or Tannin. 
Leptandrin, Prunin, Ehumin, 

CJomin, Myricin, Khusin, 

Greranin, Juglandin, Eryngin. 



Division L 
Resin, or Oleo-Resin, Mixed with a Foreign Substance, 
Hydrastin, Populin, Dioscorein, 

Asclepidin, Corydalin, Liatrin, 

Xanthoxylin, Aletrin, Iridin. 

Division IT. 

Resin, or Oleo-Resin, with Alkaloid^ Neutral, jtminin, d:c., Mixed 

with a Foreign Substance. 

Veratrin, Chelonin, Apocynin, 

Scutellarin, Senecin, Baptisin, ^ 

liobelin, Stillingln, Alnuin, 

Eupatorin, Cypripedin, Ilelonin, 

Eupurpurin, TriJliin, Lupulin. 


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880 BemarTcs on Concentrated Preparations^ ike. 

It ia very probable that more will be found and introduced, 
at this time the above are the only ones which are in common 

Podophyllin is prepared from the root of mandrake {poilophyl- 
lum peliatum)^ indigenous to various parts of this country. 

It has been stated by some writers that podophyllin contains 
three principles, viz. : resinoid, neutral, and alkaloid. This is a 
mistake. Pure podophylUn is a pure resinoid, composed of two 
resins, and no neutral or alkaloid principle. In another place we 
shall refer to these principles, and demonstrate that such podo- 
phyllin is an hydro-alcoholic extract. 

Properties of Pure Podophyllin. — Its color varies according to 
the mode of preparation, varying from a dark brown to a lemon 
yellow. It is insoluble in acids; precipitated from its solutions 
by them ; soluble in alkaline solutions ; insoluble in cold or hot 
water, either pure or acidulated ; dissolves entirely by alcohol. 
When its alcoholic solution is evaporated to a syrupy consistence, 
and mixed with water, all the podophyllin is precipitated, and 
the filtered liquor is colorless. A portion only is soluble in ether ; 
the insoluble portion is soluble in alcohol. Experiments with the 
root collected in the spring and autumn give the following re- 
sults: — 



Resin, soluble in ether, 64.34 39.96 

Resin, soluble in alcohol, 46.66 60.06 

Total, 100.00 100.00 

Properties of the Alcoholic Eoctract of Mandrake. — ^The color is 
dark brown ; exposed to the air it absorbs water, and becomes 
soft; is soluble i^ alkalies: partially so in acids. Water dis- 
solves a very bitter principle, which is probably the so-called 
alkaloid, and neutral alcohol dissolves it entirely. When the 
solution is evaporated to a syrupy consistence, and added to 
water, a portion only is precipitated, and the filtered liquor is 
highly colored. Ether dissolves but a small portion, being that 
portion of the resin soluble in it. 

Experiments were made with the mandrake root collected in 
the spring and autumn, with the following result : — 


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Remarh' on Concentrated Preparations, Ac. 381 


Soluble in w»ter, 68.05 41.64 

Soluble in alcohol, 81.36 68.36 

Total, 100.00 100.00 

The portion soluble in water is the bitter principle ; that solu- 
ble in alcohol are the resins. 

Properties of Hie Hydro- Alcoholic Extract, — The hydro-alcoholic 
extract has a color somewhat darker than the alcoholic extract. 
It attracts moisture more rapidly from the atmosphere than the 
alcoholic extract; partly soluble in acids; soluble in alkalies; 
partly soluble in alcohol and ether. When the alcoholic solution 
is evaporated to a syrupy consistence, and mixed with water, 
some podophyllin is precipitated. 

The hydro-alcoholic extract yields : — 

Soluble in water, 07.05 

Soluble in alcohol, 32.95 

Total, 100.00 

Properties of Oie Aqueous Extract — ^Much darker color than the 
last ; cannot be reduced to a powder without the addition of some 
foreign substance; attracts rapidly the moisture of the atmos- 
phere ; soluble in acids and alkalies ; a portion is soluble in alco- 
hol, but the alcoholic solution does not precipitate any resin; 
insoluble in ether. 

It will be observed that it is not difficult to distinguish podo- 
pJiyUin from the extracts of mandrake, for when treated by pure 
alcohol — ^if the article is entirely dissolved — ^it is either podophyl- 
lin or an alcoholic extract These are distinguished by the quan- 
tity of podophyllin precipitated by water from the alcoholic 
solution. If the article is not entirely dissolved in alcohol it is 
an hydro-alcoholic extraCbt. These are distinguished by adding 
water to the alcoholic solution in the hydro-alcoholic extract that 
the podophyUin is precipitated. In the aqueous extract none will 
be foimd. * 

Pitre PodophyUin Mioced with Syrup of Milk, Salt, Magnesia^ or 
Powdered Boot — Treat the mixture by strong alcohol till all the 
podophyllin -is dissolved; the foreign substance remains insolu- 


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862 American Pharnvjucmtical Asaociation. 

We ; filter, wash well with alcsohol, and dry. The weight gives 
the amount of adulteration. To determine the character of the 
adulteration, we refer to another part of our article. 

Alcoholic Extract Mixed with same Articles. — Treat the same as 
for pure podophyUin. 

Hydro- AlcoJwlic Extract Mixed vdlh same Articles. — 11 the sub- 
stance is magnesia or carbonate of magnesia, txeat the mixture 
with alcohol, proof or 56"^ ; collect the insoluble residuum on a 
filter, wash it with alcohol, and dry. Its weight gires the magne- 
sia or carbonate. K the substance is sugar of milky treat the mix- 
ture by water, and filter ; pass the aqueoxis solution through ani- 
mal black, filter, and evaporate to dryness. The weight gives 
the quantity of sugar of milk. If salt, deodorize by animal 
black ; precipitate the chlorine by nitrate of silver, and use the 
fiarmula given in the last article. 

Aquecyus Extract Mixed with same, — If sugar of milk or salt, 
proceed as above ; if magnesia or powdered root, dissolve in 
water, filter, and wash residuum well. Its weight will give the 
quantity of mixture. 

American Pharmaceutical Association. 

TnH Massachusetts College of Pharmacy gave to this body a complimentaiy 
dinner, at the American House, Boston, on the 15th of September last, on 
which occasion, in reply to a sentiment offered complimentary to the Associa- 
tion, the President, S. M. Colcord, made the following remarks : — 

In replying to your sentiment, and the call made upon me, it would seem 
proper that I should make some statements as to the origin, the past doings, 
and the future work of this Association. It originated through a call made 
by the New York College of Pharmacy for a convention of delegates from 
other Pharmaceutical Societies, to meet in New York in 1851, for the purpose 
o£ a general agreement as to the form and substance of a memorial to the 
Treasury Department of the United States Government, so to instruct the 
special examiners of drugs at the different ports of entry, as to insure the 
benefits of the drug law to the community, and a uniformity in its operations. 
That convention, after accomplishing the object of its call, adjourned, to meet 
the next year in Philadelphia, and appointed a committee to draft a plan of 
operations, constitution, by-laws, and code of ethics, for a permanent organi- 
zation of druggists and apothecaries throughout the Union, for the general im- 
provement of the trade and the more certain and uniform advancement in 


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American Pharmaceuiioal AgsocicUiicn, 888 

pharmaceutic science and skill. The result was a feeble commeiuiement of 
Ike present organization. 

The eyes of interested spectators were turned upon us, to learn what would 
be our action in reference to drugs, as a board of trade, as to quality, and the 
■aeans we proposed to improye it ; how we proposed to meet the various con* 
iiicting interests ; what action we should take in reference to nostrums ; how 
we should define our position with reference to the medical profession ; and 
12ie thousand and one forms of medical prescribing, from homeopathic nothing- 
neia to dangerous doses, from irregular talent to utter ignorance. These 
questions were of rital importance to our existence, and, in some form or 
<]Aher, had to be met. The result is a matter of history, recorded in our past 

Statistical information was yery difficult to get, but enough was procured to 
reiyeal &cts heretdbre unknown, and form a basis of action that has served aa 
-a valuable aid in the direction of our efforts. 

In 1863 the Association met in Boston, as the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, with a large accession of numbers. Its proceedings were pub- 
iished in a pamphlet of some fifty pages. After much discussion it adjourned, 
-to meet the next year in Cincinnati, where we became the guests of the Gin- 
' oinnati College. Most of our members belonging to the Atlantic cities, and 
the cholera somewhat prevalent that year, rendered it hazardous to travel and 
difficult to leave business in the warm and sickly season. The attendance 
was small frt>m distant portions of the country ; but our Cincinnati brethren 
gave us a warm welcome, and sent us away with pleasant remembrances of 
their hospitality, and considerable accession in numbers. 

In 1855 the Association met in New York, where we had again our usual 
success — gaining in strength, in influence, and in numbers. The proceedings 
■ aaoh /ear became more interesting and instructive, with constant acquisitions 
-<i active members, and contributions to our stock of information and useful- 
BCMB. This year a good delegation met with us from Maryland. In Baltimore 
quite an interest was manifested in our labors, and we received an invitation 
to meet there in 1850, which we did, manifestly to the benefit of our pro- 
fession in that quarter, to the benefit of their local society, and, I believe, 
resulting in the organization of tbe Pharmaceutical Spciety of the District of 
Oolumbia. The glowing descriptions of the hospitality of our Southern 
brethren were spread abroad through all the drug stores in the land, melting 
and fusing the icicle sharpness of Mason and Dixon's line, and, as it were, 
oementing a union where nothing was wanting before in our ranks but to 
bring together the fire, the crucible, and the precious metals. 

In 1857 the Association met again in Philadelphia, where wc met with a 
cordial reception. It was here that originated tbe idea of a permanent organi- 
zation. Here were its warmest friends and our greatest workers ; here is, as 
it were, the heart and pulse of medical science and literature. In this city is 
properly represented the actual state of the drug trade in the whole country : 
for here we have the scientific professor, with schools of pharmacy of groat 


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884 American Pharmaceutical Association.^ 

merit, aik! well attended ; the adherents of the regular pharmacopoeia and' 
practice ; homeopathy, ^^'ith its allopathic pretensions and homeopathic rcsidts, . 
as well as the headquarters of nostrum^^ or, strictly speaking, popular medi- 
cines; Swain's panacea, with its array of vegetable cures for mercurial 
diseases ; Vice-President Wright's Indian vegetable pills, purging the worlds 
of hereditary evils, and opening the passages of present and future gcnera- 
ti(»is to imtold health. It is Philadelphia Irotherly lore, more than any other 
city, that promises the sure cure of consumption, our bills of mortality to the 
contrary notwithstanding ; and it is here that this Association finds its warm- 
est advocates, its best friends, reliable working men, truth seekers, truth im- 
parters, scientific investigators, who seek to be instead of to seem, to do in- 
stead of profess. But, Mr. President, it is unnecessary for me to laud them : 
our past records tell the story, our present meeting finds them at their post, 
«nd this evening's entertainment finds them with us to tell their own story. 
At this meeting an unusual interest was manifested, the number and value of 
our papers were much increased, and our published proceedings were double 
any former edition. At this meeting our Quaker friends set us an example 
worthy of imitation by those of similar sentiments. They have uniformly 
looked with disfavor upon convivial entertainments at our meetings, as tending 
to injure the usefulness of our migratory character, by making it too expen- 
sive, if such practices continue, to meet in small places. I do not understand 
thom that they look with disfavor upon our social manifestations, but it is de- 
cidedly against their principles to hold the cup to their neighbors' lips ; and 
while I hold in honor their bountiftil but strictly temperance entertainment, 
or the omission of any fi^m principle, I do not dislike the sentiments of those 
who honestly differ from them, by entertaining their fi*iends according to the 
habits and disposition of each: who never urge an abstemious man, against 
inclination, to the enjoyment of other people's tastes, and who provide for the 
enjoyment of their guests according to individual inclination, even though it 
may be against their own sense of propriety : for there are those, even in this 
temperance State of Massachusetts, who honestly think that 

" God !n kindness gave the grape to cheer both great and Kmall, 
That little fools thej drink too much and great ones none at all.** 

In 1858 wc met at "Washington, by invitation of the Apothecaries* Ass6cia- 
tion of the District of Columbia. This was by far the most successful meet- 
ing we have held. Essays and scientific papers were presented beyond our 
calculation ; our numbers were very much increased ; the length and breadth 
of the land seemed interested in our movements ; the Grovcmment manifested 
their interest by soliciting our active cooperation in the agriculture depart- 
ment of the Patent Office, so far as relates to the introduction and improve- 
ment of our botanical remedies, and issued a circular of instructions to all its 
Indian agencies, to collect alf * infonnation respecting the remedies employed 
by the Indians, for publication in our proceedings.- 

The Smithsonian Institution opened their doors to us, and welcomed us as- 
co-laborers in the diffusion of knowledge among mankind ; their profeasora* 


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American Phofrmaceutioal AssociaHan. 886 

.attended our nieeting, and with instructiYe speeches and kind words en- 

^couraged us to cooperate mith them in their active labors of usefulness. 

Our numbers were increased by a large addition of useful members; our 

*hearts were warmed by the attentions and hospitalities we received by that 
small but chosen band of wetl-wish^^ to our cause, and our published pro- 

. ceedings exceeded in amount, if not in value, all our previous publications. 

And now, Mr. President, we have met for the second time in Boston : 
away in one corner of the dominions covered by the star-sp^gled banner. 
Our first meeting was composed of nine representatives of the then Uiree 

. existing colleges of pharmacy : we are now represented by upwards of four 
hundred members, from twenty-eight States and eleven local colleges and asso- 

Have wc not great cause for encouragement to proceed in our labors. Tn 
addition to what we have done, our labors seem to increase in proportion to 
our development We have yet to consummate the full benefit of our drug 
inspection law ; we have yet to purge the country of its awfully pernicious in- 
fluences of adulterations in food as well as in medicines ; we have yet to edu- 
cate a competent corps of honest and reliable pharmaceutists, on whom the 
country can rely, in some measure, as a sanitary board of health ; we have 
yet to gain political influence sufficient to regulate the sale of poisons, and 
to enable us to prosecute our legitimate business as honest pharmaceutists, 
and law-abiding citisKens, without fear of the House of Correction ; we have 
yet to overcome local jealousies, which alone can be done through the agency 
of a national organization ; we have yet to cultivate tastes for scientific at- 
tainments as amusements, to be found inside our legitimate daily occupations, 
from absolute want of time to gratify them outside our daily routine ; we have 
yet to educate the public mind as to the true value of nostrums; we have yet 
to demand a trial by our peers for accidents and misdemeanors in our daily avo- 
cations ; we have yet to cultivate true dependence as well as independence, 
and harmonious and active cooperation with the legitimate medical staff; wc 
have yet to consolidate union of feeling, sentiment and action — ^N(»th and 
South, East and West ! So much to be desired in the realization of our 

And now, Kr. President, I have endeavored to give you an idea of our past 
history, and what I conceive to be our mission ; I have now only to present 
our Association itself for your approval As it were, a miss (yet not amiss) of 
nine summers, of fiur promise and some development, in hoops, tall as the 
Rocky Mountains, surrounded by upwards of four hundred guardian circles, 
and whose ample skirts already sweep a continent from ocean to ocean. Suc- 
cess to her perseverance ; and may she ever, in youthful vigor, preside as a 
goddess of liberty over the destinies of pharmacy throughout our entire coun- 
try, where she has "spread herself/* until sickness and death shall require 
her services no more. 


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886 Arnica Montana. 

Arnica Montana. 

The therftpeutical propertios of leopard's bane is made the subject of aa 
article in the Coll^;e Journal, by Dn T. 0. Miller, and we abstract as follow! 
the observations he has made with it in his own practice. He says : — 

I have been accustomed to use it for twenty-eight years. In nerrous fevers 
diaracterised by torpor this remedy is very valuable to rouse the sinking 
energy of the nerves, particularly the nerves of the abdominal viscera, whik 
at the same time it increases the oontractile power of the muscular fibres, and 
especially the fibres of the unstriated muscles of the walls of tubes and ducts. 
It is a very valuable remedy in enteric fever, and where there is colliquatiyt 
hemorrhages, passive sweatings, and exanthemata of the abdomen; It will 
not take Uie place of valerian, quinia, camphor, or the acids, for its action on 
the system is unlike that of either and all of these. These four great remedies 
have each its own distinctive infiuence, and each is a valuable aid to tbt 
others, when needed. 

In inflammations combined with torpidity, as in typhoid pnuemonia, in in- 
flammation of the brain and its coverings, in gangrene, and other similar 
affections, it /equires oftentimes camphor, quinia, and perhaps opium, to bs 
given in conjunction with it 

In obstinate maltreated intermittents, with torpidity of the abdominal vis- 
cera, and engorgement and enlargement of the spleen and liver, and perhaps 
abdominal dropsy, and in the so-called typhoid cholera, arnica is of greai 
value. My brother, Lewis £. Miller, uses it in conjunction with ether in thosa 

In old, atonic gout and rheumatism, especially locally applied, it always is 
of value. In dysentery, where the disease is complicated with torpidity of 
the bowels, or constipation, exhaustion, or colliquative dysentery, it is pecu- 
liarly indicated. In these cases I consider the root preferable to the flowers. 

In passive hemorrhage, of a scorbutic character; in diachar^ from the 
Nspiratory or the reproductive organs ; in bloody or serous extravasations 
caused by contusions and hurts, it is the main remedy I depend upon. It Is 
also very valuable in atonic dropsies. The external use of the flowers, in tinc- 
ture ix infusion, is the best agent I have tried in acute hydrocephalus. 

In paralysis, particularly where the paralysis has been caused by mechanic 
cal influence upon the brain or spinal marrow, but the nerve structure re- 
mains intact — not by congestion or softening of the ner^e structure — and in 
the commencement ot amaurosis, it has always proved of utility. TheO- 
mann, in treating amaurosis, made use of an infusion of three draehms of the 
flowers to eight ounces of water, and gave a large spoonful at a dose, onoe in 
three hours. 

In enlargement, torpidity, or engorgement of any of the abdominal viscera, 
and also in suppression of the menstrual, lochial or hemorrhoidal discharges 
in consequence of torpidity, its use is of great value. Leidbeck speaks very 
&vorably of it in varicose veins of pregnant women. I have derived great 
benefit from it in such cases. — Peninsular Independent. 


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Strychnia, — Ascaridas. 387 


Stryohnia in Chronic Intermittents. 

In the New Orleans Medical Netcs and Hospital OoMstte, Dr. Harrison, of 
Arkansas, has an article upon the use of strychnia in chronic intermittents. 
The following is his formula : — _ 

" 9.— Strychnia, gr. iss. 

Sulphate quinine, gr. xv. 

Capsicum, P". yj. 

Brandy, | iv. M. 

*' Of this mixture, I direct one teaspoonful (for an adult) every hour, for 
six or seven hours preceding the expected paroxysm ; at the end of this time 
I require the patient to take a cup of warm sage tea, and go to hed, (if he is 
not already there,) and remain until the paroxysmal hours pass. This course 
is to be repeated on the next * chill day,* after wich a teaspoonful of the medS- 
oine is to be taken two or three times a day, until the four ounoes are ex- 

With Dr. H. Campbell's views of the nature of this disease, and of its rek- 
lion to the nervous system, the philosophy of this treatment becomes at ow» 
apparent This, however, is not altogether new treatment Dr. Brain &rd, of 
Chicago, recommended strychnine, in an eighth-of-a-grain dose, ihne times a 
day, in similar cases, more than twelve years ago. (See Indiana MedU^l 
Journal for Jxily^ 1847.) 

We are confident that the remedial powers of strychnia are not yet fidly 
brought out So far as we know, we were the first to use and recoiumcnd it 
in sciatica and chronic rheumatism ; and we have seen cases of dyspepsia and 
chronic costiveness yield to it like a charm. 

Treatment of Asoaridas. 

The treatment for ascarides vcrmiculares should bo entirely local; but, if 
mercury is here an excellent anthelmintic, nitrate of silver in enemas would 
appear to be no less efficacious, and its action is much more rapid. Dt. 
Schultz Bipon, of Daidesheim, has published in the Deutsche Klinh the for- 
mula of the solution he employs in this circumstance, and the effect of which, 
he says, is in&llible. The following is the formula : — 

3. — Argenti nitratis cryst., 8 gr. 

Aq. distill, 6 oz, 

for an enema. 

This enema is perfectly harmless. Three are usually required for cure. 
The first is generally retained imperfectly; the patient returns it shortly 
after it is administered with a great number of ascarides. It should be re- 
peated the next and following days, and it seldom happens that after a treat- 
ment of four days the rectum is not rid of its troublesome guests, whosa 
presence gives rise to such various and strange symptoms. 


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,388 Erysipelas. — Selections. 


In the Medical and Surgical Heporter for August 13th, J. R. McClurg, 
M. D.^ of Piiiladelphia, has an alile article upon the above subject. In regard 
to treatment, alter the action of an emetic and a saline cathartic, combined 
with a mercurial, if there be symptoms of bilious derangement, he says : — 
''*■ I always use some tonic medicine, and my favorite prescription, and the one 
I uiiiformly use in all cases of erysipelas, of whatever form or character, as 
soon as the system is prepared for it, is : — 

*' I^ . — Spiritus aetheris nitrid, ; f. | ij. 

Tinctura ferri sesqui chloridi, £ 3 ij. 

QuiniaQ sulphatis, gr. xvj. 

Misce et S. Take a teaspoonful every three hours. This constitutional treat- 
ment I have found very successful in my hands, and desire nothing better." 

Thus corresponds very nearly to the treatment we have found very service- 
able. We are, however, in the habit of prescribing tiie tincture of iron in a 
little larger doses, say twenty drops every three hours; and the quinine in 
combination with Dover's powders, from one to two grains of the former to 
five of the latter, every four or six hours. — American Medical Monthly, 

Nocturnal Incontinence op Urine. — A vrriter ih the Bulletin de Thera- 
2)eutiqve recommends the employment of mastic in these cases. It is given 
in pills, made with syrup. It is necessary that thirty -two grammes should 
be administered in four days, if the child is under ten years of age. When 
under that age, the amount mentioned should be given in six or eight days. 
If a cure does not result from the first trial, a second trial witli a like quantity 
should be made ; but if the incontinence persists after the second trial, it is 
useless to continue the medication. The failures are, however, exceptional, as 
two-thirds of the cases have been successful, even in patients from eighteen to 
twenty-four years, who had been affected with this disgusting infirmity fh)m 
infancy. — American Medical Monthly, 

Treatment op Nasal Polypus bv Tincture of Muriate of Iron. — ^Dr. 
J. H. Reeder, of Lacon, 111., reports, in the (/hicago Medical Journal^ two 
cases of nasal polypus, which he had successfully treated by the applicati<m 
of the tincture of muriate of iron, by injections, and by means of a bit of 
sponge. In both cases the disease was removed in a few days, it having ex- 
isted, in the last instance, more than ten years, completely obstructing both 

Ipecacuanha and Delirium Tremens. — ^Thc jail physician of Chicago has 
had a hundred cases of delirium tremens the past year, of which only four 
prove<i fatal. Of his manner of treatment, the doctor says : — " Ipecacuanha, 


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Selectums. 88d 

which I have tried in thirty-six cases, I found most remarkably succoGsful, 
quieting the nervous system, exciting the appetite, acting on secretions, and 
uniformly producing sleep. When a case is not of too long standing, I give 
it as an emetic the first dose, and afterwards I give from fifte€n to eighteen 
grains every other. Connected with this remedy, I use shower-baths, and let 
the patient drink strong beef-tea, without any alcoholic stimulants." — SoutJi^m 
Medk^l and Surgical Journal, 

Atropia in Tetahus. — The editors of the Semi-Monthly Medical Newt re- 
port the successful treatment of a case of tetanus with atropia,. in doses of 
one-twentieth of a grain, repeated every third hour until narcotism was pro- 
duced They say : — ** So far as the illustration of its influence in the treat- 
ment of this case furnishes us authority for speaking, we are satisfied that 
our appreciation of atropine, as a remedy in tetanus, cannot be over-estimated. 
It subdued, time and again, with a promptitude and a measure of extent too 
atriking to be mistaken, the increasing spasms, and soothed the general excite 
ment of the system. — Ihid, 

Itcuiso op the Ai«us.-^There are few things more distresmng and trouble- 
■ome. Use ^le following ointment : — Qlycerine, one ounce ; purified tar, half 
a drachm ; and, with the aid of heat, powdered starch, half an ounce. This 
makes an ointment of thin consistence, and easily spread. It dries up exeo- 
riations, checks exhalation, and dissipates slight cutaneous phlegmasiae. 
Another preparation of patch is the foUowing: — Cod-liver oil, two parts ; oil 
of pitch, one pitfi — used for itdiing and excoriftions, as the other. (M. Gil- 
bert, p. l^S^^BraWi/toaM $ BetrapeeL 

Akodtke Liniment in Orms. — ^Bf. Trousseau recommends the following 
liniment in acute otitis, viz. : a mixture of the alcoholic extract of belladozma 
In water, with glycerine. A cotton ball soaked with the mixture to be placed 
in the external auditory canaL 

Gelsemikum in Tenesmus. — In an obstinate case of sporadic dysentery, 
where every remedy I used fiuled to relieve the severe temesmus, and the 
tincture of gelseminum and Uncture of aconite combined had also failed, I 
added an infusion of gelseminum to an infusion of slippery-elm^ and used it 
as an injection. Then the disease readily yielded. — Dr, Miller, 

Veratrum Viru>b in Dtsmenorbhcea. — So far as my experience goes, I have 
fbund the veratrum very good in dysmenorrhoea of plethoric patients ; but 
uniformly hurtful to those who are ansdmic I have frequently added a little 
morphia to it with benefit — Hid, 

Sanoltmaria Canad. xk Dtsmenorrhcea. — I find the tincture of blood-root 
of value where the distress ot difQculty of menstruation is connected with 
disease of the liver as the primary afiection. Large doses are injurious, btit 
small ones may be often repeated. — Ihid, 

Crocus in Dysmenorrhcea.— The tincture of saffron is valuable in that form 
of dysmenorrhoea where the liver is the primary cause of the difficulty. It 
may bo given at the same time with the tincture of blood-root — Ihid, 


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390 EdUoriaL 


Our Jouunai,. — ^The i)rcseat number completes the ftrs»t volume of the i\i3W 
series of the of Materia Medica, and wo arc gratified by being able 
to say that our efforts have been seconded by the profession beyond our ex- 
pectations, which, with their renewed assurances for its success, makes it no 
longer an experiment, but establishes it as a permanent journal, which will be 
increased in size for the ensuing year : each number containing forty pngen^ 
arid at the same ferma an the present year. 

^ We have tried to keep faithfully in view the objects for which the Journal 
was connnonced, and endeavored to present in it whatever of general intei*cst 
or importance have been published in the jovn*nals of this country and in 
forci^^n journals, while in its original contributions it has presented disserta 
tioiLS on diffei*ent valuable medicinal agents and analyss of plants never before 
published, the value of which to the profession arc acknowledged in the nu- 
merous testimonials from its subscribers ; and confident that there is yet a wide 
field open, we can assure our patrons that no energy or expense will be 
spared to secure the cooperation of medical writeTK of practical experience 
occupymg high positions with the medical profession as medical writers. 

The interest which has been manifested in the success of our Journal^ and 
whieii has caused an addition of eight pages each month to its present size, for 
the.mext year^ hare indaced us to devote those pages, for the most pu^ to a 
digest of the most important and int^H)sting matters contained in the current 
medical publications of the ooufitry, and in the more important foreign jour- 
nals. This will form a now, important and interesting feature of the next year. 

We shall at all times welcome to its pages communications upon subjects of 
medical interest within the general range of our Journal — shall continue the 
publication of new and favorite formulae, and in the department of pharmacy 
shall give everything of interest relating to progi*ess in this important branch 
of medicine, and invite the aid and suggestions of all interested in a depart- 
ment where the interests of the physician and apothecary are closely allieiL 

No effort will be spared to make the Journal worthy of the confidence and 
cordial support of the whole medical profession, and no feature will be neglect- 
ed which shall contribute to its usefulness and appcamncc ; and we hope the 
time is not far distant when wc shall ajrain be compelled to enlarge it, to more 
fully supply the wants of its patrons. 

For terms, Ac, sec Prospectus. 

Volumes for 185t» will be furnished, bound, at one dollar, postage prepaid. 

We have received from Messrs. Lindsay & Bhickiston, Philadelphia, their 
'' Physician's Visiting List" for 1860. It is issued in its usual style, with good 
paper and binding. 

These books are coming into very general use by the profession, and are a 
very convenient stylo for daily records and memoranda, and their small cost 
should cause every physician to procure one. 

For fifty patients tucks, price $1 by nwiil, free of postage, i 


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▲N INTRODUOnON TO PRAGTJOAL FHARMAOT: Defllgned as a Texi4)ook for the fltad«al| 
and u a Guide for the Phjaldan and Pharmaceutist. With many Formulae and PrescriptioM. 
By- Hdwihd Pakriss, Graduate of Pharmacj, Principal of the School of Practical Pharmacj, 
Philadelphia, Ac. Second Edition, greatly enlarged and improTed. Wltfa two hundred an4 
forty-six nhMtratlona. Tn one large and handsome octaro volume of T30 pages ; extra cloth. 
Prlee,$8 50. 

Mr. Edward Parrish, its aatboff is well known to the pharmaceutists of the 
United States as a cloor-minded, practical man ; that his contributions to th« 
pharmaceutical literature of this coimtry, his efforts for the elevation of 
pharmacy as a profession, by elevating the standard of pharmaceutic educ&^ 
tion, are appreciated; that his work has the approval of those it was designed 
to benefit, is authenticated in a demand for it which has brought out a second 
edition, greatly enlarged and improved. 

His position as principal of a school of practical pharmacy, and proprietor 
of a large dispensing establishment, has given him such practical acquaintahce 
with the whole subject as to well qualify him to arrange and present such & 
work to the public. As a teacher of pharmacy to medical students and others, 
he had long felt the necessity of a text-book, as an aid to his instructions. 

There are in the United States thousands of young men yearly beginning 
the study of medicine: to them this work is invaluable. Pharmacy, as m 
branch of instruction, is sadly neglected in most medical colleges. This 
work, thoroughly studied by the student, will greatly aid liim in his entire 
course ; nor is it any the less valuable to a practitioner of medicvne^ who 
wishes to avail himself of the great practical advances in pharmacy, in all its 
departments, in the last few years, and to whom it is necessarily an important 
collateral pursuit. 

There are also thousands of yoimg men just entering the drug shop, in 
localities where the benefits of instruction in pharmacy cannot be had, as well 
as many apothecaries who from accidental circumatances have become so, with- 
out that opportunity of becoming as well acquainted with its principles aad 
manipulations as they could have wished : to them this work is highly valu- 
able. That our readers may better understand the great variety of subjects 
presented, we give a synopsis of its contents : — 

** Pabt I. Preliminary, — Of the furniture and implements necessary to 
the dispensing shop ; of weights, measures, and specific gravity ; of the U. S. 

"Part II. Galenical PiMinnacr/. — Of the collection and desiccation of 
plants ; on the powdering of drugs, and on powders ; on solution, filtration, 
and the medicated waters ; on maceration and the infusions ; on percolatioa 
and the displacement process ; on tinctures, oflBcinal and unofficinal ; medi- 
cated wines, vinegars, ethereal tinctin^s, elixirs, and cordials ; galenical prepa- 
rations of opium, ofiicinal and unofficinal ; on the generation of heat for phar* 
maceutical purposes ; on the mode of applying heat for phaimaceutical pur- 
poses, and on decoctions; on evaporation and the extracts, including concen- 
trated extracts or resinoids ; fluid extracts, including oleo-resins ; on syrupy 
ofiicinal and unofficinal, glyccrolcs and mineral water syrups ; on pulps, con- 
serves, confections, electuaries, pastes, lozenges, and candies ; on distillation 
and spirits, officinal preparations, essences for perfumery, toilet waters, &c. 

"Part III. Pharm<p'y in its Relations to Organic Chemistry: — Lignin: 


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292 Smarial 

its deriyatives, collodion, acetic acid, creasote, &c. ; on fiurinaoeous, mucilagin- 
ous, and saccharine principles ; on albuminous and similar principles, and on 
certain animal products ; fermentation, alcohol and Uie ethers, chloroform and 
firuit essences ; fixed oils and fats, glycerine, &c, ; volatile oils, camphors and 
resins, artificial essential oils, adulterations, &c. ; organic acids ; on the alka- 
loids — alkaloids of opium, cinchona, strychnos, of the solanacese: temaiy 
alkaloids, alkaloids of animal origin ; on neutral organic principles, mostly 
peculiar to a limited number of plants, and possessed of medicinal properties. 

** Part IV. Jiwrganie Pharmaceutical Freparati(m$,-—^n mineral adds ; 
ihe alkalies and their salts ; on the earths and their preparations ; on the non- 
metaUic elements and their medicinal preparations; on the compounds of 
phosphorous used in medicine ; iron and manganese, and their preparations ; 
pr^)aration8 of copper, zinc, nidcel, cadmium, and cobalt; preparations of 
lead, silver, and bismuth ; preparations of antimony and arsenic; preparations 
of mercury ; preparations of platinum and gold. 

** Part v . Bxtemporaneotis Fkarmaey. — On prescriptions ; on the writing 
of prescriptions ; on the art of selecting and combining medicines ; on pow- 
ders and pills — suppositories; on liquid preparations, solutions, mixtures, Ac.; 
external applications — lotions, injections, gargles, baths, inhalations, fumiga- 
tions, cerates, ointments, plasters, cataplasms, liniments, &c.; on the art of 
dispensing medicines — pills, liquids : rules of a pharmaceutical store. 

"Appendix. — Rules of a sick chamber; articles of sick diet; physicians' 
outfits ; list of plants ; r^ipes for popular medicines.'* 

A careful examination and comparison with the other edition gives evidence 
that its author has made very many valuable additions, and that nearly ^j 
per cent more matter has been added. To the part devoted to pharmacy, and 
its relations to organic chemistry, particularly, have large and valuable addi- 
tions been made. The immense number of facts collated, classified, and sys- 
tematically arranged ; the system of syllabi, before introduced and now mudi 
extended, show research, investigation and industry, highly creditable to ite 

In the part devoted to extemporaneous pharmacy have also valuable addi- 
tions been made. Directions are given for the preparation of all new remedies 
in use by the profession, and many valuable formulso are added, and through- 
out the work is so fully illustrated that all its details are easily under- 
stood. In our next issue we shall endeavor to find room to publish many 
excellent extracts from it, and regret it was received too late to do so in this 
issue. The practical and instructive character of the work make it precisely 
what is needed by the country practitioner and student, as well as the apothe- 
Gsry, and hope they will give it an examination, for we are sure they will not 
regret the investment 

Pharmacy.— Several pages upon Pharmacy have been crowded out by the 
index, which belongs to this number. 

Correspondents will oblige by writing plainly their names, town, county and 
state. We have, in several instances, been unable to answer letters because 
these are omitted. 

Subscribers will please libtify us if they do not reoeive the Jo urnal regularly. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


(NEW 8ER1BS.) 


Acid Nitrate of Silver, therapeuticil «eiion of . . .800 

Aconite, by John R Cashing . 


Adulteration of Valerianate of Iron 


Albuminoofi Anasarca, tannin in large doses in 

1115, 845^ 

Alkaloids and Rcsinoids 


Alnus Rubra 


Alum and Savin in Condylomata 


American Medical Association . 


American Pharmaceutical Association . 


American Pharmaceutical Convention . 


Ammonio-Ferric Alum . ... 



Analysis of Chimaphila llmbelhita 


*' Comus Florida 


*• Epiphe^^us Virginianas 


Flea Bane . . . . 


** Geranium . 


•• Geum Rivale 


*' Hamamelis Virginica 


** Hypericum Pcrfoi-atum 


Labrador Tea . 


** Lycopus Virginicus 


Myrica Cerifera 


** Prinos Verticillatus 


** Queen of the Meadow 


** Quercus Alba 


Quercus Rubra 


'* Quercus Tinctoria 


** Rhatany . 
Rhus Glabra 



'* Rubus Villosus and Trivialis 


'' Santonine . 


»• Sweet Fern 


Andromeda Arborea 


Animal and Vegetable Substances, preservation 



Anodyne I«iniment in Otitis 


Anti-Asthmatic Cigarettes 


Apocynum Cannabimmi as an Anti-Periodic 


Arnica Cerate ..... 


Arnica in Tinnitus Aurium, by Dr. A. Young 


Arnica Montana .... 


Artemisia Santonica 

16l», 208 

AscaridaB, treatment of 



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Aficlepias Incamata . . 

Asthma, remedy for . . . ., . 

Astringent Application, new fonn of . 

Atropia in Epilepsy ..... 

Atropia in Tetanus . . . * . 

Balsam of Copaiba, tests to ascertain the genuineness of 
Bayberry ...... 

Beech Dtops . . . . . 

Belladonna in Mammary Abscess, and Arresting the Secretion of Milk 
Belladonna in Arresting the Secretion of Milk, by H. Clay Sanford 
Belladonna in Incontinence of Ftecal Matter . 
Belladonna Used Externally, poisonous effects of 
BethR5ot .... 

Bismuth in the Treatment of BlenorrhoM 

BUck Alder 

Black Salve 


Blennorrhagia, preparation for 

Blood Root, its use in Dysmenorrhoea 

Blue Flag 

Bottles to Prevent Accidental Poisonine 

Bradycote Treatment of Yellow Fever by Yeratrum VWde 

** " ^ " ** Gelseminum Sempervireos 

Bugle Weed .'..,.. 
Caffein in Coffee Berries, amount of . 
Cancerous Tumor Treated with Acid Nitrate of Mercury 
Carbonate of Ammonia in Measles 
Cerate, Arnica ...... 

Chimaphila Umbellata, Lee on . . . 

Chloroform and Ether, proper mode of administering . 
Cod-Liver Oil, various formulas for the gelatization of . 
Collodion and Castor Oil as an Artiflciu Cuticle 
Colombo American ..... 

Comptonia Asplonifolia ..... 

Concentrated Prepurations, &c. . . . 

Constituents of Plants ..... 

Confection, compound of Cubebs and Copaiba with Nitrate of Bismuth 
Cordial, Cherry ...... 

"• Leptandria ..... 

^* Neutralizing ..... 

Comus Florida ...... 

Cough Drops, Baker's ..... 

Cow s Bfilk, how to render more suitable for children 
Cream Syrups ...... 

Crocus in Dysmenorrhoea .... 

Cyanide of Potassium, poisoning by . 

Digitaline, the action and uses of . . . 

Diospyros Yirginiana, Lee on 

Diptheritis, saline injections in 

Disinfecting Composition, new 


Dragees of Tar . 

Dysmenorrhoea . 

Dysmenorrho&a, crocus in 

^ sanguinaria canad. in . 








110, 148, 208 









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119, 152, 188, 220. 252, 2>J4, 321. 353, 390 

f - 26. 57. 124 

Dysmenorrhoea. Teratrui6*viride 

Editorial 19, 52, 

Sb'xir Calis&ya Bark 

ESlizhr CHro-Lactate of Iron 

Elm Bark in Taenia Solium, by Dr. J. K. Dowler 

Embrocation for Spinal Irritation 

Epiphegus Virginianus . 

Erigeron Annuam 

Extract, Fluid, of Teratnmi Viride 

" Solid and fluid, by Chas. A- Lee 

'* Colocynth, compound, U. S. P. 
Extracts, Fluid . 

Solid or pillular 
Facial Neuralgia, easy and certain cure of 
Feeding In£uits . 
Flea Bane 

Frasera Garolinensis, by H. G. Lungreen 
ChuiHheria Procumbens . 
Gelseminom in Tenesmus 
Gelseminum Semperyirens 

Geranium Maculatum, remarks on 

Geum Riyalc^, I^iee on . 
Glycerine and Tannin — Sore Nipples 
Glycerine, Jelly and Lotion o^ for euta, excoriations, fissure of the 

nipple, lips and hands . 

Hamamelis Tirginica, remarks on 
Hellebore, American 
Honey of Roses . 
Hyoftcyamus Niger 
Hypericum Perforatum, Lee on 




* 825 













43, 246 








rndigenouH Materia Medica, by Charles A. Lee, If. D. 

1, 33, 65, 97, 129. 161, 193, 226, 257, 280, 825, 367 
Indigenous Astringent Plants, remarks on 

Indigenous Medical Botany, abstract of a report on, by C. W. Ilaight 
Indigenous Ter»u8 Foreign Medicines 
Indian Homp, white 

Inflammation of the Urethra, solutions for injections for 
Iodide of Potassium, diuretic action of 
Iodine, on the effects of long-continued doses of 
Iodized Liquid for Disinfecting Woiuids and Ulceratioas 
Ipecachuana in Delirium Tremens 
Iris Ver8icx)lor . 

Iron and Lime, super-phosphate of, a new preparation 
Iron and Strychnia, citrate of . 
Iron, bitter wine of . 

" chloride of ..... 

** citro-kctate, citrate of . 

" hydrocyanate o^ in neuralgia 

" hydrocyanate of, in epilepsy . . . 

'* lemonade of . . 

" saccharine proto-sulphate of . . . 









52, 388 












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Iron, syrup of proto-carbouatc of 

Itch Ointments . 

Itching of the Anus 

Jessamine, yellow 

Krameria Trianib^ 


liOe, Charles A., remarks on the therapeutic resources furnished hy 
the indigenous materia medica of the United States 

I>ee, Charles A., on the medicinal, naturalized exotics, and indigenous 
materia meilica of the United States .... 

I^ee, Charles A., remarks on some of the pharmaceutic preparations 
employed in medicine, solid and fluid extracts . 

liOe, Charies A., remarks on the influence of climate, soil, and culti- 
vation of medicinal plants ..... 

Lee, Charles A., remarks on indigenous astringent plants 

«t t* »t II 44 4* 

J^ee, Charie^f A., remarks on rhus glabra, geranium macnlatum, and 
hamamelis virginica ...... 

liCe, Charles A., rcmarkn on diospyros virginiana, geum rivale, hype- 
ricum perfoiiitmn, and rubus villosus and trivialls 

f^ee, Charlfs A., remarks on myrica cerifera, and quercus alba, tinc- 
toria, rubra, &c. ...... ^ 

Lee, Charles .\., remarks on t^imaphila umbellata and comns florida . 

Lee, Charles A., remarks on lycopns virginicu^s prinos verticillatu?, 
and epi[»hej;iis virj^iniunus ..... 

Jite, Charles A., rcmurks on uva ursi, gaultheria procumbeiis, 
andronieda arborea, ledum paluhtre, comptonia asplenifoli{^ 
staticc (mroliniana, nympha3a odorata, nuphar lutea, alnus 
rubra, trilliuiii pendulum, erigeron annuum, and spirea tomen- 

Ledum Palustre 

Jjcmonade of Iron 

Leucorrhca, formula for 

Life and T^bor . 

Liniment, compound arnica 

Tii<iuid Tartrate of Potash, Ammonia, 
preparation of . 

iyodon, vinegar . 

f^ycopus Virpnicus, hee on 

Marsh Rosemary 

Medicinal Plants, remarks on the influence of climate, soil, and culti- 
vation of ....... 

Medicinal Plants, Prof. Chadbourne on cultivation of . 

Medicinal Preparations, simple tests for, by E. R. Sijuibb, M. I). 

Merrill, l)r., letter from ...... 

Milk, analysis of ...... . 

Mixture of Collodion and Castor Oil, in severe bums and scalds 

Mixture, Richard*s cough ...... 

** " chalk ...... 

Myrica Cerifera ........ 

Nasal Polypus, treatment of by tincture of muriate of iron 

Nipple Wash, Dr. Atlee's ...... 

Nocturnal Incontinence of Urine . . . . . 

Nuphar Lutea . . • 

Nymphiea Odorata ....... 

and Peroxide of Iron, on the 


43, 246 


















40. 78 






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dysmenorrhcea, by Jolin J). 








" white 
Obituwry— Prof. Wm. Tully . 
OUed Paper an a Substitute for Oiled Silk and (lutt% Percha in Surgi 

cal Dressings 
dntment, compound sulphur . 
Otitis, anodyne liniment m 
Partridge Berry 

Pharmaceutical Notices . . 22, 55, 91, 155, 2lY, 249, 

Pill, anti-bihouB cathartic .... 

** alterative . 

** coloc3mth. mag. ..... 

** diarrhoea ...... 

** Eberle*8 purgative .... 

" fever and ague ..... 

" Judkins" 

" Marshairs . . 

Piting in Small-Pox ..... 

Poisoning by Cyanide of Potassium 

Polygala Senega ..... 

Potash, iodatc of .... . 

Potassium, iodate of, syrup of in syphilis 
Pregnancy, of 

Preservation of Animal and Vegetable SubBtanccF 
Prinos Verticillatus ..... 

Proceedings of the Amcri<»an Medical Association 

** ** American Pharmaceutical Convention 

** ** New York State Medical Society . 

Propylamin, by James R. Nichols 
Purity in Medicines, by Prof. C. B. Guthrie . 
Quercus Alba ...... 

Kubra ..... 

*' Tinctoria . . . 

Quinia« hypophosphate of ... . 

Remarks on concentrated preparations, simple tests, and easy method 

of analysis . . . .110, 143, 20.3, 243, 334, 

Report to the Pharmaceutical Convention on Home Adulterations, by 

C. T. Carney • 299, 337 

Review of Dr. Tully*s Materia Medica ..... 16^ 

Rhatany 137 

Rheumatism, formula for ...... 26 

Rhus Glabra, remarks on ..... . 194 

Roses, honey of ....... 251 

Rubus Villosus and Trivialis, I«ee on . . 235 

Sanguinaria Canadensis: its use in 

O* Connor, M. D. 
Sanguinaria Canad. in Dysmenorrhoea 

Sanguinaria, therapeutic applications of, by E. H. Shell, M. D. 
Sttitonine ....... 169, 

Seneka .... 

Simple Tests for some important Medicinal Preparations 46, 

SoliAine and Dulcamara, therapeutical action of 






































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Solutions for Injections for Inflammation of the Urethra 

Sorrel Tree 

Spiraea Tomentosa 

Statice CaroUniana 

St. John's Wort 

Strychnia and its iucb 

Strychnia in Chronic Intermittents 

Sulphate of Atropia, therapeutic applications of 

Sumach ...... 

Sweet Fern 

8weet-6cented Water Lily 
Syllabus of a Course of Study, intended as an aid to Students of Phar- 
macy, by Wm. Procter, Jr. . 
Syrup, compound of the iodohydrargyrate of potassium and 

** compound of helianthus 

'* compound of morphia .... 

*' cream ...... 

*' ipecac; and senega .... 

** morphia ..... 

*^ phosphate of iron and aounonia 

*' whooping cough 
TsBnia Solium, elm banc in . 
Tag Alder ...... 

Tannin in large doses in Albuminous Anasarca 

Tar, dragees of . 

Tenesmus, gelseminum in ' . 

Tests to ascertain the genuineness of Balsam Copaiba . 

Tetanus reliered with Extract of Indian Hemp 

Therapeutical action of Solanine and Dulcamara 

Therapeutical action of Acid Nitrate of Silver . 

Therapeutical properties of Veratrum Viride . 

Therapeutical value of Foreign and Indigenous Medicinal Plants 

The proper mode of administering Chloroform and Ether 

Tonic, formula for . 

To prevent the recurrence of Ague 

Tinctoria Rubra, Lee on 

Tincture of Water Pepper 

Trillium Pendulum 

Triosteum Perforatum, by Dr. J. Kneeland 

Urine, nocturnal incontinence of 

Uva Ursi a substitute for Ergot of Rye 

Uva Ursi .... 

Valerianate of Iron, adulteration of 

Veratria in Acute Diseases of the Chest, employment of 

Veratrum Viride, by D. L, McQugin, M. D. 

Veratrum Viride in Dysmenorrhoea 

Veratrum Viride, therapeutical properties of . 

Vertigo from Gastric Derangement, treatment of 

Vinegar Lotion 

Water Avens 


Witch Hazel 

Yellow Jessamine 

YeUow Pond Lily 


























' 125 


















43, 246 



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1860. ' 


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T I£ E 



Materia Medica, Pliannacy, Cliemistry, &o. 

VoLH.] JANUARY, 1860. [Ho. L 




Tonics are agents -which invigorate orgwiic actions. Many 
agencies do this indirectly, as blood-letting, cathartics, narcotics, 
diaphoretics, and 'counter-irritants; but true tonics either impart 
tone to the digestive organs by primary and local influence, or 
they so impress the vital properties of the different tissues through 
the medium of the blood, as to gradually and slowly exalt all the 
functions of the body. They may be supposed to generate as 
well as extricate nervous influence, on which depends the vigor of 
all the vital actions. Some of them, as chalybeates, supply an 
element essential to the composition of healthy blood ; others, 
like cod-liver oil, act essentially as nutrients. Taken as a class, 
they influence all the vital properties, and hence are universal ex- 
citants to the functions. Vegetable tonics^ with which we are now 
more particularly concerned, owe their influence to different 
organic constituents, as alkaloid?, neutral principles, volatile oil, 
acids, resins, &c. They act both as stomachics and hajmatics, or 
blood remedies, forming^in the stomach new combinations, which 
are absorbed and afterwards eliminated by the excretory organs. 
These proximate principles have often been detected in the blood 
and the different secretions. Like inorganic substances, however, 


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2 Lee on Tonics. 

this influence is pardy reflex, especially those belonging to the 
class of pure bitters. In no instance do they operate upon me- 
chanical and chemical principles, as was formerly supposed. 

This class of remedies may be called permanent stimulants or 
alteratives, and their office is to restore impaired or lost, function, 
and to enable organic nervous or vital power to resist the slow 
extension of disease, or aid nature in the establishment and pro- 
gress of convalescence. Like all other medicines, they are rela- 
tive agents, acting therapeutically only in certain morbid condi- 
tions and states of the system ; misapplied, they are irritants or 
sedatives. No fact is better established than that tonics^ as often 
used, prove indirectly debilitating, and counteract the recuperative 
forces. Errors in pathology lead to frequent misapplication of 
this class of remedies, especially the confounding apparent with 
true debility. The property of healthy excitability is confined 
within narrow limits; if exhausted by over-stimulation, the 
chances of recovery are materially lessened. In the administra- 
tion of tonics, we aim to elevate depressed vital power, in a slow 
and gradual manner, to the healthy standard, aiding and imitating 
the natural recuperative energies by agents characterized, like the 
vital stimuli, by permanency of action. Remedial agents which 
restore the vitsJ energies vary not only in grade, the rapidity and 
permanency of their action, but also in respect to the organ, sys- 
tem, or tissue, on which their influence is chiefly exerted. True 
tonics, however, seem to elevate equally all the functions ; and by 
administering them in suitable doses, and at proper intervals, 
their beneficial influence is propagated throughout the entire sys- 
tem. As soon as one or more important functions are restored 
the rest participate in the change, and the whole assume a regular 
discharge of their offices, owing to a reciprocity of vital influence 
and function existing throughout the economy. 

Id applying this class of remedies, then, we should carefully 
investigate the causes of the existing debility, whether it be ap- 
parent merely or the consequence of oppressed instead of de- 
pressed vital power ; whether it may not result from irritation in 
some part, thus abstracting due energy from others ; whether sim- 
ple or complicated, or associated with change of structure ; and 
after subjecting the case to this pathological analysis, passing all 
the various functions and organs in review, we then have to de- 


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Lee on Toyiics. 3 

cade upon the choice of agents best suited to the particular cir- 
cumstances of the case. And here great judgment and dis- 
crimination are needed. Though closely allied in their remedial 
virtues, yet no two tonic agents possess identically the same the- 
rapeutical powers. Admitting the general rule that vegetable 
tonics are best suited to those prostrate conditions consequent on 
protracted acute diseases, and the mineral ones to chronic aifec- 
tions involving more especially the nervous system, and also that 
certain vegetable tonics possess an antiperiodic power not gene- 
rally possessed by this group of remedies, we furthermore find 
that no two of the class possess identically the same properties, 
and hence we infer that none of them can well be spared from the 
materia medica. This might, in fact, be inferred a p^iori^ from 
the consideration that .in no two vegetables are the organic con- 
stituents the same. If they agree in kind, they diflfer in quan- 
tity. Some contain volatile oil or tannin, in connection with an 
alkaloid, neutral or bitter principle. In some the volatile oil, 
in others the tannic acid predominates; and in a third group the 
bitter principle is the prevailing power. Yet it is solely by expe- 
rience and observation that these differences have been established. 
This variety of chemical composition, however, imparting as it 
does to this entire group compound attributes of a most import- 
ant character, is a wise provision of nature to secure an equally 
corresponding variety of eflfects. In this belief, we shall pass in 
review, in our succeeding numbers, all our indigenous plants 
which are known to possess tonic properties : believing that it is 
better to have a large than a small catalogue of articles of this 
class to select from, we shall aid to extend rather than lessen their 

In the use of tonic remedies the practitioner must ever bear in 
mind the paramount importance of the vital stimuli — food, air, 
water, heat, &c. — above all medicinal substances or pharmacologi- 
cal agents whatever : as on the former depends the renovation of 
all the tissues, leaving no exhaustion behind them. Pharmaceu- 
tical stimulants may excite reaction, but they probably never di- 
rectly increase the vital force. K they accomplish this end, it is 
by enabling the vital stimuli to exert their wonted eflfects. This 
is well illustrated by the elfects of friction, which acts as a vivify* 
ing stimulus, by exalting the vital properties of the part, drawing 


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4 Lee on Tonics, 

the blood to it, and inducing such vital and chemical changes as 
to facilitate the action of the vital stimuli. It is now, however, 
admitted by the best physiologists that there are some medicinal 
agents, which, under certain morbid conditions, do exert a local 
vivifying and strengthening influence upon the different organs 
of the body. Muller has suggested that this eflbct is produced 
by restoring the composition of the organ, or by so changing it 
as to facilitate renovation by the general vital stimuli ; though he 
thinks such cases are rare. Paris has very truly observed 
that when the i: ital movements have been accelerated by a stimu- 
lant beyond a certain point the consequence will be a correspond- 
ing collapse, and that an interval must elapse before the exhaus- 
tion can be supplied ; but it is not so with tonics, inasmuch as 
they act slowly yet progressively, so that time is allowed for the 
full operation of the vital stimuli to supply an influx of power, 
which shall, at least, equal the demand for it, and consequently no 
cx)llapse can take place. But more than this 'is efifected ; for sinoe 
the restorative functions necessarily partake of the general excite- 
ment, they will be urged with increasing activity, and thus the 
energies of every part be gradually and permanently increased, 
and the general standard of strength raised. To insure, however, 
this desirable result, Dr. Paris dwells upon the importance of so 
regulating the application of the vital stimuli, by a judicious system 
of medical training as to insure the full benefit of their revivify- 
ing influence. It would not be attended with any important 
practical results to speculate upon the manner in which these 
eflfects are brought about. We know that many of these agents, 
at least, promote the appetite and invigorate iJie digestive func- 
tion, causing a greater quantity of food to be taken, and more 
thoroughly digested and appropriated to the wants of the system — 
thus enriching the blood, and rendering it more stimulating to aU 
the functions, and more nutritive to the various tissues. Thus, 
indirectly, general tonic effects are produced, and probably by a 
local influence, on the digestive organs. Againjwe may believe, 
in accordance witii known physiological laws, and ascertained 
facts, that they enter the blood vessels and modify the vital pro- 
perties of the blood; perhaps, as has been suggested, entering 
into the campositioa of some of its proximate principles, and so 
influencing their vital condition as to favor the physiological 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

Lee on Tonics, 6 

;vctions constant!}' going on within it, contribnting to its full de- 
velopment and maintenance, and so enabling it to perform its 
offices in the economy with more vigor and efficiency. That iron 
and cod-liver oil, &c., may act in this way, is not improbable; 
or we may suppose they sometimes o])erate, by their presence 
in the circulation, upon the ultimate organic constituents of the 
tissues, stimulating into increased activity that special power, 
which resides in the organic cells, or molecules of the organ. 
But whatever theoretical views may be adopted in regard to the 
modus operandi of tonics, no one can deny but that when cau- 
tiously and judiciously administered, in cases to which tihey are 
adapted, the most beneficial eflfects often follow. 

Tonics may often be advantageously combined with other 
remedies. Those which have an astringent tendency, especially, 
should be combined with aperients, as first pointed out by the 
celebrated Iloffinan : and to these an alkali will often prove a 
valuable adjunct. Tbo much attention cannot be paid to the state 
of the secretory and excretory organs, for torpidity of function 
here is itself a direct producing cause of debility. Aloes, rhu- 
barb, and blue mass fulfill this indication with sufficient certainty 
and efficierKy. It should, however, be recollected that while 
much pnrgat'V^e action conuteracts the effi^ct of the tonic, a small 
quantity of a bitter tonic increases very much the purgative power 
of a cathartic drug. Some writers have ad\ ised the combination 
of tonics with narcotics, but there are few cases where such union 
would be advisable. There may be such a condition of the 
stomach as not to tolerate well the presence of tonics, whi(*h may 
be obviated by an opiate, as in Home instance3 of intermittent 
fever. It is still customary among goHrmandH^ in some countries, 
to take, after eating, a pastile composed of opium, cloves, mace, 
nutmeg and musk, the compound being found to favor instead of 
checking digestion. Dr. Tully has very proi:)erly called attention 
to the fact that, in order that many of the tonics should sit well 
upon the stomach, and aflfect the patient agreeably, it is well to 
accompany their use with some light, nutritious, and easily, 
digestible food, such as milk or rice porridge, arrowroot and 
milk, &c. 

The dose, the intervals between the doses, and the duration of 
the tonic treatment, must be determined by the peculiar circum- 


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Lee on Tonics, 

stances of each case. 

The following list, it is believed, embraces nearly all known 
Korth American plants possessing tonic virtues. In some — 
perliaps many — the tonic property does not predominate, but 
is allied with astringent, stimulant, diaphoretic, alterative, or 
other qualities. In few does it exist unconnected with other 
virtues. . Some, it will be observed, are included, which have 
already been enumerated in the class of astringents. Some, how- 
ever, already noticed under that cla^s have beenjiere omitted. 
The^list would have been much extended by including other spe- 
cies under the astringent genera, but no practical benefit would 
have attended it. 

( )ar indigenous materia medica abounds more in astringents 
and tonics than any other class of remedies. So numerous are 
the former, that we may and should be entirely independent of 
foreign countries ; and as to the latter, our continent furnishes 
everything necessary. The cinchona, and other aromatic barks 
of South America, added to the bitter tonics of the United States, 
fiirnish the practitioner as complete an armament of medicines of 
this class as can well be desired. That their virtues should be 
more thoroughly investigated by practical men is ardently to be 
desired. The nomenclature of Torrey and Gray has been adopted. 

Plants Indigenous to thb United States Possessing Tonic 



Ran li n cul aceae, Hepatica. 
{Croufoot Fam- 
ily.) iCoptis. 


; Hydrastis. 

\ Actsea. 


Magnoliaoeae, Magnolia. 

H. Triloba. 

C. Trifolia. 
Z. Apiifolia. 
,11. Canadensis, 
A. Spicata. 
,Va. Rubra. 
1 Alba. 
C. Racemosa. 

Americana. . 


Short-lobed Hepatica. 
Gold Thread. 
Yellow Root 

Bancbcrry — Cohosh. 
iRed Banebcrry. 
AVhite Baneberry. 
Bugbane — Cohosh — Black 

American Bugbane. 

•\f. Glauca. Sweet Bay. 

I Acuminata. Cucumber Tree. 

Macrophylla. Great-leaved Mag. Tree. 

Umbrella. Umbrella Tree. 
I FraserL Ear-leaved Umbrella Tree. 


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Lee on Tonics. 



MagDoIiaeeae. LiriodendroD. 



{Ciiatard Apple 

or Pap aw 

{Moo n iteedFa m 

(Nelumbo FamA 

ihj.) I 

Nymphaeaceae, Nymphaja. 
( Water Lily Nuphar. 

Family.) 1 

Sarraceniaceae, Sarracenia. 


Hypericaceae, Eypcricum. 
{SLjohn's Wort 
Family.) \ 
Zanthoxylaceae Zanthoxylum. 

L. Tulipifyra. 
A. Triloba. 

Menispermum'M. Canadense. 

N. Luteum. 

N^. Odorata. 
I Afivena. 
I Kalmiana. 

S. Purpurea. 

Tulip Tree. 

Commoi) Papaw, or Custard 

Canadian Moonseed. 

Water Chinquepin. 

Sweet-scented Water Lily. 
Yellow Pond Lily. 
Spatter Dock. 

Side-Saddle Flower, or Pitcher 
Trumpets. [Plant 

H. Perforatum. St. John*8 Wort. 

It, . 

Z. Americaiium. iPrickly Ash, or Toothache 
; Carolinianum.l [Tree. 

Vitaceae, (Fiw^iVitis. 
Family.) \ 

Rhamnaceae, *Ceanothus. 

{Bxuikthorn ] 

Family.) \ 

Hippocastana- jAesculus. 

Aceraceae, (f^^!Acer. 
Maple Fam-' 

iiy-) I 

Polygalaceae, iPolygala. 
{Milk Wort • 
Family.) j 

Legurainaceae, Trifolium. 
{PuUe Family.) 

Rosaceae, (i?o«^|Prunus. 


T. Labrnsca. 
' ^stivalis. 
I VuFpina. 
iC. Americanus. 

Northern Fox Grape. 

Summer Grape. 

I Winter, or Frost Grape. 

! Muscadine. 

New Jgrsey Tea, or Red Root 

,A1. Glabra. 
I Flava, 
j Pavia. 

A. Pennsylvanica 


P. Senega. 


1 Rubella. 
[T. Arvense. 
I Pratchse. 
! Repens. 
p. Americana. 



C. Pumila. 

Ohio Buckeye. 
S^eet Buckeye. 
Red Buckeye. 

Striped Maple. 
Sugar Maple.. 
Black Sugar Maple. 
Seneca Snake Root 

iFlowering Wintergreen. 
'Bitter Polygala. 
Rabbit-Foot Clover. 
i White 

Wild Yellow or Red Plun* 
'Beach Plum. 
[Chickasaw Plum. 
iSloo— Black Thorn. 
Dwarf Cherry. 

Pennsylv'nicajWild Red Cherry. 


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Lee on Tonics. 




Rosaceae, {Bose 

C. A'^iiginiana. 

Choke Cherry. 



Wild Black C herry! 


S. Opulifolia. 

Nine Bark. 


Meadow Sweet 




Queen of the Prairie. 


A. Eupatoiia. 

Common Agrimony. 


G. Rivalc. 

Water or Purple AvenF. 


P. Norvegica. 



Five Finger. 

Argentea, &c. 


N. Virginiana. 



R. Odoratus. 

Purple Flowering Raspberry. 


High Blackberrj'. 

Canadensis, &c 



Low-bush Blackberry. 



C. Floridus. 

Carolina Allspice. 

(Carolina All- 


Sweet-scented Shrub. 

spice Family.) 




S. Canadensis. 

Sanicle — Black Snake Root. 

(ParHleif Fa mi- 

Mary Ian (lic4i. 

ii li ii ti 



K Aquaticuni. 

Button Snake Root. 


Fever Weed. 


A. Curtisii. 


Archangel ica. 




Great Anjj:elica. 




C. Florida. 

Flowering Dogwood. 

(Dogwood Fam- 


Round-leaved Cornel. 



Silky Cornel. 


Red Osier Dogwood. 




Button Bush. 

{Cinchona Fam- 



Snow Berry. 




Fever Tree— Bitter Bark. 



n. Virginica. 

Witch Hazel. 

(Witch Hazel 





E. Piirpureura. 

Joe Pye Weed — Trumpet 



Thorough Wort — Boneset. 



Wild Horehound. 


White Snake Root. 



Canada Flea Bane. 



S. Odora. 

Sweet Golden Rod. 


H. Autumnale. 

Sneeze Wort. 


Bi. Cotula. 

May Weed. 


A. MUlefolia, 



0. Benodictus. 

Blessed Thistle. 

* Jntrodneecl firom Europe. 


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Lee oil Tonics. 





Compositae, |Hieraciuni. 

IF. Venosum. 

Hawk Weed. 

{Composite jNabalis. 

N. Fraseri. 

(iall of the Earth. 



T. Huronensis. 

Native Tansy. 


A. Caudata. 

Slender Wormwood. 


Western Mugwort. 


Common '* (exotic). 




S. Aureus. 

Life Root — False Valerian. 



A. Mollis. 

Soft Arnica. 



Cotton Thistle. 



A. Uva Ursi. 




Alpine Bearberry. 


E. Repens. 

Trailing Arbutus.'^ 


G. Procumbens. 

Creeping Wintergreen. 


T. Opaca. 


V. Stamineum. 



L. Latifolium. 

T^brador Tea. 


P. Rotundifolia. 

Round-leaved Pyrola — ^Win- 

Uni flora. 

Ore-flowered " [tcrgroen.. 


C. Umbellata. 

Prince's Pine. 


Spotted Wintergrccn. 


M. Uniflora. 

Indian Pipe. 

Acjuifoliaccao, 'ilex. 

I. Opaca. 

American Holly. 

{HoUy Fujiiily.)\ 


( 'anadian *' 


P. Vcrtici^I at US. 

IJlack Alder. 



Smooth Wiiitcvberry. 





D. Virginiana. 


(Bbony Fami- 


Plumbagineae, Statice. 

S. Limonium. 

Marsh Rosemary. 

(Lead Wort ' 

Family.) i 

Orobanchaceae, , Bpiphegus. 

E. Virginiana. 

Beech Drops — Cancer Root. 




0. Americana. 

Squaw Root. 


C. Glabra. 

Snake Head. 



Labiatao, {Mint 


M. Canadensis. 

Wild Mint. 



L. Virginicus. 

Bugle Weed. 


C. Mariana. 

Common Ditany. 


H. Officinalis. 



P. Aristatum. 

Mountain Mint. 




Wild Basil. 


M. Didyma. 

Oswego Tea. 


Wild Bergamot. 


Horse Mint. 


H. Pulegioides. 

Penny Royal. 



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Lee on Tonics 





Labiatae, (Mini 


C. Canadensis. 

Rich Weed. 



S. Lyrata. 

Hiyre-leaved Sage. 


Nettle-leaved '' 



Nfad Dog Scullcap. 





S. Angularis. 

American Centaury. 

(Gentian Fant 


F. Carol iniensis. 

'* Col umbo. 



G. Quinqueflora. 

Five-flowered Gentian. 


Frinjred i " 


Smaller Fringed *' 




Soap wort *' 


M. Trifoliata. 
' [Hum 

Buck Bean. 



A. Androssemifo 

- Spreading Dog-Banc. 

{DoffBiine Fom 


Indian Hemp. 


AristoVchiaceae Asarum. 

A. Canadcnse. 

Wild Ginger. 

{Birth Wort 


Serpen taria. 

Virginia Snake Root. 



P. Hydropiper. 

Smart Weed. 


Sass'fras,(Lau-S. Officinale. 


{Laurel Fami 

Benzoin, [rus 

.) a Odoriferum. 

Spice Bark. 



{Walnut Fami 


C. Alba. 

Shag-Bark Hickory. 


! Glabra. 







Q. Alba. 

White Oak. 

{Oah Family,) 

1 Tinctoria. 

Black ^^ 

{Sweet Gale 


U, Gale. 

Sweet Gale. 





C. Asplenifolia. 

Sweet Fern. 



A. Serrulata. 

Smooth Alder. 

{Birch Family,) 


Speckled " 



S. Candida. 


{Willoic Fami 



Dwarf Gray WiUow. 



iLow-bush "• 


Glaucous *' 

1 Sericea. 


i Cordata. 

Heartleaved ** 

1 Angustata,&c. Narrow-leavod *' 


P. Tremuloides. 

American Aspen. 


Balsam Poplar. 



• iP. Resinosa. 

Red Pine. 

{Pine Family.) 


Yellow Pine. 

1 Rigida. 

Pitch Pine. 


White Pine, &c. 

. Abies. 

A. Balsamca. 

Balsam Fir. 


t Canadensis. 

Hemlock Spruce. 

• We have twenty-two distinct species of Willow, all possessing tonic properties. 


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Balsam of Oopatba. 





Coniferae, j 

A. Nigra. 

Black Spruce. 

(Pine Family.) 


White *» 


J. Communis. 

Common Juniper. 



Rod Cedar. 

Araliaccae, .Acorus. 

A. Calamus. 

Sweet Flag. 

(Arum F(f mil i/.) ' 

Orchidaceac, 'Orchis. 

0. Spectabile. 

Showy Orchis. 

( Orch is Fam i- Cypripediuin. 

C. Pubescens. 

i Yellow Ladies* Slipper. 

ly^) ■ 


Showy *' 

Amaryllidaceae Aletris. 

A. Farinosa. 

Star Grass. 




Family.) ; 


Smilaceae, {Sm i- Smilax. 

S. Sarsaparilla. 

ln.v Family.) 


J Green Briar. 

Trilliaceae. TrUlium. 

T. Cemuum. 

Wnkc Robin. 



Birth Root. 

Balsam of Copaiba. 

(A7id Other Species.) 

The vaiious and extended uses of Copaiba, medicinally, ren- 
der it a very important article with the medical profession — so 
much so, that I have considered a few words not amiss relative to 
its falsification and tests, as well as a consideration of the pro- 
cesses pursued for presenting it in convenient and desirable forms 
for administration. 

Copaiba of commerce presents a considerable variety of ap- 
pearances, as may be naturally expected from the great variety of 
its botanical sources; and it is not within the limits of this article 
to enter into a fall description of each. It is often found in the 
shops, badly adulterated, to the extent of hardly containing ten 
per cent of Copaiba. Balsam of Copaiba, according to Pareira, 
is a clear, transparent liquid, having, for the most part, the con- 
sistence of olive oil. By age it becomes considerably denser, 
from the loss of volatile oil. It is insoluble in water ; completely 
soluble in alcohol, ether, and the fixed and volatile oils ; is solj^- 
fied by about one-sixteenth of its weight of fresh calcined magne- 


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12 Balsam of Gopaiba, 

sia, and by alkalies it yields a kind of soap insoluble in water. 

Considerable variation consists in the color, odor,^ taste, con- 
sistence, and specific gravity, as well as in' the relative quan- 
tities of volatile oil and resin yielded by different varieties of Bal- 
sam of Copaiba, depending upon the different species from which 
it is produced. Some varieties contain as high as eighty per 
cent of volatile oil, while others yield only thirty per cent, ac- 
cording to the circumstances of its collection, such as age, posi- 
tion, and season of collection. 

As this is an article extensively used, it has necessarily become 
an object to substitute for it coarser or inferior articles, dnd like- 
wise to adulterate it largely with foreign substances, as fixed oils, 
castor oil, oil of turpentine, poppy-seed oil, &c. ; but, inasmuch 
as the article derived from many sources will vary in consistence, 
chemical character and composition, it is necessary that one 
should, before pronouncing the article adulterated, apply the 
most approved tests. 

Various are the plans that have been proposed for ascertaining 
its parity. All appear to agree that when pure it is transparent, 
free of tur])entiiic (jdor when heated, soluble in two parts of alco- 
hol, and dissolves one-fourth of its weight of carbonate of mag- 
nesia with the aid of gentle heat, and continues translucent; other- 
wise, with alcohol, a turbid mixture results, from which the im- 
purity slowly separates, and a small proportion of any fixed oil 
renders the product with carbonate of magnesia opaque. 

Castor oil is one of the most common adulterations, which may 
be easily detected by mixing three parts of the Balsam with one 
part of sulphuric acid, and shaking with fifteen or twenty parts 
of alcohol of 36°. If the mixture separates, it indicates that the 
Balsam is adulterated with castor oil. This test will not detect 
less than one-ninth part of adulteration. 

One part of potassa dissolved in two parts of water forms a 
clear solution with nine parts of pure Copaiba, and the liquid 
continues clear when moderately diluted with water or alcohol ; 
but the presence of one-sixth part of fixed oil in the Copaiba 
occasions more or less opacity in the liquid, and half the quantity 
causes the precipitation of white flakes in a few hours. 

Boiled with fifty times its weight "of water, till the liquid is 
evaporated, if the Copaiba contains any fixed oil, the residtM 


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Balsam of Copaiba. 13 

wiU be more or less soft, according to the quantity present, other- 
wise it will be hard and brittle. 

A drop of the Balsam placed on a piece of unsized paper, and 
heated until all the essential oil is expelled, forms a semi-transpa- 
rent, well-defmed spot; but if the Balsam has been adulterated 
with a fatty oil, it is surrounded by an oily areola. 

Two and a half parts of Balsam shaken with one part of liquor 
of ammonia, sp. gr. 0.965, forms a mixture which becomes clear 
and transparent in a few moments, and may be heated at 212** 
Fah. without becoming opaque, if pure. 

By agitating the suspected sample with a lye of caustic soda, 
and setting the mixture aside to repose, the Balsam, after a time, 
rises to the surface, and the fatty oil present, if any, forms a soapy, 
thick mass below. ^ 

Pure Copaiba may be adulterated with fifty per cent of a fat 
oil (castor nut or almond), without ceasing to give a clear solution 
with two parts of alcohol, but it combines badly with magnesia 
and ammonia. Excess of alcohol, however, separates the oil in 
all cases. The best test for detecting the fat oils is the use of 
pure alcohol to which some caustic potash has been added. Mr. 
Redwood is of the opinion that most of the proposed tests of the 
purity of Copaiba are liable to fallacy, and that the best measure 
of its activity is the quantity of volatile oil it affords by distilla- 
tion. However true this may be, I have had no reason to aban- 
don tests which exhibited the character of the adulteration, and 
with proper care, a little experience and observation, I think them 
as reliable as the average of tests for adulterations in other 

M. Guibourt, after many experiments with a great variety of 
specimens, came to the following conclusions : — 

" 1. A Copaiba which possesses the four properties : — Firsts of being en- 
tirely soluble in two parts of absolute alcohol ; second^ to fomi at the tempera- 
ture of 60® Fah. a transparent mixture, with two-fifths of its weight of a 
strong solution of ammonia; thirds to solidify with one-sixteonth of its 
weight of calcined magnesia ; fourth^ to produce a dry and brittle resin after 
prolonged ebullition, is a Balsam which is certainly pure ; and those which 
present these four properties are to be preferred to all others. 

" 2. The last character is an indispensable complement to the three first, 
which alone are not sufficient to certify the purity of the Balsam. On the 
other hand, one or two of the first characters may be wanting, without neces- 
sarily involving the adulteration of the Balsam. When these characters are 
wanting, we must try to discover the presence of some foreign substance ; 


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14 Balsam of Copaiba^ 

but unless we can prove its presence, we must not condude that the Balsam 
has been adulterated — it may arise from some unknown properties in the va- 
riety of the tree from which it is produced. 

" 3. The characters drawn from thJ action of ammonia, and of calcined and 
carbonate of magnesia, and which have been regarded as the most certain 
means of detecting the adulteration of Copaiba by a fixed oil, are far from 
possessing that value which has been assigned to them. The soft state of the 
Resin of Copaiba, deprived of its volatile oil by boiling water, is a mueb 
more certain test of this falsification." 

Copaiba is not always mixed or adulterated with a single article ; 
sometimes two or more are added, and not unfrequently factitious 
or compounded articles are made up really containing not a trace 
of Copaiba. 

The following are some of the numerous formula) in use for 
adulteration : — 

Balsam of Copaiba, 4 pounds. 

Castor Oil, 3 ** 

Mix well. 

Balsam of Copaiba, 7 pounds. 

Castor Oil, 4 *» 

Yellow Rosin, 2 " 

Balsam of Copaiba, One part 

Canada Balsam, " " 

Balsam of Copaiba, One part 

Canada Balsam, ** ** 

Castor Oil or Nut Oil, " " 

Balsam of Copaiba, 7 pounds. 

Nut Oil, 3 " 

Yellow Rosin, 2 ** 

Canada Balsam, 1 ** 


Castor Oil, 7 quarts. 

Copaiba Bottoms, 1 ** 

Mix warm, and filter through flannel. 

Castor Oil, 1 gallon. 

Yellow Rosin, 3 pounds. 

Canada Balsam, 2 ** 

Oil of Juniper, 2 ounces. 

Oil of Savine, , 1 ounce. 

Essence of Orange and Lemon, each ^ " 

Powdered Benzoin, .* 1 ** 

Melt the Rosin with the Castor Oil and Benzoin, and when nearly cold add 
the essence?. 


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Balsam of Copaiba, 16 

Canada Balsam, 8 pounds. 

Venice Turpentine, 1 ** 

Oils of Fennel, Juniper and Savine, q. s. 

Used chiefly to fill cheap capsules. 

Copaiba has long been regarded as a specilic in gonorrhoea, but 
the experience of practitioners is decidedly favorable to its value 
in other diseases of the mucous membrane. In medicinal doses 
Copaiba is stimulant, cathartic and diuretic. Therapeutically it 
possesses the property of diminishing excessive mucous dis- 
charges, and at oi?e time was used with apparent success as a 
febrifuge in ague. This use seems to have been abandoned, and 
the principal purpose for which it is now employed is the treat- 
ment of mucous inflammations, as bronchitis and gonorrhoea. Its 
use in the latter extends from the commencement of the last cen- 
tury, and is still the most approved remedy in that disease. 

There appear to be two methods of treatment by it — one not to 
exhibit it until the inflammatory symptoms have subsided, the 
other to give it at the very outset, to cut short or suppress the 
disease. Both systems have their advocates, and very cle^ly 
their propriety should be determined by the characteristics of 
the case presented. ♦ 

The greater influence of Copaiba over the urethral than over 
other mucous membranes is explained by experiments, which 
sufficiently prove that the active principle of the Balsam is chiefly 
eliminated by the kidneys, and exerts a healing influence on the 
inflamed mucous membrane of the urethra, by coming directly in 
contact with it, dissolved in the urine, as this fluid is expelled 
from the bladder. Dr. Roquette relates some interesting experi- 
ments and cases, which strongly prove its local action. His ob- 
servations and conclusions are confirmed by Marchal, Dallas, and 
others, that the injection of Balsam of Copaiba is the most effica- 
cious mode of treating gonorrhoea. Mr. Dallas employed it in 
sixteen cases, using no internal remedy either in recent or old 
gonorrhoea, with complete success: using for the enema five 
drachms of Copaiba, yolk of one egg, one grain of gummy ex- 
tract of opium, and seven ounces of water— used several times a 


The experience of most practitioners sustains the statement of 
Bicord, and others, that Copaiba is less successful in the gonor- 


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16 Balsam of Copaiba, 

rhooa of females than males, inasmuch as the disease is not con- 
fined to th<r mucous lining of the urethra, (on which the influence 
of Copaiba dissolved in the urine is principally exercised,) but 
extends to that of the vagina. This adds (if further proof were 
needed) additional evidence of its therapeutical influence locally, ' 
and sugj^cpts the local treatment by injection of such cases, as 
well as by the internal administration of the article. 

In chronic inflammation of the bhidder, and in catarrh of the 
same organ, it has been highly recommended by Dr. La Roche, of 
Philadelphia. In leucorrhea it has been employed with advan- 
tage, and its employment in chronic jnihiKmary caiarrh has been 
favorably spoken of by Drs. La Roche, Armstrong, and others ; 
and Pareira refers favorably to its use in chronic inflammation of 
the mucous membrane of the bowels, especially of the colon and 
rectum, and that Dr. Gullen spoke favorably of its use in hemor- 
rhoids, and says : — " Having learned from an empirical practitioner 
that it gives relief in hemorrhoidal affections, I have frequently 
employed it with success." Dr. Ruschenberger recommends it 
locally in chilblains. 

The nauseous taste and unpleasant effects of Copaiba, employed 
in the natural state, has suggested various methods of prepara- 
tion, as solidification hy magnesia, saponification by soda, and 
by enveloping it in capsules. 

Copaiba solidified is directed to be made by incorporating 
one drachm of calcined magnesia with two ounces of Copaiba, or 
one-sixteenth of its weight. To obtain a solid mass the Copaiba 
must be thick and resinoid, and the magnesia recently calcined. 
The introduction of wax in considerable quantity, to give it the 
consistence required, should not be allowed. In this form it is 
made into dragees, or oblong, oval pills, which are coated with 
sugar, and form one of the most convenient and eb'gible forms 
of administration. 

Copaiba saponifikd is produced by a combination of soda 
and potash with the oleo-resin of pure Copaiba. Thus solidified 
or saponified it is digestible and readily assimiliable, and is said 
to produce no nausea, vomiting, or gastric suffering, which occa- 
sionally occur with Coi)aiba in the natural state. 

Copaiba and Riiatany. — In some instances, and particularly 
in cases of gonorrhoea and gleet, it is indispensable to associate 


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Balsam of Chpaiba. 17 

with it powerful auxiliaries, as cubebs or rhatany. By its tonic 
and astringent qualities the rhatany moderates its stimulant action 
on the intestines, and renders it less purgative ; contributes pow- 
erfully to the cure of chronic aflTections, by fortifying the mucous 
membrane of the urethra, the atony of which is often the caus« 
of persistent gleets. Ricord recommends the combination as 
much superior to Copaiba alone in the treatment of blenor- 

Copaiba and Citkate of Iron. — Especially adapted to com- 
plaints of females, whose peculiar affections require more particu- 
larly the use of ferruginous tonics. 

Copaiba and Cubebs. — Cubebs, when taken in large or fre- 
quent doses, generally diminishes the discharge, and remark- 
ably relieves the other symptoms in a short time, but when em- 
ployed alone the disorder returns' after some time, especially if it 
be relinquished or the dose diminished. Cubebs should, there- 
fore, be conjoined with Copaiba. 

Copaiba, Cubebs and Rhatany. — ^This combination is much 
esteemed, and recommended by some. The addition of rhatany 
renders the action of Copaiba less purgative, insures its more com- 
plete absorption into the system, and tends to allay hemorrhage 
from any part of the system. 

Copaiba, Cubebs and Citrate of Iron. — ^The combination 
with iron makes a valuable preparation for an endemic condition 
of the system, and consequently of great debility. It is valuable 
in chlorosis, leucorrhea, &c., like all preparations of iron ; gives 
force to broken down powers, and produces a favorable state of 
the blood : so much desired in the treatment of these diseases. 

All these combinations are valuable, for their convenience and 
accuracy of preparation, as well as for the perfect manner in 
which they are enveloped in a coating of sugar. 

I shall, at another time, refer more particularly to the thera- 
peutical properties of Copaiba, and prepare an article on Cubebs, 
as this article is a powerful auxiliary to it, and one of the most 
useful remedies we possess in the same class of diseases, as well 
as in many others to which its use has not been sufficiently 


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18 BcmarJcs on OoncentrcUed Preparations^ Ac. 

Remarks on Concentrated Preparations, Simple Tests, and 
E?tsy Method of Analysis. 


Jalapin is obtained from the root of Ipomea Jdlapa^ and is 
composed of two resins. Its color is gray. Is insoluble in water 
and the acids, except concentrated sulphuric ; is soluble in alco- 
hol, and is precipitated from its alcoholic solution by water. Of 
the two resins of which it is composed one only is soluble in 
ether. Its powder is exceedingly irritating to the nostrils and 
throat. It purges actively in three-grain doses, and possesses all 
the properties of the root 

It is often adulterated with guaiacum, resin and other substances, 
besides the substitution for pure resin of the alcoholic, hydro- 
alcoholic and aqueous extracts. 

Properties of the Alcoholic Extract, — Color much darker than Jala- 
pin ; entirely^soluble in alcohol and alkalies, and partially so in 
water. One hundred parts gave : — 

Soluble in alcohol, 40.25 

Soluble in water, 59.75 

Total, 100.00 

Properties of the Hydro-Alcoholic Extract, — Color darker than 
that of the alcoholic extract ; partially soluble in alcohol, water 
and alkalies ; soluble in proof spirit ; attracts moisture from the 
air rapidly. One hundred parts gave : — 

Soluble in alcohol, 39.61 

Soluble in water, 70.89 

Total, : 100.00 

Properties of the Aqueous Extract. — Color* very dark ; soluble in 
water and alkalies. The alcohol dissolves only a Small portion 
which is not precipitated by water, showing: the absence of any 
resin. Insoluble in ether ; attracts moisture irom the air. 


Cimicifagin, or Macrotin, is obtained from the root of the Oimi- 
dfuga Raoemosa^ or Black Cohosh, and is a true resinoid Not- 


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HeyncM'ks on Concentrated Preparations^ Ac, 19 

withstanding it has been asserted by some that Cimicifugin should 
represent an alkaloid, resin and neutral, all such preparation which 
I have examined are only hydro-alcoholic extracts, or are identi- 
tical with the hydro-alcoholic extracts which I have prepared 
from the root, and submitted to the same analysis. 

Propertits of Cimmfiigin. — Color light brown, with faint nar- 
cotic odor, slightly bitter and nauseous taste ; insoluble in water 
and ether ; soluble in alcohol, and alkalies, precipitated by acids 
from ihc alkaline solutions. 

Properties of the Akoholic Extract, — Color darker than Cimici- 
fugin ; soluble in alcohol and alkalies, and partially so in water. 
O^^e hundred parts gave : — 

Soluble in alcohol, 50.20 

Soluble in water, 49.80 

Total, 100.00 

Properties of the Hydro- Alcoholic Extract. — Color much darker 
than the preceding ; partially soluble in alcohol ; soluble in di- 
luted alcohol and in alkalits ; absorbs moisture from the atmos- 
phere fapidly, and cannot be reduced to a powder without the 
admixture of a foreign substance, as sugar of milk. One hun- 
dred parts gave : — 

Soluble in alcohol, ^ 35.24 ' 

Soluble in water, 64.76 

Total, 100.00 

Aqueou.'i Extract, — Color very dark brown ; soluble in water 
and alkalies ; sparingly soluble in alcohol ; water precipitates no 
resin from the portion soluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether; ab- 
sorbs moisture rapidly, and requires an admixture of a foreign 
substance to reduce it to a powder. 


Caulophyllin is obtained from the root of Caulopliyllin Thalic- 
troides, or Blue Cohosh. The color is similar to Cimicifugin, with 
a greenish tint ; odor strong and somewhat unpleasant '/ soluble 
in alkalies and alcohol, and insoluble in ether and acids. 

The properties of the alcoholic, hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 
extracts are similar to those of Cimicifugia. 


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20 Eerriarlcs on Concentrated Preparations, Sc 


Sanguinarin is obtamed from the root of Sanguinarxn Canadense^ 
or Blood-Eoot, and is a resinoid. The presence of four principles, 
as a resin, resinoid, alkaloid and neutral, are claimed by some 
writers ; and with a view to ascertaining the accuracy of these 
views, we have examined several specimens. In some we found 
a resin and an alkaloid ; but in the one claiming to present four 
distinct principles, in combination, we found the same characteris- 
tics as in the hydro-alcoholic extract. 

Properties of Pure Sanguinarxn, — Color deep redish brown; 
peculiar strong odor ; bitter, nauseous taste, with rather a persist- 
ent sense of pungency in the fauces ; insoluble in water ; soluble 
in alcohpl ; partially soluble in alkalies, ether and acetic acid. 
When mixed with the alkaloid Sanguinarina, if treated with 
water slightly acidulated, the alkaloid will be dissolved. 

Properties of the Alcoholic Extract, — Color very deep red ; solu- 
ble in alcohol ; partially soluble in water, alkalies, &c. ; cannot be 
reduced to a powder without the admixture of a foreign sub- 
stance. One hundred parts gave : — 

Sanguinarin and Sanguioarina^. -68.06 

Soluble in water, 31.06 

Total, 100.00 

Properties of the Ilydro-A Icoholic Extract — Color dark ; soluble 
in diluted alcohol ; sparingly soluble in alcohol, and liberally so 
in water. One hundred parts gave : — 

Sanguinarin and Sangiiinarina, 48.50 

Soluble in water, 61.60 

Total, 100.00 

Properties of the Aqueous Extract. — Color light brown ; entirely 
soluble in water ; sparingly so in alcohol. 


Sanguinarina is prepared from the root of the same species. 
Pure Sanguinarina is a white or pearl gray (if not discolorized by 
animal charcoal) body, having a bitter, somewhat acrimonious 
taste. Soluble in alcohol and ether ; sparingly so in water ; poB- 
sesses well-marked alkaline characters ; soluble in acids, and form- 


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The (Xnchona Alkaloids aiid their Salts. 21 

ing red colored salts with them ; by exposure to the air it as- 
sumes a yellowish tint 


Hydrastina is obtained from Hydrastis Oanadensisj or Golden 
Seal. When pure it is in the form of a bright yellow powder, 
like chromate of lead, or in the form of crystals. It is entirely 
soluble in alcohol, water and alkaline solutions;- is insoluble in 
ether, and possesses a very bitter taste. Its beautiful yellow 
color is of itself sufficient to distinguish it easily from the various 
extracts of Golden Seal. 

Properties of the Alcoholic Extract — Color of a brownish yel- 
low, resembling the root in powder ; soluble in alcohol ; partially 
soluble in water, which dissolves the Hydrastina, leaving the 
oleo-resin. One hundred parts gave : — 

• Hydrastina, 80.26 

Resin, &a, 69.76 

Total, 100.00 

Properties of the Hydro- Alcoholic Extract. — Color and properties 
are the same as the alcoholic extract, and contains about the same 
per cent of Hydrastina, but less resin. 

P'operties of the Aqueous Extract. — Color is brighter than the 
preceding, and contains about the same per centage of Hydras- 
tina, without any resin, but mixed with gum, starch and extract- 
ive matters. 

The Cinchona Alkaloids and Their Salts. 

Q u I N I A . 

(From Parishes PracUcal Pharmacy.) 
This alkaloid is prepared from various species of cinchona bark, which con- 
tain it in combination with kinic acid and the astringent principle called cin- 
cho-tannic acid. These combinations being only partially soluble in water, 
resort is had t© an acid which liberates the alkaloid in a soluble form. That 
used in our officinal process for preparing the sulphate of quinia is muriatic, 
which is mixed with water in which the powdered bark is boiled. The very 
soluble muriate of quinia contained in this decoction is decomposed, giving up 
it* acid to the lime, while the quinia is liberated, and, being insoluble, is pic- 
cipitated with the excess of lime added, the water retaining the chloride of 


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22 The* Oinchona Alkahids and their Salts, 

calcirfm resulting from the reaction, and most of the impurities, in solutioik 
The precipitated quinia and excess of lime being now digested in alcohol, the 
former is dissolved, and the impure quinia is obtained by evaporating this 
alcoholic solution. The remaining part of the process consists in converting 
this into the officinal sulphate, at the same time rendering it pure. To ac- 
complish this, the amorphous mass is dissolved in diluted sulphuric acid, and 
filtered through bone-black, which contains sufficient carbonate of lime to 
neutralize the excess of sulphuric acid, and thus facilitate the c];y stall ization 
of the sulphate as the solution cools. This process requires to be repeated, 
with the addition of acid, if the charcoal is too alkaline, till a white and pure 
product is the result. 

The desire has been often expressed for a method to prepare this alkaloid 
without alcohol : the following is the process of Herring, who substitutes in 
place of it oil of turpentine or benzole: — 

Powdered bark is boiled with caustic soda, to remove extractive, gum and 
coloring matter, exhausted with dilute sulphuric acid, evaporated at abou 
120**, filtered, precipitated by caustic soda, washed, re-dissolved in SO3, ro- 
crystallized, treated with animal charcoal, and by fractional crystallizations 
purified from the other alkaloids. 

The. soda liquor is supersaturated with muriatic acid, evaporated, filtered, 
treated with hydrate of lime, from which precipitate the alkaloids may be ex- 
tracted by oil of turpentine or benzole. On adding dilute SO3, a solution of 
the alkaloid is obtained to be puried as above. 

Quinia occurs in silky needles, or in a crystalline powder, fusible at 194* to 
an electrical mass, soluble in about 400 parts of water, sixty parts ether, two 
parts alcohol or chloroform, twenty -four parts of olive oil, also in alkalies, car- 
bonate of ammonia, chloride of calcium, &c. Its solution in concentrated 
nitric acid turns yellow by heat ; the solution in sulphuric acid is colored only 
at a high temperature. 

Its salts are mostly cry stall izable ; their solution show a blue fluorescence, 
which is rendered green on the addition of chlorine water, and subsequently 
ammonia — too much chlorine causes a brown color. A solution of quinia in 
diluted sulphuric acid, mixed with some acetic acid and alcohol, and heated to 
180°, yields, after the addition of tincture of iodine, beautiful emerald green 
crystals of iodosulphate of quinia, which are nearly colorless by transmitted 
light. The solution of its salts is precipitated by alkalies, their carbonates 
and bicarbonates ; but if they had been previously sufficiently acidulated with 
tartaric acid, bicarbonate of soda produces no precipitate. ,If their solution 
is treated first with chlorine water, free from hydrochloric acid, and subse- 
quently with finely-powdered ferrocyanide of potassium, a red coloration is 
produced. Quinia salts are precipitated by ferrocyanide of potassium, the 
precipitate is dissolved on boiling and by an excess of the precipitant. (Dif- 
ferences from cinchonia.) > 

Quini<B Sulphas, (U. S.) — Of the salts, the neutral sulphate (formerly called 
disulphate) is mostly employed. Its mode of preparation has been given above. 
It is in feathery vHbite crystals, much interlaced ; of its eight equivalents of 

Digitized,by LjOOQ IC 

The CXncJuma Alkahida and their Salts. 28 

water, six are giyen off by exposure to dry air, while the remaining two are 
driven off at 248°. It dissolves in 740 parts of cold and thirty parts hot 
water, in sixty parts of alcohol, but scarcely in ether. The addition of a 
mineral or of certain organic acids renders it easily soluble. 

The salts of quinia are all used as tonics ; the sulphate, especially, is a well- 
known antiperiodic and febrifuge. The dose varies from one to twenty grains. 
It is given in powder, pill, mixture, and solution. (See Iktem, Pharmacy,) 

The following unofficial salts are occasionally prescribed : — * 

Quinia Muria^ — The Dublin Pharmacopoeia orders 437 grains of crystal- 
lized sulphate of quinia (equivalent to 382 grains of the salt dried at 212°) 
dissolved in thirty ounces of boiling water, to be precipitated by 123 grains of 
chloride of barium, and the filtrate evaporated until a pellicle forms. It crystal- 
lizes with 3H0 in needles of a pearly lustre, more soluble than the sulphate. 
Baryta is detected by sulphuric acid, sulphate of quinia by chloride of barium. 

Quiniw Ilydriodas, — Five parts of effloresced sulphate of quinia dissolved 
in alcohol, and decomposed by an alcoholic solution of three parts of iodide of 
potassium, precipitates sulphate of potaska, and yields, on cooling and evapo- 
rating, hydriodate of quinia in fine crystalline needles. 

Quinio! Antimonias is precipitated by double decomposition of antimoniate 
of potassa and sulphate of quinia^ and crystallized from hot water or alcohol 
It has been administered in periodical diseases in doses of from six to ten 
grains during apyrexia, and it is stated to be rarely necessary to give it a 
second time. 

Quinifp, Amen IK — Quinia is precipitated from 100 parts of its sulphate, 
dissolved in 000 parts alcohol, and boiled with fourteen parts arisenious acid ; the 
filtrate, on cooling, separates needles of this poisonous salt. It may be given 
with caution in doses from one-quarter to one-half a grain several times a day. 

Qulnldt Larias is obtained by saturating lactic acid with quinia, or by dou- 
ble decomposition of the baryta salt of the former with the sulphate of the 
latter, and crystallizes in soluble needles. 

Quinia' Tartra^ is crystallized in needfes from the hot solution of quinia 
in tartaric acid. 

Quinife Citras is separated in needles from the hot mixture of citrate of 
soda added to sulphate of quinia until an acid reaction is shown to test paper. 

QuinicB et Ferri Citras. — Dr. Squibb saturates 330 grains of citric acid 
with freshly-precipitated scsquioxide of iron in a warm place ; to this is added 
in the cold the quinia from seventy-eight grains of effloresced sulphate, and, 
after solution, dried by spontaneous evaporation {Am. Jour. Ph.^ xxvii. 204.) 
It is stated to crystallize in greenish scales by saturating a hot solution of 
citrate of the sesquioxide of iron with quinia. As usually met with, it differs 
Httle in appearance from the garnet-colored scales of citrate of iron, and va- 
ries very much in composition. The usual dose is from two to five grains, in 

Quinia Aretas. — Seventeen parts of the effloresced sulphate of quinia if 

* Bee Phoqyhoroiu Compoands for QnlnUo PhofphM and QainlaD Uypophotpluw. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

"24 national Treatmerit of JXsease. 

disBolvod in boiling water and mixed with six parts of crystallized acetate of 
soda; acetate of quinia crystallizes in white feathery needles, nearly insoluble 
in cold water. (See remarks in Am. Jour. Ph., xxx. 886.) 

Quinia Valeriana* is officinal in the Dublin Pham\acopma^ which prepares 
it by double decomposition between muriate of quinia and valerianate of soda. 
It is also obtained by dissolving freshly-precipitated quinia in diluted valerianic 
acid, heating to near the boiling point, and crystallizing by cooling; the 
mother liquors are evaporated below 125°. It combines the tonic properties 
of quinia with the antispasmodic effects of the valerianates. 

Quinia Tannas. — Tannic add precipitates tannate of quinia from all solu- 
tions which have not been too much acidulated ; it has little taste on account 
of its solubility in neutral liquids. 

Quinia Gallas is obtained by double decomposition between a hot solution 
of sulphate of quinia and gallate of potassa. It is in crystalline granules, or 
a white powder, almost insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and dilute acids. 

Quinia Kinas. — ^To obtain this neutral salt directly from the bark, the fol- 
lowing process is given by Henry and Plisson : — The extract is dissolved in 
three parts of water, nearly neutralized by carbonate of lime, then cautiously 
neutralized by hydrated oxide of lead ; from the filtrate the lead is removed 
by sulphuretted hydrogen, after which the evaporated liquid is treated with 
alcohol of 0.842, the alcohol distilled off and the residue repeatedly treated 
with water and alcohol until nothing is separated by these liquids. It is ob- 
tained in white crystalline warts, soluble in four parts of water and eight parts 
of alcohol. 

Quinia Hydroferrocyanas. — One part sulphate of quinia, one and a half 
parts ferrocyanuret of potassium, and seven parts of boiling water yield the 
salt on cooling, which is to be recrystallized from alcohol. It appears in green- 
ish-yellow needles, which are insoluble in water. Pelouze asserts it to be qui- 
nia mixed with some Prussian blue. DoUfuss found it to be C4oHj,4N904-f 2 

(FeCy+2HCy) + 6HO. 

[to bb ooktinvhd.] 

Rational Treatment of Disease. 
The following propositions form the conclusion of a long paper read by M. 
Piorry before the French Imperial Academy of Medicine, in May and June 

1. The treatment of disease is founded, almost entirely, on our knowledge 
of anatomy and physiology, aided by physical and chemical facts, and matured 
by clinical observation. 

2. Positive therapeutics can only be established upon such knowledge as 
shall enable us to appreciate the causes, the development, and the effects of 
lesions which have been previously verified by a rigorously exact diagnosis. 

8. Rationalism, which ever since Descartes, has been the method followed 
by genuine observers, must be the foundation of medicine, as it is of the other 


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Therapeutic Properties of Belladonna, 26 

natural sciences. 

4. Before seeking new ren^edies for a disease we must learn to define ex- 
actly the existing organic and physiologic condition of the system, and care- 
ftilly study the effects of known medicaments and hygienic agents upon this 

6. By far the greater part of the progress of therapeutics is due to medical 
rationalism guided by exactness of diagnosis. 

(J. Specific medicines — that is, those which are applied to an unknown cause 
of disease, and which are only discovered by accident — are very few, and ought 
only to be adopted in practice when they are indicated by Nationalism and the 
most positive diagnosis. 

7. Some physicians err in censuring rational medicine (from which results a 
•ystem of therapeutics characterized by good sense), in order to extol the 
treatment by specifics, which has no other foundation than accident, and ia 
only supported by the fancy and credulity of an ignorant public, who are the 
enemies of science, and who are easily seduced by the marvels of mysticism, 
and by deceitful promises. — Boston Med, and S^urg. Journal. 

Therapeutic Properties of Belladonna. 

By M, Dubois, 

[We reproduce with pleasure the following conclusions, at which the author 
arrives in a prize essay on this subject, for we believe that the remedy which 
he extols is underrated by the profession in this country. Trousseau, in th* 
best book on therapeutics that has ever been written, places belladonna ia the 
aame rank with calomel, opium and iodine, and the opinion of such a man alone 
ahould induce physicians to make a faithful trial of the remedy. We feel con- 
fident that those who do so will not be disappointed in the result.] — Virginia 
Med, and Surg. Journal, 

1. That belladonna is not without efficacy in some phlegmasiae, especially 
in those of the globe of the eye ; 

2. That it is the best remedy known in the photophobia which so frequent- 
ly accompanies inflammations of the eye ; 

3. That its power as a prophylactic in scarlatina can hardly be contested ; 

4. That it sometimes cures Certain hemorrhages, such as haemoptysis, hiem- 
atamcrais and metrorrhagia ; 

5. That it is the remedy par excellenee for neuralgia, for whooping cough, 
and most of the neuroses ; 

6. That it is the remedy yy^r exrellevre to combat pain, especially when ex- 

7. That it alleviates more than any other remedy the pains of cancer, and 
oures sometimes, if not cancer, diseases closely resembling it ; 

8. That it can be advantageously employed in spasmodic contraction and 
<>oclusion of the pupU ; to reduce procidentia of the iris and to break up adhe- 


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26 Qlycerine Ointment for the Itch, 

«ion8 ; to prevent the inflammation of the iris so frequent after this operati(m ; 
to maintain dilation of the pupil, and to diminish the chances of adhesions 
after the operation of couching ; to prevent secondary cataract ; to reestablish 
vision temporary at least, when the lens is opaque in the centre, or when there 
are opacities of the cornea ; to assist the diagnosis in some diseases of the eye ; 

9. That it is of real efficacy in some cases of strangulated hernia ; 

10. That its property of facilitating labor in spasmodic constriction of the 
uterine neck is powerful and incontestible. 

11. That it produces advantageous results in some cases of fissure of the 

12. That its employment may be more or less useful in spasmodic contrao- 
tion of the bowels, in constipation, in spasmodic constriction of the rectum, of 
the anus, and of the vulva; in phimosis and paraphimosis, spasmodic stric- 
ture of the urethra, retention of urine, strangury, spasmodic stricture of the 
larynx and escophagus ; in blepharospasm, incontinence of urine, ncphretic 
colic, hemorrhoids, &c. 

13. Finally, that belladonna should be placed in the first rank of medicinal 
substances. — Bulletin of the Medical Society of Gand-^iGazette Medicate.) 

Grlyoerine Ointment for the Itch. 

M. Bourguignon, so well known in Paris by his successful researches on 
"the acarus scabiei," has published in the Gazette Medicate the following for- 
mula. One general friction, not preceded by soap ablutions, is sufQcient :— 
Yelks of two eggs; essence of lavender, lemon, and mint, of each 120 drops; 
gum tragacanth, half a drachm ; wcll-pounded sulphur, twenty-six drachms ; 
glycerine, thirty- two drachms. Total weight, nearly eleven ounces. Mix the 
essence with the yelk of egg, add the gum tragacanth, make a good mucilage, 
and then add very gradually the glycerine and sulphur. Many cures have 
been obtained by this preparation, which has the advantage of giving no pain. 
The well-known Ilelmeric ointment being really useful, M. Bourguignon has 
modified it, and substituted glycerine for the axunge. In the altered form the 
preparation is not any deafer, as efficacious, and less painful than the original 
ointment. It docs not grease the clothes, and has an agreeable perfume :— 
Gum tragacanth, fifteen grains ; carbonate of potash, thirteen drachms; well- 
pounded sulphur, twenty-six drachms ; glycerine, fifty-two drachms ; essences 
of lavender, lemon, mint, cloves, apd cinnamon, of each fifteen drops. Total 
weight, eleven eleven. Make a mucilage with the gum and one ounce of gly- 
cerine, add the carbonate, mix until it is dissolved, and then gradually add the 
sulphur and glycerine ; lastly; pour in the essences. With this compound, M. 
Bourguignon advises two general frictions of half an hour, within twelve 
hours of each other, and followed, twenty -four hours afterwards, by a simple 
warm bath, as the glycerine is soluble in water. Two-thirds of the prepara- 
tion should be used for the first friqtion, the other third for the second. — Lor^ 
don Fharm. Journal^ from Lancet, 


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Belladonna in Prei'eniing the Secretion of Milkj &c. 27 

Belladonna in Preventing the Secretion of Milk, and in - 
Mammary Abscess. 

(Read before tbe Aarora City Medical Association, at Aurora, 111., Oct. 8, 18^9.) 
By A, Hard, M. D. 

There has been much said of late of the virtues of belladonna in preventing 
and arresting the secretion of milk ; and having, with others, labored under 
the inconvenience of possessing no reliable remedy to fulfill such indications, 
I resolved to test its virtues, and I propose to give the result of its use in six 
cases, in which I have endeavored to give it a fair triaL 

In the first three it was desirable to prevent the secretion of milk in one 
breast (from the entire want of development of the nipple) without interfering 
with the other. All three patients had previously suffered from mammary 
abscesses, and they looked fomard to their approaching accovchement with 
" fear and trembling." Immediately after delivery, I ordered the following : — 

5 . — Extract of belladonna, ^ ij. 

Aqua font, 3 ij. 


With this solution bathe the one breast every four hours, until the flow of 
milk is established in the other ; then apply less frequently, but continue its 
use a week longer. 

In one patient there was no milk secreted in the breast thus treated, while 
the other breast afforded the usual amount and appeared unaffected. In the 
other two cases there was a little milk secreted, but not sufficient to distend 
the gland so as to produce' inconvenience, while the opposite breasts, like that 
of the first case, performed their functions unimpaired. The fourth was a 
case of premature delivery at the sixth month, as the result of placenta prae- 
via. The solution of belladonna was applied to both breasts. But little milk 
was secreted, which was soon absorbed. 

The fifth was a case of abortion. The belladonna was not applied until the 
breasts became distended and painful. I ordered that the milk be drawn with 
a breast pump once, then applied the belladonna, and had no further trouble. 

In the last case a large abscess had formed in one breast, which was dis- 
charging, and extensive swelling and inflammation existed in the other, at the 
time I was called. The patient had been a great sufferer for four weeks, both 
from the " cold water treatment" and the mammary inflammation. I applied 
the belladonna, as in the other cases, also warm fomentations, had the bowels 
moved by sulphate of magnesia, and ordered the following : — 

5. — Sulph. quinine, t 15 grains. 

Pulv. opii, 2 " 

Div. in chart. No. 4. Dose, one every three hours. 

Under this treat^nent suppuration was prevented, the inflammation wag 
subdued, and convalesoenoe soon followed. There was but little constitutional 


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28 A Nhw IKsinfictajit for Ih-essing Putrid SoreSj Jcc, 

effect of belladonna perceptible. In two cases the pupils of the eyes were a 
little dilated : the children were not effected by it However, I took the pre- 
•aution to guard against its inhalation either by the mother or child. 

If belladonna proves as useful in the hands of others as it has in mine, in 
these unpleasant complications consequent upon child-bearing, a vast amount 
of pain and suffering will be mitigated, if not entireiy prevented. I would 
eall the attention of the Association particularly to its application to one 
breast, leaving the other undisturbed. — Chicago Medical Journal^ Nof^em- 
Ur, 1869. 

A New Disinfectant for Dressing Putrid Sores and Ulcers. 

Considerable discussion has recently taken place in the French Academy, 
respecting a new preparation, introduced by MM. Demeauz and Come, for 
dressing and disinfecting putrid sores and ulcers. It consists of a mixture of 
one hundred parts of commercial plaster of Paris in a very fine powder, and 
from one to three parts of coal tar. This mixture forms a powder of a more 
or less grayish color, and a slightly bituminous odor. For application, it may 
also be made into a paste with olive oil, which binds the powder together 
without destroying its absorptive power. The following are the properties of 
this substance, as described by the above gentlemen : — A gangrenous sore, 
with an abundant fetid suppuration, treated with this dressing, is immediately 
freed from all disagreeable odor, and the bandages, even ailer twenty-four or 
thirty-six hours, exhale no more odor than if taken from a simple fracture. 
An ulcerated cancer, producing a fetid, serous suppuration, dressed with this 
substance, is entirely deprived of odor as long as the dressing remains on. 
So also the linen saturated with pus, cataplasms impregnated with the suppu- 
ration, &c., placed in contact with this substance lose all their disagreeable 
odor ; the infectious liquid produced by gangrene, clots of decomposed blood, 
tissues in a state of advanced putrefaction, treated with this substance are im- 
mediately disinfected. Its action appears to be to arrest the work of decom- 
position; it removes the insects, and prevents the production of maggots. 
The consistence acquired, either by the powder alone or the paste with oil, 
does not cause the least pain to the patient or harm to the sore. Its applica- 
tion may be indirect or direct ; the latter produces no harm, but rather exer- 
cises a detersive action favorable to cicatrization. This dressing has the 
double power of disinfecting the pus and other morbid products, and of ab- 
sorbing them ; the last circumstance is of^ the greatest importance, because it 
enables the use of lint to be dispensed with. Fifty kilogrammes of this pow- 
der may be made in Paris for one franc. M. Vclpeau, at the Hopital de la 
Charite, and several other French surgeons, have employed this preparation 
with great success, and speak very highly of its disinfecting properties. Mr. 
Crace Calvert, of Manchester, has addressed a letter to the French Academy, 
in reference to this subject, pointing out the great variation which exists in 


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Warren^s Ecemostatic, 2t 

the oompofiitioD of coal tar, and the consequent necessitj for more accurately 
ascertaining to which of the constituents the disinfecting properticj? are really 
due, in order to insure the uniform action of the preparation. From the re- 
sults of his own experiments be considers that the antiseptic properties of the 
tar are entirely due to the carbolic acid present. lie states that a corpse in- 
jected with a weak solution of this acid was preserved from decomposition for 
.scTcral weeks, and that a piece of flesh steeped in carbolic acid was exposed 
to the air for three years without change. He also states that a small quan- 
tity added to urine wiy preserve it from decomposition for some weeks, and 
that it is also capable of preventing the gallic fermentation from taking place 
in the solutions of tanning substances. — London Pharm, Journal ^ and Phila- 
ddphia Joitmal of Pharmacy, 

Warren's Haemostatic. 

A correspondent requests us to publish the formula for Warren^ s haemos- 
tatic, or $typtie haUam, as it is very improperly called. This preparation has 
been highly recommended in haemoptysis, haematenesis, epistaxis, and monor- 

It is said to act by its sedative power in diminishing the force of the circu- 
lation, and by its astringent qualities in contact with the bleeding vessels. 

The formula, and its mode of preparation, is as follows : — 

5 • — Acid, sulph. (by weight), 3 v. 

OL terebinth, 

Sp. vini rect a<r,, f. f ij. 

Place the acid in a wedgewood mortar, and the turpentine slowly, stirring it 
constantly with the pestle ; then add the alcohol in tho'same manner, and 
continue stirring it until no more fumes arise, wlien it may be bottled, and 
should be stopped with a ground stopper. 

It should be prepared from the purest materials, and when done it should 
exhibit a dark but clear red color like dark blood ; but if it be a pale, dirty 
red, it will be unfit for use. The dose is forty drops, and the method of using 
it is as follows : — 

Put a teaspoonful of brown sugar in a common sized tea-cup, and rub in 
forty drops of the preparation until it is thoroughly incorporated, and then 
slowly stir in water until the cup is nearly full, when it should be immediately 
swallowed. This dose may be repeated at intervals of an hour, until three or 
four doses arc taken, if necessary, and its use should be discontinued when 
fresh blood ceases to flow. 

After standing a few days a pellicle forms upon the surface, which should 
be broken, and the liquid below it used. It does not deteriorate by age, if 
tightly stopped. — Philadelphln Medical and Sirghal Reptrrtcr, Deceniber 
10, 1850. 


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80 Selections. 


The Empirical Treatment of Phthisis, — The Lancet says: — *'Dr. Watson 
remarks, with great propriety, in his excellent lectures, that the more intract- 
able the disease the greater the number of remedies proposed. No one is sur- 
prised at the various modes of treating tuberculosis, which have been extolled, , 
for it is quite natural that new weapons should be sought against an enemy 
who proves invulnerable by the old ones. But we protest against unnecessa- 
rily teazing and tormenting the unfortunate individuals whose lungs are being 
destroyed by tuberculous deposits, and whose organism is wasting under the 
effects of the local mischief and morbid diathesis. M. Beau, physician to the 
Paris Charity Hospital, for instance, proposes, and has practiced the following 
method: — *Give carbonate of lead in phthisis, because painters hardly ever 
•uffer from the disease ; and substitute one cachexia for the other.' Then we 
have a paper addressed by M. Aussandon to the Academy of Medicine of Paris, 
'• on the treatment of pulmonary consumption.' The author, who has noticed 
that bakers, and generally those who sleep in the day and watch at night, 
bear the symptoms of the latter stages of phthisis better than others, straight- 
way advises to keep consumptive patients awake at night and send them to 
bed in the day time !" — Philadelphia Med, and Svrg. Reporter, 

Scarlatina and Measles. — Mr. Witt has just published a letter to Mr. 
Simon on the use of ammonia in scarlatina and measles. Mr. Witt looks 
upon the treatment by ammonia in these diseases as a specific, as much so as 
quinine in intermittents. The late Mr. Wilkinson stated that Dr. Peart had 
introduced the remedy, and did not lose one patient out of three hundred 
cases of scarlatina ; and Mr. Wilkinson adds that for seventeen years he has 
never lost a patient from this disease, nbr ever had a case that even appeared 
dangerous. 'Mr. Ricardo, who attended many large schools, had not lost a 
single patient, out of some hundreds, during twelve or fourteen years. The 
dose is from three to seven grains ever hour for the first twenty-four hours, 
and every second hour for the next day. All acid drinks are carefully avoid- 
ed. This is a matter of interest just now that the power of ammonia in re- 
tarding coagulation of the blood has been established, and it is curious as an 
illustration of the success attending opposite methods of treatment ; for the 
use of acetic acid in the treatment of scarlatina has been gaining ground very 
rapidly of late, and the success which has followed its use has been very 
great- — Medical Times and Gazette. 

Epilepsy Treated by the Hydrocyanate op Iron. — M. Fabre reports 
seven canes of confirmed and well-marked epilepsy, in which pills of this sub- 
stance have operated cures. He alludes also to numerous cases in which it 
has been successfully employed by M. Roux, of BrignoUes, and adduces the 
testimony of Dr. Dilasiauvc, physician to the Bic6tre, and others, in support 
of the advantageous effects of this preparation. The hydrocyanate of iron 
has been successfully employed in chorea and other neuroses complicated with 


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' SelecU'am. 81 

chlorosis since 1829. It seems to exert a powerful influence over the uterine 
functions, and has succeeded in menstrual disorders after other ferruginous 
preparations' had failed. We must refer thoFe who desire further information 
on this subject to the article of M. Fabre. — Ixhue de MaJgaigne^ (March, 
1853, p. 139.) 

Tannatb of Quinia in Nocturnal Sweats.— M. Delioux, chief of the 
French naval surgeons, after numerous experiments with the diflerent prepa- 
rations of bark in the treatment of colliquative sweats, which occur during 
sleep in phthisis and other diseases, considers the tannate of quinia, intro- 
duced by Barreswil, the most appropriate remedy in this affection. This 
agent is supposed to be peculiarly applicable to two essential conditions in 
this symptom : organic debility and ]|beriodicity. M. Delioux cites many cases 
in support of his views. He administers this agent in two or three doses of 
six or eight grains during the afternoon. It is insipid, and causes neither 
wakefulness nor indigestion. — IJ Union Medicale^ No. 43. 

Ghrojuc Acid in Syphilitic Vegetations. — ^Mr. Hairon, after describing 
the advantages derivable from the chromic acid in certain forms of the granu- 
lar eyelid, (a disease of common occurrence in the Belgian army,) observes 
that the trials he has made of the acid, as recommended by Marshall and 
Heller in syphilitic vegetation, have been attended with the most complete 
and rapid success. Moreover, its application, whether to these syphilitic 
vegetations or to the fungus granulations of the conjunctiva, is never at- 
tended with pain or reaction, notwithstanding the rapid destruction of tissue 
that takes place. — Annailes and Oeculistique, 

Tannin. — Introduction of tannin within the uterus is accomplished by means 
of crayons formed of tannin or gum tragacanth, one-sixth of an inch in diameter 
and an inch long. They are passed, by means of forceps and speculum, through 
the OS uteri into the cavity of the uterus, in which they are kept by means of 
charpie, moistened with a concentrated solution of tannin. The crayon slowly 
softens and dissolves, when it is replaced by another. M. Becquerel recom- 
mends this treatment in hemorrhage and diseases of the mucous lining of the 
womb. — Philadelphia Med, and Surg. Reporter, 

Poisoning by Opium or Belladonna. — Opium and beUadonna are mutually 
remedial, when either has entered the circulation in a poisonous dose. From 
this cause, if both be prescribed together, as with a view to lull cerebral ex. 
citement, the effect desired will not be produced, whilst if the other be given 
separately it will. In cases of poisoning by opium, give a solution of bella. 
donna — say a drachm of the tincture every half hour, or, if it cannot bo swal- 
lowed, inject it subcutaneoasly. Conversely, in a case of poisoning by bella- 
donna, opium may be used. Several cases are recorded illustrating this sub- 
ject — Braithwaite's Eetro82>ect. 

loDATE OF Potash. — The action of this salt is more powerful than that of 
the chlorate of the same base, and has, in our hands, yielded excellent results 
where the chlorate of potash had failed. — Ibid, 


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32 Selections. • 

loDiDB OF Calcium. — ^This salt is verj valuable in cases in which the iodide 
of potassium is inadmissible. It does not occasion idiosm, or resorption of 
the healthy tissues ; it does not excite the circulation, nor irritate the stomach 
and bladder, by passing off too rapidly by the kidneys. Its solution in milk it 
perfectly tasteless. It is particularly useful in squamous diseases of the skin, 
and chronic and metallic poisoning by mercury, lead and copper. — BraitK- 
xoaith^g Retrospect 

HAEMOPTYSIS. — ^Recently, after a trial of many other agents, without avai], 
and the tincture of gelseminum alone giving only momentary relief, I found a 
mixture of it with tincture of veratrum viride, in doses of twenty-five drop* 
of the gelseminum with twelve drops of veratrum viride, answered completely. 
I have also found the extract of rhatany, combined with gelseminum or vera- 
trum viride, of value. — Dr, Miller, 

Erysipelas. — In some severe cases of erysipelas I gave of the tincture of 
veratrum viride six drops every three hours, and each morning a small do8t 
of podophyllin. In some cases where the brain was affected I gave six gndng 
of sulphate of quinia at a dose, once in eight hours, in conjimction with tht 
veratrum. — Ih id. 

Pertussis — Oxidk of Zinc. — In the latter stages of whooping cough I find 
the oxide of zinc, in connection with the sulphate of quinia, quite valuable. 
Small doses seem to act better than larger ones. Tannic acid is also fire- 
quently indicated. — Thid. 

Chalybeates. — ^Iron should never be given in the enormous doses advised 
by some. One, or at most two, grains at a dose, and repeated two or thret 
times a day — and from four to eight days, with an intermission of a few days, 
and then its use recommenced, will do far better than its continuous use. 
Boerhave said: — ''Give chalybeates in the most simple form, and we will 
have all wg desire." — Ihid, 

Chloroform as a Narcotic. — Wlien opium is contra-indicated, or fails to 
act, in cases where it is desired to procure sleep, give thirty or forty minima 
of chloroform suspended in a little acacia mixture, or some other mucilaginous 
liquid. It generally succeeds in procuring for the patient two or three hours 
of tranquil sleep. — Braithicaite^s Betrospect 

Chlorate of Soda. — Chlorate of soda is considerably more soluble than 
the corresponding potash salt ; it may consequently be given in a much smaller 
quantity of vehicle, and moreover the taste is less disagreeable. It has been 
employed with uniform success in several cases of diphtheria. — Jbid. 

Dkjitaline in Speksiatorrhcka. — Dr. Lucien Corvisart, a pupil of M. Cho- 
mel, reports three cases of obstinate nocturnal, and even diurnal, seminal 
losses, which were completely cured by the use of di};italine. Wo refer those 
who desire to learn the details of the treatment to Dr. Corvisart's paper. — 
Bulletin de Therapen^iqve. 


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Pharmacy. 88 


By M. Gripelcoven, 

B . — Iodine, 12 parts. 

Iron, in powder, 3 '' 

Distilled water, 32 " 

After the iodide of iron is made by the ordinary process, pour into the 
liquid, unfiltered — 

Iodine, 6 parts. 

Caustic soda at 87% 12 " 

Mix by shaking well together, then add 

Caustic soda, 9 " 

If the liquid contain an excess of iron, separate it by carbonate of soda. 
Try the solution with litmus paper, and if it manifest an alkaline reaction 
allow it to stand and settle ; then filter and evaporate to dryness ; dissolve in 
equal parts of distilled water, filter and evaporate. 


By if. Orineaud, 

» 3. — Cannella, in powder, 875 grains. 

Iron, in powder, 1000 " 

Ergot, 140 " 



Mix well. Take one grain of it morning and evening. — Report oire de 

\ CM. 1000 


By JC Delairaye. 

9 . — Coflfee, in powder, 600 grains. 

Boiling water, q. s. 

Obtain by displacement 1000 grains of tho liquid. 

Alcoholic extract of belladonna, 10 grains. 

" " " ipecaa, 10 " 

Sugar, 2000 " 

Melt in a water bath, and filter. Dose, fbr children three to five years old, 
fifteen grains morning and noon, and double the quantity at evening, in two 
or three tea-spoons of hot w&ter. For children of less age, half the quan- 
tity. — Jovmal d«e Oom. Med. • 


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34 Pharmacy. 


B . — Iodide of potassium, 1 grain. 

Iodine,. 0.1 " 

Chlorate of potassa, v . . . 4 grains. 

Nitrate of ** 6 " 

Aqueous solution of potash, 4 . ** 

Water, S40 " 

Administer one or two teaspoonsfiil erery four hoiu^ according to ag« of 
the patient.— 6^a««t<« MedicaU de Lyon. 


By M. LseanU. 

B . — CamomUIt, (JO grains. 

Opium, 8 " 

Saffron, % «« 

Cannella, 1 " 

CloTes, 1 " 

Alcohol, 800 " 

Macerate for eight days ; express and filter. Dose, from fire to 20 drops, 
seyeral times a diy, on sugar, in gastrology, diarrhoea, Ac. — Seporioirs d4 

By Dr, ArgenPL 

1$. — ^Alum, gum, and sugar, aa. Equal parte. 

Water of laurel, q. a. 

Make into pastiles weighing four grains, and which contain from half to ont 
grain of alum. Much used in ulcerations of the mouth. — Bulletin GhrUraU 
de TMrapeutique, 


This method consists in the direct transformation of iodine in a given weight 
of tincture into iodide of zinc by a known weight of pure zinc, in excess, and de- 
termining afterwards by a simple calculation based on chemical equiyalentt; 
after having weighed the undissolved zinc, the quantity of iodine correspond- 
ing to the weight of zinc dissolved, and formed into iodide of lina — Joumml 
de Okimie MedicaU. 


Dr. Charles Mabean, of Baltimore, recommends the followittg formula I 
that painful disease, neuralgia of the head and face: — 


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Pharmacy, 35 

5. — Extract of belladonna, 4 grains. 

Aq. ammonia, 6 fluid ounces. 

Spirit terebinth, i '» ** 

Tincture opii, 2 " *' 

Oil of olive, i '' 

Mix. Apply during the paroxysme. 


Dr. Kramer, whose excellent work on the special diseases of the ear is well 
known, extols the employment of the following ointment when inflammation 
of the tympanic membrane has not yielded to the action of antiphlogistics : — 

Tartar emetic, 4 grms. 

Simple cerate, 8 " 

Oil,. 8 '• M. 

This ointment is used by friction over the mastoid process. This measure 
is intended to prevent the organic alterations which ordinarily take place at 
this period of the discaee. 

In case the affection has passed into the chronic state, and gives rise to a 
slight otorrhoea, mucous or purulent, M. Kramer recommends aiding the ac- 
tion of the antimoniated ointment by the employment of simple injection, and 
then with the solutions thus made : — 

Water, 80 grms. 

Sulphate of zinc or acetate of lead, 5 to 50 ctgrms. 

Or nitrate of silver, or biohlor. of mercury, . 1 to 6 " 

TThen the membrane of the tympanum is perforated, he does not employ 
these injections except after blunting the sensibility of the mucous membrane 
♦f the tympanic cavity, by a tepid solution composed of — 

Sulphate of potassa, 6tol5 ctgrms. 

Water, 30 grms. 

The physician ought always to perform these little operations himself with 
the end of suspending them if too great irritation supervenes. — Bulletin de 
Tlmrapeutique^ and Druggist. ■ 


Memrs. Editors: — In the course of a long practice in cases of indigestion, I 
have found the following prescription i^ have done good service : — 
5. — Prepared carbonate of iron, calcium of magnesia, pul- 

' >Hverized elm bark, each | i. 

Pulverized cubebs, | ss. , 

Take a teaspoonful, half an hour before eating, i^half a teacupful of water — 
Boston Med. and Surg, Journal, 


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86 Pharinacy. 


In the absence of any authorized formula for this syrup, and in answer to 
several correspondents, we insert the following : — 

5 . — ^Phosphate of iron, 72 grains. 

Phosphate of manganese, 48 " 

Glacial phosphoric acid, 3 yi. 

Sugar, ' I X. 

Water, sufficient to make f. | xij. 

Dissolve the phosphoric acid in a small quantity of the water, add the phos- 
phates, and apply heat till dissolved, then add the sugar and the remainder of 
the water, so that the product may measure twelve fluid ounces. — Phcmnaeeu- 
iical Journal. 


By CJiarles S, Tilyard. 

Brown mixture, if prepared in the following manner, may prove more satis- 
tory than after the old method : — 

IJ. — Pulverized extract of liquorice, | j. # 

Gum arabic, in lump, 5 J* 

Paregoric, fl. 5 iv. 

Ant wine, fl. §j. 

Wine of ipecac, fl. | j. 

Sweet spirit of nitre, fl. | j. 

Cold water, q. s. 

Mix the paregoric, antimony wine, spirits nitre and wine of ipecac to- 
gether, in a bottle holding one quart ; turn in the pulverized extract <^ 
liquorice ; set aside for twelve hours, with frequent agitation, then pour in 
gradually twenty fluid ounces of cold water ; set aside again for twelve or 
twenty-four hours, frequently shaking. ' Filter through a well-plaited filter, 
allow the gum to dissolve in the liquid, and when dissolved pour it into a 
bottle containing one and a half pounds (avordupois) of white sugar in 
4oane powder; shake frequently until the sugar is dissolved, or hasten 
it by setting the bottle in warm water. The whole, when finished, should 
measure two pints. 

The proportions, it will be observed, are the same as in the Mistura Gly- 
cyrrhizse Composita of the U. S. D., with the exception of the sagtr, 
also in substituting one ounce of wine of ipecac for one ounce of wine of 
antimony. ^ 

The result is a thin, transparent, dark syrup, retainining, it is believed, 
the virtue of its components. — Jour, and Tram, of th^ Maryland ColUg§ 
of Pharmacy, 


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EdStoriaL 87 


With this number commences the new year ; we present our readers with 
its usual compliments, and with the hope this year may be to all a year of 
reciprocal relations. Having received from our readers and patrons very 
many flattening testimonials of appreciation and good will, we enter upon the 
new year with renewed hope of permament success : the very numerous early 
renewals of subscription by our old subscribers are the most substantial 
mssurances we could possibly have that our efforts to make the Journal 
worthy of their support have not been in vain. 

Our readers already understand the plan and character of the Journal ; but 
to such as have not read it, and who design to do so, we will say, that it is 
devoted exclusively to the subject of materia medica — giving to the profession 
desirable and valuable information of new facts and developments in the pow- 
ers, properties and application of the various therapeutic agents now in use, 
mnd to the selection and concentration of what really tends to the advancement 
of science or may be found useful in the daily routine of practice. 

We shall devote, largely, its pages to a consideration of those native plants 
which possess properties deserving the attention of medical practitioners; 
and with the botanical history of each will be given, in detail, the results of 
the chemical examination we shall have made of its constituent parts, to- 
gether with its medical properties and uses, and facts relative to its operation 
on the human system, as are known from the observation or evidence of 
those qualified to form correct opinions upon the subject. 

In connection with a general consideration of our indigenous materia medica, 
we are instituting an elaborate series of experiments concerning the cultita- 
Hon of narcotic j)Ia7}ts; the analysis of .the foreign plant, of the cultivated 
plant ; analysis of soils, plants grown upon particular soils, and by treatment 
with special manures — all of which will be given from time to time in de- 
tail, together with all circumstances connected with their growth and the for- 
mation of their ueculiar principles. 

We hope by these means to aid the investigation of many plants, and 
diffuse a knowledge concerning them which may prove highly useful, and to 
present to the profession a mass of information which the general body of 
medical practitioners cannot possibly obtain in any other way. 

A French Specific for Asthma. — We see it announced that Dr. Courty, a 
professor of the Medical School of Montpelier, has discovered a cure for asth- 
ma. The remedy consists alone in the injection of the sulphate of atropine 
under the skin of the neck over the course of the pneumogastric nerve. The 
substance injected is an alkaloid made from the atropia belladonna, or deadly 
night-shade. Its narcotic and poisonous qualities are well known. In medi- 
cal doses it acts powerfully in allaying pain and controling irritability of the 
nervous"' system. The difficulty was, in asthma, to bring the substance into 
•ontact with the great nerve, or pair of nerves, which supply the priacipal 


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38 MiShnal 

part of nervous filaments to the lungs. *'Dr. Courty, it appears, did not 
hesitate to thrust a trocar and canula into the region of the nerve, and direct- 
ly over it. and there to inject a few drops of the medicine, and leave it. The 
incision was made inside the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle on a level with the 
thyroid cartilage, and directly over the sheath of the great vessel of the neck. 
The trocar was pushed in at first a distance of .seven or 'eight millimetres 
only, from fear of wounding the important organs of this region. The quan- 
tity of liquid injected was six drops, containing about two millignimmes of 
the sulphate of atropine. This first injection relieved the patient, but not en- 
tirely, and was attended with the usual symptoms of large doses of bella- 
donna. A second injection was made, four days afterwards, on the other side 
of the neck, and this time the trocar was inserted as deep again as on the first 
occasion. The trocar was then withdrawn, and the point of the canula 
'promenaded' a little up and down in the cellular tissue, in order to diffuse 
the nie<licino over as large a surface of the covering of the great vebsel as ))Os- 
sible. The cure was rapid and perraament from that day.'' — E£cluia{fe, 

VrRATKiM yiKn>B. — Tlic Illinois State Medical Society has issue«l a circular 

to the physicians of that State, with the following inquiries : — 

" 1. Have you made use of rtratrum ririds in your practice ? If you havw : 

" '2. lu what form do you use it, (if the tincture, wboue preparation?) and in what do«c* 

" 3. What are it« effectn ? 

'* 4. In yotu- opinion, what is ita modus operandi t 

" 5. What ralue do you attach to it aa a remedial agent ? 

*^ 1 In what diieaaei bare you found it moat naeful ?" 

Replies to be addressed A. Hard, M. D., Aurora, Kane county, 111., early in 

It would be well if other State Medical Societies would do the 5ame thing. 
There appears only one difficulty : physicians do not answer these circulars 
promptly. Being much engaged in business, they defer doing so to a more 
convenient time, and finally forget it altogether. If they would give prompt 
attention to such matters, it would give local and State Societies much valua- 
ble information, and of great general benefit 

Dr. S. W. BrTT.BR, senior editor of the Medical and Surgical Rejmrter, 
Philadelphia, has been appointed chief resident physician at the Plriladelphia 
Lunatic Asylum. 

CnicA(;o CoLLEOB OF PiiAKMAcv. — A College of Pharmacy has been organ- 
izetl in the city of Chicago. Prof. Blaney has the chair of chemistry, and F. 
Scam m on that of pharmacy. 

CoKKKCTiox. — Credit was omitted, unintentionally, in our last issue to the 
Awrriran Medical Monthly for the article on Strychnia, jls well as to Dr. 
Gib)).«, from whose monthly summary it was selected. 

CoBRE«i*oNDKNT8 wiU oblige by writing plainly their names, town, county 
and State. We have, in se^reral instances, been unable to answer letters be- 
cause thette artj omitted. 


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^^ SuBSORiPTiONS for 1859, oommenoiug with the Januarj 
Eumber, expired with the December number. 

Renewals for 1^60 will begin with the January number. 

An early Subscriptioii will greatly facilitate our calculatiooa, 
and enable us to make each edition sufficient to supply at an/ 
time the early numb^» of the current jrear. 

Physicians will oblige us by filling the blanks heretofore sent 
tfiem with the names of other practitionera, and forwarding the 
to us. 



Might Pages have been added to each number of the Volume for 
^is y^r^ making Forty Pages of reading maUrr in ea/Ji number. 

Thi^ will be a practical Journal, devoted to Materia Medica, 
Pharmacy and Chemistry; subserving the daily wants of the 
Apothecary and Physician. It will contain, regularly, discus- 
nons on various agents of our indigenous Materia Medica, that 
have lately come into medicinal use, their application, their indi- 
cation and modes of administration.; communications itom physi- 
cians; latest general medical intelligence firom American and 
Foreign Journals ; new and &vorite formulae, together with every- 
thing of interest relating to progress in this important branch of 
Medicine^ as improved processes, apparatus, manipulations, &c. 

Oontributions fnnn medical writers of distinction and great prac- 
tical experience will form an important and interesting feature of 
each number. 

The Journal for 1860 has been enlarged eight pages, to increase 
the variety of selections from American and Foreign journals. 

It will btt issued regularly the first of each month. 

Tekmb — 50 cents per year, in advance, which can bo remitted 
ki postage atamps. 

YoLUMES for 1859 will bo furnished, bound, at $1, post-paid. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


Thk following letters arc selected fix)m a large number reeeived, 

as a fhir expression of its patrons concerning the merits of th« 

Journal of Matkria Medioa, and are respectfully submitted 

to those who are solicited to become subscribers : — 

'* Hamilton, C. W.— tt fillg up a niche in the medical literature, of the great- 
est importance, and heretofore unoccupied." 

••IIeniker, N. H. — I am very much pleased with it It oomes like a 
missing volume, and completes our set. We have journals in every other 
Ibranch of medical science, and I have no douht that the profession generaUy> 
as well as myself have felt the want of just such a journal" 

** KxoxviLLE, Tens. — I wish to renew my subscription to your Jpunud 
another year. I regard it as one of the most valuable journals of its si^e pub- 
lished, and hope you will receive such a support as will encourage you to eea- 
tinue its publication." • 

** Glenville, Ala. — To a physician of much experience in the practiee ef 
medicine, I consider your journal as worth more than any other medical pe- 
riodical in the United States." 

*;Bhrnakdston, Mass.— Although so far advanced in life, that I do not wisk 
er expect to practice medicine much more, yet I am so well pleased with your 
journal, that T do not intend to be without it while I live, and can read." 

" Camdhn, Ark. — It strikes me as being a desideratum for the physician." 

"RicuuASD, Iowa. — I have been so well pleased with your Journal, the 
past year, that I wish to become a subscriber for 1860, and trust I shall be aa 
much benefited next year by its perusal as I have been the past" 

"RoYALTOX, Vt. — I have read with a good deal of interest the copies of 
your Journal that you have sent me, and I am unwilling to do without it, aiti 
wish to be a regular subscriber." 

**Fariiersville, Ohio. — ^I have been receiving your valuable Journal hr 
several months, and am so well pleased with it that I wi^^h to be a lifetime 
subscriber to it" 

'* Wlscakset, Mb. — I read your Journal with more pleasure, and can obtaia 
more practical knowledge from it, than any other journal upon the same sub- 
ject in the United States, and I take six different ones.^^ 

** MoNTooMERV, lowA. — I havc received a few numbers of your most inesti- 
ble Journal of Materia Medica, which I cannot think of doing without while I 
can raise fifty cents to pay for it It is the very thing that all practising 
physicians need, not only monthly, but daily. 1 am glad to see sueh a jour> 


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iia] as yours published, for it is just what the medical world needs ^^^^ 1^^^<^ 
needed for a long thne, in my opinion. Consider me, sir, a lifetime subf^ribcr 
to your Journal while it is as meritorious as it now is." 

"Stlacausa, Ala. — I am highly pleased with your Journal. It is the 
very thing for the practising physician, and is replete with useful know- 

"Lratubrwood, Pa. — I have been in receipt of your journal for the }>ast 
year, and consider it an invaluable acquision to the profession,'* 

''MoojiT VisioK, N. Y. — I have been greatly instructed since I have read its 
pa^es, and hope others may receive much profit, and I am glad so usefid and 
•onsistent a work as this has such a wide circulation.** 

** Charlotte, Vt. — I have been a constant reader of your Journal from il« 
•oinmencement, and have received from its pages many valuable and instructive 
suggestions. It is always, equally with three other journals, a most welcome 

*' BonAPARTE, lowA. — I have hitherto received several numbers of y#ur 
Journal, but gave them no particular attention until within the last few days. 
I have carefully perused the October, November, and December numbers, and 
find tiiem of interest, and well worUi the attention of physicians. Thus 
hoping success to your undertaking, I send you the subscription price for jtbe 
present year." 

*' IdULBvnxii, N. Y. — The Journal of Materia Medioa is a welcome monthly 
visitor, and I could hardly bo induced to part with it I am particularly in- 
terested in the series of articles from the pen of Dr. J.«e, and hope he win 
•ontinue a contributor to your pages." 

*'Bbll Brook, Ohio. — The December number of the Journal of Maiem 
Hedica has come to hand, and I am much pleased with the appearanr^ of it, 
and wish you to send me a copy as long as it is published." 

** Pi-ATTBViLLE, Wis. — 1 have read your Journal for the last few months, 
and am well pleased at the effort you are making to start a journal of tfie 
kind. I have long felt th^ want of a work devoted entirely to investigatinj^ 
tha qualities of medicines." 

"North Sau Juan, Nkvada County, Cal. — Send us your vvrr vuluahk' 
and interesting Journal for 1859 and 1860." 

" DBTRorr, Mich. — The increased circulation of any journal is a sufficient 
guarantee of its usefulness. It is useless to know that there are weapons (o 
combat disease, unless we know how to use them. To impart this knowledge 
is one of the marked features of your Journal of Materia Mcnica. We arc 
always glad to receive it" 

** Monrovia, Ind. — I consider it one of the most valuable perio<licals wc 
have. A journal devoted to this department of medical Fcienee has long be< n 


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ncodixl. Yours bids fair to meet the wants of phjsiciang, aud 1 hope it will 
receiTe the encoaragement of the profession generallj while eogaged in the 
cause of reform and progress.'* 

'\San Fha:«cmk;o, Cai..— Having oocidentallj met with jour Journal, I found 
it a very important addition to my daily reading, and filling a very materia 
o;ap left by other journals. Send me' the volume for 1800.'* 

'"Nkw Yokk CiTv. — Please send me your Journal of Materia Medica. I am 
much pleased a^^ well as instructed by it. Other journals give us all the mat- 
tor we need concerning practice, hospital and clinical reports, and jours filk 
up very nicely wliat they are not expected to give for want of room, and jou 
ought to be a mutual assistance to each other." 

'' Khokuk, Iowa — I like your Journal much. I hope you will make it all 
tliat such a periodical might be madd. There is a great want of a journal de- 
TOted to the materia medica branch of our science, and ought to be pa4roniee4 
by every student in medicine." 

" BAKTiyoKB, Mi>. — ^Your Journal should receive the patronage of the medi- 
oal profession. Students, at the present day, receive more instruction upon 
materia medica than when I attended lectures. Your Journal suppHos manj 
wants I have long felt, and no doubt will meet many persons similarly situ- 

''CHioA(io, Ili^ — When 1 received the first numbers of jour Jounudof Ma- 
*Ksrin Medica I ttiought little of them, but a perusal of them has materiallj 
c!hangcd mj opinion to one docidedlj in its favor, and T now look for their 
arrival with more tlmn usual interest.*' 

•' Toronto, C. W. — I have read your Journal of Materia Medica for a year, 
and Would not willingly be without it, let it cost double the price. I am 
much pleased with tho articles of Dr. Lee, and hope he will continue hi^ 
articles upon tlie plan he has indicated." 

''Mii.wAUKiB, Wis. — Enclosed is the price for the Journal of Materia Medi- 
m for 1800. 1 hope you will forward it promptly, and issue it with the same 
regularity tluit has oharacterized the past year. Every month brings with it 
fiuOiy valuable hints for every-day practical use. Experience will suggest t* 
you many little mutters connect«»d with its publication, and tend to its perfcc- 

'*Bkthamy, Tksas. — Enclosed find price of two copies of Journal of Mate- 
ria Medica for 1860, for myself and firiend. The Journal for 1869 has beoo 
^rori\i jifly times its cost to me." 

"CnAKLKSTOn, S. C. — I have only time to enclose you tb© subscription for 
/our Journal for 1 800, and to say tlmt I have been much inturestod and in- 
structed by It. To young physicians it is just the thing Uicy need. lUi arti- 
(ies are from standard and reliable sources, and its field is one not sufficient- 
If uv^^upied by journals or medical mon.*' ' # 


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Materia Medica, Pliannacy, Chemistry, &c. 

Vol n.] FEBRUARY, 1860. [Ho. 8. 

On Vegetable Tonics. 



VVk have seen that there are, at least, forty-six natural orders of 
plants indigenous to North America, including one hundred and 
eight genera, and two hundred and two species, endowed to a 
greater or less extent with tonic properties. It would not be 
difficult to extend this. list, but the plants which it would embrace 
have as yet been so imperfectly investigated, that no great practi- 
cal benefit would accrue &om such extension. There can be no 
doubt, however, that some of them will, ere long, bo found to 
(Kjcupy an important rank in this class of remedies. The various 
plants belonging to this class might be arranged under six divi- 
sions, viz : dstrtngent tonics, pure or simple biUers, demulcent tonics, 
alterative tonics, antiperiodic tonics, and aromatic tonics. 

The astringent tonics have already been considered to some 
extent We have stated that there is a large number of vegeta- 
ble substances possessing astringency, but with little or no bitter- 
ness, such as oak bark, uva ursi, geranium, marsh rosemaiy, 
blackberry root, &c., and that all these might properly be ranked 
a;nong tonics, inasmuch as they produce the same constitutional 
o r.octs. Every practitioner must have observed that when given in 
siiiull doses, and at suiteWe. intervals, they improve the appetite, 


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42 Lee on Vegetable Tonics. 

aid digestion, and strengthen the general system. Their pfiysio- 
logical effects are analogous, if not identical, with those of the 
bitter tonics, and they fulfill the same indications. Formerly 
they were extensively employed in paroxysmal affections as anti- 
periodics, as well as in cases of debility ; though they proved of 
greater benefit when the latter was attended with exhausting dk- 
charges. We have a class of vegetable tonics which combine^ both 
bitterness and astringency in an eminent degree, and they occupy, 
perhaps, the first rank in this class of remedies. To this division 
belong the different species of salix and cornus, the liriodendron, 
the pinckneya, &c. Some of our tonic plants combine mucilagin- 
ous and demulcent properties with a bitter principle. Some, sJsOy 
contain considerable quantities of starch, which imparts nutritive 
properties, while they are entirely destitute of astringency. A 
still larger number combine with a bitter principle more or less 
volatile oil, which imparts an aromatic flavor, and allies them more 
closely with diffusible stimulants, such as the serpentaria, the 
asarum canadense, the orange and lemon peel, and many of the 
Labiate class of plants. 

The PUKE BITTEKS Constitute a distinct class, including fH 
those vegetables which possess bitterness without aromatic or as- 
tringent properties. What is called the hitto' principle is not a 
principle j?cr se^ but an alkaloid, resinoid or neutral substance.* 

The tonic properties of vegetables were formerly supposed to re- 
side in what was called extractive matLei\ At present, however, 
chemistry recognizes no such substance. What goes under this 
naipe is merely the product of the evaporation of the infusions or 
tinctures of plants, after their known principles have been sepa- 
rated. Thus, if the soluble ingredients of a plant have been dis- 
solved out by water, we have a variety of proximate principles^ 

* To obtain Uiis principle, the bark or root in question may be coarselj' powdered and placed iu a 
cUsplaceineot apparatus, and treated with proof spirit ; then add a solution of acetate of lead to the 
liquid, filter, and free from excess of lead by 8ulphtu*etted hydrogen ; filter again, evaporate to two- 
thirds, add a small quantity of animal charcoal, and filter. Tlie solution Is then to be evaporated at 
the lowest possible temperature, and, if practicable, in vacuo. The evaporation may be clie<*ed as 
soon as a pellicle forms on the surface, or the fluid becomes syrupy. On cooling, crystab?, if the actiTC 
principle is crj'stulllzable, will form, which. If colored, may be decolorized by animal charcoal and 
recrystallization. Or it may, perhaps, be obtained by concentrathig a watery decoction of the plant ; 
a^tatlng when cold, occasionally, with lime for twenty-four hours ; evaporating the filtered liquor to 
dryness, acting on the residuum with boiling rectified spirit, when impure crjstals may be obtained by 
concentration and cooling, which may be purified in the manner above mentioned. A little ether 
should be added to the alcohol employed. 


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Lee on Vegetable Tonics. ' 43 

most of which have a strong affinity for oxygen, by which, when 
evaporation is carried on in the open air, they are converted into 
complex substances, scarcely soluble in water, and if heat be a}>- 
plied these reactions occur to a still greater extent. The fluid be- 
comes turbid and brown, and the extract obtained from it is only 
a mixture of the different organic constituents in great part de- 
composed. This brown substance is called apotJienhe, The solid 
extracts, formerly in use, were nothing more than these insoluble 
and inert compounds. Kane considers' as extract ice that substance, 
whatever it may be, which is contained in the, fluid before the 
real constituents of the plants are all converted into apotheme, 
and which dissolves equally in water and dilute alcohol, but not 
in absolute alcohol or ether. Such a product will be more or less 
colored, uncrystallizable, and will precipitate metallic salts. It 
may possibly retain some of the flavor of the original plant, ])ut 
it will have lost most of its medicinal properties. 

Pharmaceutical writers have been in the habit of attributing 
diflferent kinds of extractive matter to different classes of plants, 
as bitter extractive to the bitter tonics, astringent extractive to astrin- 
gents, gummy extractive to plants yielding gum, pectin or albu- 
men. All these so-called extracts, howe^'er, are, for the most 
part, but the complex products of the decomposition of other 
bodies. As extracts are now prepared in our establishments by 
steam, in vacuoj and at a low temperature, neither extractive nor 
apotlienie is produced ; but we obtain the constituents of the plant 
in a concentrated form, without having undergone any chemical 
cbanges by the operation. Some of the bitter tonics owe their 
bitterness as well as activity either to a crystalline neutral princi- 
ple, as salicine, cetrarin, columbin, hydrastin,"^ liriodendrin, quas 
sin, 4;c.;* or to an extractive matter, soluble in water, but not 
crystallizable, as the bitter extractive of coptis, chimaphila, cor- 
nus, eupatorium, serpentaria, marrubium, &c. Impure crystals of 

* the following method w, perhaps, the best for purifying realnold and neutral bitter principles : — 
Pulverize the substance, and place the powder in a glass tube > pour as much cold absolute alcohol 
over It as to moisten It well ; after a few hours pour off the alcohol, which will be found highly 
colored. This removes a large portion of the fatty and coloring matters mixed with It The powder 
is Uieu to be treated with boiling alcohol, a little animal charcoal added, then filtered, and allowed (o 
evaporate spontaneously. If not perfectly colorles*?, It may be treated with cold alcohol, and sub- 
.sequently diesolvod In boiling water, filtered, and again evftporated In a slmlUr manner. Some of 
these principles, owing to their slight solubility In water, do not impart a bitter taste when first taken 
into the mouth. 


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44 Lee on Vegetable Tonics, 

gentisic acid may be obtained from the bitter extractive of gen- 
tian, but tlie active and bitter principle, not yet isolated, does not 
reside in them. Some of the tonic vegetables also contain alka- 
loids, to which they owe their medicinal virtues and bitter taste, 
as the cinchona, the strychnos, ignatia^ beeberine bark, &c. ; while 
tannic acid is the tonic constituent in the pure astringent vegeta- 
bles, as the geum, geranium, spirea, uva ursi, rubus, statice, &c. 
If the statement of Kane be admitted, then salicinc is frequently 
the tonic principle in plants, inasmuch as it is found in the leaves 
and bark of a great variety of trees, though particularly abun- 
dant in tliose *species of saUx whicl\ have a bitter taste. This 
statement needs further coniirmation. It is a well known fact 
that most vegetable tonics possess a bitter quality to a greater or 
less extent ; and some writers on therapeutics have attempted to 
show that this quality, is essential to tonics. There are, however, 
some exceptions to this law, as we have seen in the case of many. 
astringents, which though tonic are not bitter ; while the converse 
is evidently untenable, opium, digitalis, and many other drugs, 
though bitter, having no tonic qualities. However this may be, 
it is very certain that bitter extractive, or the bitter principle, 
whate\er it may be, subserves a most important purpose, not only 
as a medicine, but also as a stimulus to healthy digestion in herb- 
ivorous animals generally, as stated by Paris, who says that it 
passes through the alimentary canal without undergoing any 
diminution in quantify or change in its nature. This writer 
calls attention to the fact that cattle will not thrive upon grasses 
which do not contain a portion of this principle, and that sheep 
fed exclusively on yellow turnips, which contain little or no bit- 
terness, are very certain to become sickly, and perish. There can 
be no doubt that the bitter principle in the Irish and Iceland 
mOss renders these substances much better adapted for purposes 
of nutrition, counteracting, as it does, a purely mucilaginous 
diet; while it is admitted that animals fed on marshy groimds, on 
grass containing little nourishment, are best defended horn the 
diseases they are liable to contract in such situations, by the in- 
gestion of bitter plants, as the trefoil, gentian, &c. Pro£ Chap- 
noan used to state, in his lectures, that the bitter principle was as 
essential to the digestion of vegetable 03 salt is to animal matter, 
serving as the most congenial stimulus to the stomach when en- 


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Let on Vegetable Tonics. 45 

gaged in this pixxjess. ^[uch might be said of its propliylactic 
virtues in preventing the generation of wonns. 

Admitting, then, as we must, that there are several tonic bitter 
principles, let us next inquire into their physiological and thera- 
peutical effects upon the human body. The vegetable bitters 
• exert a powerful effect upon the digestive organs, and by nervous 
sympathy, as well as absorption upon the rest of the system. 
They stimulate the mucous and muscular coats of the stomach, 
and thus check any tendency to acetous fermentation ; promote 
tardy digestion, increase the nutritive powers of those vegetables 
with which they are combined, and in certain debilitated condi- 
tions of the organs prove powerfully remedial. There is no evi- 
dence that the pure bitters exert much influence over the ciicu- 
latory or the nervous system, bnt by modifying the vital proper- 
ties of the mucous and muscular tissues pf the digestive canal 
they contribute to the production of a more healthy blood : the 
natural stimulus of all the organs and functions. That the effect 
is especially propagated to the collatitious viscera, the liver and 
pancreas, is very manifest; nor is it less evident that the active 
principles are taken into the circulation, and act on the nutritive 
function throughout the entire system. In excessive doses sim- 
ple bitters will disturb the stomach, causing nausea and vomit- 
ing, or purging ; but even here they do not mucli disturb the 
action of the heart or cerebro-spinal system. Their chief thera- 
peutic uses, then, are to invigorate digestion, promoting the func- 
tion of both primary and secondary assimilation, and well suited 
to all cases of gastric and enteric debility unattended with infliim- 
mation, congestion, or any structural and organic changes. Tn- 
der such circumstances they promote the secretion of a more 
healthy gastric juice, and thus by favoring the solution of the 
food relieve the flatulence, gastric imeasiness, acid eructations, 
headache, &c., consequent on a debilitated state of the stomach 
and a morbid condition of its secretions. And this effect is pro- 
pagated throughout the entire alimentary canal. 

Another useful application of the simple bitter tonics is in the 
management of convalescence. As a general rule, pure air and a 
suitable diet will suffice for a gradual restoration of the strength 
after an attack of acute disease, as fever or inflammation. But 
cases not unfrequently occur where the digestive organs need the 


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46 Zee on Vegetable Ibnics. 

stimulus of some of the bitter tonics, either alone or associated 
with such medicines as promote the secretions and excretions. It 
should be borne in mind that debility, which is chiefly manifested 
ill the associated organs of digestion, can never be permanently 
removed unless the secretions and excretions be duly promoted. 
To secure this end, the simple bitter tonics should be combined 
with aperients. But this combination wUl be hazardous as long 
as there is irritation, or congestion, or active determination to any 
of the abdominal viscera. In cases, moreover, to which they are 
adapted, much discrimination is needed in regard to a choice of 
the particular tonic best suited to the case. It is a very common 
opinion that all the pure bitters resemble each other so closely 
that it matters very little which is selected. But this is an error. 
In some, Colombo, in others gentian, and in still others quassia, 
will best fulfill the existing indication ; so that, although analo- 
gous in chemical composition, they widely vary in their medi- 
cinal operation and therapeutical efifects. It may be difficult or 
impossible to specify the peculiarities of each individual in the 
grouj), but experience fully sustains the opinion that their reme- 
dial effects often widely differ under similar circumstances. It is 
not unusual, for example, to find one of the group exciting nau- 
sea, proving unacceptable to the stomach, and, of course, ineffica- 
cious ; while another, with similar sensible properties, allays all 
gastric uneasiness, excites the appetite, and facilitates the cure. 
There are some cases where debility of the digestive mucous sur- 
face is complicated with irritation, and yet some of the bitter in- 
fusions may be exhibited with benefit, such as gold thread, gen- 
tian, American Colombo, or the me.nyanthes, and especially if 
combined with acids or small quantities of potash or soda. Vom- 
iting is often speedily allayed by such a combination. If there is 
1% lax state of the bowels, associated with asthenia of the digestive 
organs, not dependent on inflammatory irritation of the mucous 
surface, the bitter infusions, combined with the alkaline carbon- 
ates, are often of great service. There may be cases in which the 
bitter tonics would seem to be indicated, and yet there exists 
great torpor of the liver, or accumulations of bile in the gall 
bladder and hepatic ducts ; here cholagogues should always pre- 
cede the use of the tonic. But in regard to the organs of secre- 
tion and excretion, we are to remember that tonics have a ten- 


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Lee on Vegetable Tonics. .47 

dency to strengthen them and augment their energy ; and when 
their products are too abundant, from relaxation and debility, the 
secretory function will probably be restored to its normal state by 
the tonic influence thus exerted; while if the secretions are di- 
minished in consequence of a torpor of the organs, they may be 
restored by a similar tonic operation — so that this clas3 of reme- 
dies have a regulating effect, proving, under certain circumstances, 
diuretics, diaphoretics, emmenagogues, expectorants, &c. They, 
however, will accomplish the end sooner, and with more certainty* 
if preceded by some medicine acting specifically on the organ 
whose functions are suspended. This controling and regulating 
influence of tonics is well illustrated in the colliquative sweats of 
phthisis, which are greatly lessened by a few drops of aromatic 
sulphuric acid, or a few grains of quinine, given at bed time. 
They also lessen the frequency of the pulse, while they in- 
crease its force by lessening the irritability of the heart and in- 
creasing the tonicity of its muscular fibres. The power of the 
bitter tonics in allaying morbid irritability and sensibility conse- 
quent on great exhaustion, is constantly seen in the latter stages 
of most diseases. Inflammation does not necessarily contra-indi- 
cate their use, any more than it does the use of stimulants and 
supporting agents generally, as animal broths, &c. It will depend 
on the kind of inflammation, its^seat and stage, and particularly 
the constitution, previous habits, and present state of the vital 
forces of the patient. If there is a loss of appetite and digestive 
power, independent of local disease of the stomach, and conse- 
quent on the general languishing state of the powers of life, then 
some of the bitter tonics will be found greatly serviceable. The 
increased tonicity which they impart to the whole digestive sys- 
tem often seems essential to recovery. The morbid irritability 
dependent on protracted disease, and consequent prastration, will 
be relieved by measures calculated to restore the general strength, 
and among these the bitter tonics are among the most valuable. 
Their use is often dispensed with from a fear, oft;en ungrounded, 
that they may disagree, and aggravate the existing symptoms. 
But an observant and cautious practitioner will always guard 
against such result, by giving them at first in small doses, or com- 
bining them with alkalies, laxatives, or some mild aromatic, or 
suspending their use entirely, if they are found, on trial, to dis- 


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48 Ijet on Vegetable Tonics. 

agree. If the circulation is languid from general debility, in, 
which the heart will participate, or if the pulse is pretematurally 
frequent from existing irritability, the bitter tonics will be found 
to exert a regulating power, as in the case of disordered secretion, 
and the pulse will gradually be brought to the healthy standard. 
Nor does inflammation of some of the more important organs of' 
the body necessarily forbid their use. Even in pneumonia, espe- 
cially the typhoid variety, or where it occurs in persons of broken 
constitution, or accustomed to the daily use of alcoholic stimu- 
lants, this class of remedies may often be used with much advan- 
tage. Who has not witnessed the good effects of quinine, or the 
hop, under such circumstances? In this affection, which seems 
to have, as a general rule, a prescribed limit, the strength must be 
sustained, and the vital forces invigorated, in order that nature 
may be able to accomplish the cure. Forcible coughing, whiclj is 
necessary for successful expectoration, requires considerable bodi- 
ly vigor, without which the patient must succumb from the over- 
loaded condition of the bronchial tubes. A certain amount of 
aliment must be taken and assimilated, in order to cause the main- 
tenance of sufficient strength to disgorge the lungs of the mucous 
secretions constantly accumulating. To this end, the tone of the 
stomach must be sufficiently maintained for the digestion of a 
necessary amount of nutriment. The same principles also are to 
guide us in the management of chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, and 
all affections attended with exhausting discharges. As time is an 
essential element in the cure, and all depends on the recuperative 
energies being properly sustained, our chief attention is to be direct- 
ed to the sustentation of the nutritive ftmction and the supply of suit- 
able nourishment — not that specific means, also, are not to be em- 
ployed, but only in subservience to and in alliance with the former. 

These remarks, which might be much extended, must suffice on 
this branch^ of our subject 

Preparations. — Our standard formulary, the United States Phai- 
macopoeia, recommends the bitter tonics under the forms of infu- 
sion, decoction, solid extracts, fluid extracts, tinctures, powders, 
and syrups. 

Infusions. — It is well known that the bitter principles of vege- 
tables are taken up by water, hot or cold, by alcohol, proof spirit, 
wine, or sulphuric ether. Water, proof spirit and wine are the 


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7>f on Vegetable Tonics. 4^ 

usual menstrua. As a general rule, the best method of extract- 
ing and preserving these principles is by percolation with oold 
water. Hot water readily dissolves the amylaceous matter con- 
tained in vegetables, which readily undergoes decompoeition on 
standing, especially in warm weather. Cold water, it is true, dis- 
solves the vegetable "albumen, while both hot and cold dissolve 
the gum, sugar, extractive, and, perhaps, other principles liable to 
fermentation. The pure bitter vegetables, as gentian, gold thread, 
Colombo, therefore should be subjected to maceration, or displace- 
ment in cold water, and a small portion of spirit afterwards add- 
ed, if it is desired to preserve them for any length of time. It is 
well, perhaps, to recollect that tartarized antimony, salts of lead, 
mercury and silver, are incompatible with one or more of the 
proximate principles contained in bitter infusions. A cold infu- 
sion of wild cherry T3ark will keep for some days without under- 
going any change, owing to the antiseptic influence, perhaps, of 
the hydrocyanic acid contained in it. 

Decoctiom, — Decoction is an objectionable method of extracting 
the proximate principles of plants, inasmuch as many of them 
are decomposed at a tempeititure of 212° Fah. ; or if not de- 
stroyed entirely, their medicinal activity is essentially diminished. 
If the active constituents are volatile, of course they are dissi- 
pated. We have already alluded to the important cheniical reac- 
tions which take place during ebullition, in consequence of which 
the active constituents are either rendered insoluble or undergo 
decomposition. For example, the alkaloids in cinchona bark 
during ebullition combine with the red coloring principle of the 
bark, and form a compound nearly insoluble at 60°. Besides the 
objection, also,, that boiling dissolves the starch, which "renders a 
vegetable solution mucilaginous and apt to become speedily 
mouldy, this process is unnecessary, inasmuch as, in general, the 
same proportion of water exhausts vegetable substances equally 
well at 60°, in the way of percolation, as at 212°, in the way of 
decoction, and often more completely. But, in regard to the 
pure bitters, the ordinary method of infusion in cold water wiU. 
answer every purpose. 

Solid Extracts, — These, if prepared by steam apparatus, with a 
vacuum pan, in which evaporation can be carried on rapidly, and 
at a low temperature, are not only an unobjectionable, but a very 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

50 Lee on Vegetable Tonics. 

valuable and convenient preparation, especially where the pillula^ 
form is desirable. Thus the solid extracts of Colombo, gentian, 
quassia, &c., prepared in this manner, and now everywhere to be 
obtained, are infinitely preferable to the same preparations as for- 
merly made by boiling and evaporation under the ordinary cir- 
cumstances of pressure and exposure to the air. 

Fluid Extracts. — The fluid extracts of the simple bitters, as 
now prepared by displacement and evaporation, in vacno, are an 
admirable form for administering this class of remedies. Though 
unoflficinal, they are generally preferable to the infusions or de- 
coctions, when most carefully prepared. They contain all the 
active proximate principles of the plant, concentrated, and in a 
form not likely to undergo any change. Thus the fluid extract 
of gentian is an elegant preparation, which ought to supercede 
entirely the tincture, infusion, or dectoction of the same plant; 
and the same may be said, indeed, of all the fluid extracts of the 
pure bitters. 

Tinctures. — The tinctures of the bitter tonics are gradually giv- 
ing place to the fluid extracts, and ere long will be rarely used, 
except in cases where the stimulas of alcohol is desirable in con- 
nection with the bitter principle. It is admitted, however, that 
their protracted! use is objectionable, from their liability of cre- 
ating an appetite for alcohohc stimulants. This will be obvious, 
when we consider that the dose of bitter tinctures ranges from 
two fluid drachms to half a fluid ounce. It is better, then, and 
safer to use a fluid extract, adding, if necessary, wine, spirit, or 
some aromatic tincture, in proper quantity. 

Poivdens, — These, if properly prepared, contain, of course, all 
the proximate principles of the plant, in their natural condition ; 
but then they contain a large portion of inert, ligneous matter. 
The dose is large, and often very disagreeable to the taste. Many 
of them undergo spontaneous (ihange when exposed to the light 
or atmosphere, especially when moist ; and moreover, they are so 
liable to adulteration, without the possibility of detection, that 
other preparations of the same vegetables have very generally 
been substituted for them. 

Stp-ups. — The great objection to this form, in the case of vege- 
. table bitters, is that where the digestive organs are much debili- 
tated, and there is a want of tone in the stomach, sugar is very 


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Iron and its PrejMrations. 51 

apt to cause acidity, flatalence, &c. From the agreeable taste and 
, conservative power of sugar, it is well adapted to pharmaceutical 
purposes ; and where there are no objections to its use, a syrup 
forms a very agreeable and useful preparation ; but it seems less 
suited to tonic than to any other class of remedies. We have in 
market a syrup of orange peel, of wild cherry, of rhatany, of 
ginger, chamomile, pipsissewa, uva ursi, blackberry root, hore- 
hound, carrageen, &c. ; but the pure bitter tonics can very seldom 
be administered to advantage under this form. As demulcent ex- 
pectorants, some of these syrups, as of wild cherry, horehound, 
liverwort, &c., are admirable. 

IPer.s, — The infusions of bitter vegetables generally ferment with 
yeast, and yield a bitter fluid, which is valuable often as a stomachic 
tonic. A s])irit is thus prepared from gentian in Switzerland, 
which is much prized as a tonic cordial. Brown sugar and ginger, 
or otfier aromatics, may be added in suitable quantity. These 
fluids should be bottled carefully soon after fermentation has com- 
menced. Dose, from one to four fluid ounces, three times a day. 

Iron and Its Preparations. 

TiiEJtfc: is in the bl(;od a red coloring matter called haBmatosin. 
It is found by chemical analysis that iron is an essential part of 
this substance. The existence of the right amount of hsematosin 
in the blood is of vital importance. It is contained in the red 
globules of the blood. \\"hen it is diminished in quantity the 
number of these red globules is lessened in the same proportion. 
This produces a paleness of all the tissues, an inactivity of the 
muscular fibre, and impairment of all the animal functions, and a 
general languor and debility of the whole frame. This is anaemia. 

In ail cases in which iron is used there is a d.^ficiency of this 
red coloring matter ; and in all instiinces of ansemia iron is ap- 
propriate as a remedy* In this way it may benefit, and some- 
times cure, other disorders in which anaemia is apt to be a promi- 
nent symptom. Such are amenorrhea, scrofula, cancer, chronic 
ague, hysteria, chorea, and Bright's disesuse of the kidney. Iron 
ought always to be conjoined with the remedies specially appro- 
priate to each case. In chorea, arsenic or quinine may be used, 


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52 Jron and its Preparatloihs, 

with or without iron. Aloetic'purgatives may be advantageously 
combined with chalybeates in amenorrhea and hysteria. Their 
use may be accompanied by cold affasions, or b\' some jintispas- 
modic stimulant. In scrofula, the iodide of iron Jiifords us a valu- 
able double remedy. In chronic Cfises of ague, when accompa- 
nied wnth anaemia, as is often the case, iron may be prescribed 
with advantage. In general anaemia, an occasional purge, a .i^en- 
erous diet, with good air and exercise, should be combined, if 
possible, with the chalybeate treatment. 

The >jistringent salts of iron are particularly appropriate in raises 
of hemorrhage, for, in addition to their astringent action, they 
tend to restore the deficient red coloring matter of the blood. In 
many such instances the sulphate or the sesqnichloride of iron 
may be advantageously prescribed along with sulphurivt acid- 
The above salts of iron are, by their topical action on the stomach, 
of service in cases of atonic dyspepsia. 

When the iron has entered the system, it is not necessarily ex- 
creted again from it, because it is not unnatural to the blood ; but 
when it is given in large doses, iron passes off by the urine and 
by the other secretions. Some portion may be excreted by tie 
mucous membrane of the intestines,* and combine in the c\nvity 
of the bowel Avith sulj)huretted hydrogen. The resulting sul- 
phnret communicates to the faeces a characteristic black color. 

Tlie general contra-indication to the use of iron is })letliora and 
inflammation, producing, when injudiciously employed, heat, 
thirat, headache, difficulty of breathing, and symptoms of an ex- 
cited circulation. 

Iron must not be comi)Ounded with any v^etable bittei-s tliat 
contain tannin, for it forms therewith an insoluble salt — the tan- 
nate of ii-on. It can be used with Colombo, quassia and gentian. 
So acids and jicidulous siilts must be avoided, except it l)e the 
acid forming the particular salt administered. 

It is always desirable to prepare the bowels for the exhibition 
of iron, by the administration of some light purgjitive. Care 
must always \ye taken that, when it is persevered in for a long 
time, it does got'accTimulate in the l)0wel8. 

Ferri Ramenta {Iron Filings). — Dose : i\ye to twenty gnuns, 
given in molasses or honey, or made into julls witli some bitter 


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Iron and its Preparations: 53 

Fekki Pulvis {Quecenne^s Iron). — Dose: two to five grains, in 
the form of pill, made witli sugar and gum. M. Queveime con- 
siders it, of all tlie insoluble preparations, the most easily assimi- 
lated. M. Coste legards it superior to other ferruginous prepara- 
tions in engorgement of the spleen succeeding to intermittent 

Ferri Carbon.vs {Red Oxide of Iron). — Dose : as a tonic, five 
to thirty grains, three times a day, in pill or powder, and frequent- 
ly eoml>ined with aromatics and vegetable tonics. The carbonate 
of iron is not soluble in water ; the bicarbonate is soluble in 
water, tlie chalybeate springs holding the bicarbonate in solution. 
Thirty-six grains of carb. per day, in syrup, have been given 
in second stage of whooping cough, acting prom})t]y and effica- 
ciously ; in neuralgia, chorea and tetanus, in doses of one or two 
teaspoonsful. Excellent in chlorosis^ when the system is prepared 
tor iix)n. In true chronic neuralgia, and in the severest cases of 
neuralgia under the form of hemicrania, in large doses, it has 
pi-oved entirely successful. In tic-doloreux, four drachms have 
been given. 

Ip. — Ferri Carbonas, 

Pulv. Colombo, , 

Pulv. Ginger, aa. 3j. 

H. — Ferri Subcwbonas, gr. x. 

Pulv. Aromatic, gr. v. M. 

Make a powder, to be taken morning and noon. 

$ . — Ferri Subcarbonas, gr. x. 

Valerianse, pulv., 3 ss. 

Syrup Zingib., ------ q. s. 

Fiat Tolus. 

B. — Ferri Subcarbonas, 

Extract Anthemid., flkr. 38a. 

Make tvrelve pills. Dose: two, three times a day. 

B . — Ferri Subcarbonas, 3 i. 

Hydrarg., - 3ij. 

Oonfect Rosse, ------ 3 iii. M. 

Dr. Collier recommends this as especially eligible for the strumoa^'i the irri« 
table, »nd the reduced anjemic constitutions requiring mercury. 

U . — ^Fcrri Subcarl>onas, 

Oonfcctio. aurant, - - , - - - tJa. ^j. 


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64 Iron and (fs Prtjm rations. 

Syrup Zingib., - - - - - - q. s. 

Make an electuary. Take a small teai^poonfu), two or three times a day. 

5. — Litharge Plaster, Ibij. 

Frankincense, ftss. 

Ferri Subcarbonas, - - • - - - - 3 iii. 
In muscular relaxation and weakness of the joints. 

The empla.-itram terri, ferrum ;immoiiiatiim, and tinctuia lorri 
ciilondi, are the officinal j) reparations of the snl)earbonate. The 
ferri curbonai? saccliaratum has tlie advanta^ire of bein^ readily 
soluble in tlic acidt^. Dose: five to tliirty grains. 

Kerui loDlDU^r {Iodide of Iron), — Dose: one to live grains. 
Soluble in water and alcohol. Combines the alterative pro]>ei-ties 
of the iodine with the tonic ])Owers of the iron. Used in 
scrofulous art'ections, chlorosis, inci])ient scirrluis, bronchocele, 
atonic dyspepsia, and genial debility. A standard vcmcdy in 
secondary syphilis, in combination with iodide of potassium. 
Likewise used, with great success, to remove the conseciuences of 

IJ, — Ferri Iodide, gr. xvi. 

Tincture Colombo, or 

" Gentian» Ccmip., - - - £ | j. 
Aquae Destillat, - - . - • - f- 1 vii. 
Dose : two tablespoonsful, two or three times a day. 

5. — Ferri Iodide, gr. iii. 

Aquffi Destillat, - - . - - - f. 5 vi. M. 

As an injection in gonorrhoea. — Ricord. 

Syrup of tht' Iodide of Iron. — The saccharine matter is sup- 
])Osed to prevent its oxydizing. Tliis combination pi-events idism. 
Twelve minims of the syrup of iodide of iron is equal to one 
grain of iodide of iron. Dose : twenty to fifty drops. 

The i)illului ferro iodide ai-e officinal. Each pill contains a lit- 
tle over a grain and a half of iodide of imn. 

Ferri Bromidum {Bromide of Iron), — Tonic and altemtive, 
in tetter, scrofulous tumors, inflammation of the glands, lx)th 
acute and chronic, erysipelas, and amenorrhea. 

ij. — Ferri Bromidum, 3j. 

Extract Glycyrrhiz., q. s. 

Make sixty pills. Dose: one or two, morning and evening, in cases of 
scrofula and hypertrophy of the uterus especially. 


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Iron, and its Preparations, 55 

Syrup of Bromide of Iron. — ^Au eligible form for administra- 
tion of bromide of iron is the following : — 

5 • — Bromine, 200 grain;:. 

Tron Filings, 85 '* 

Water, f. 5 ivss. 

Sugar, • liJj- 

Make a solution in the manner <Urected for preparing the oflBcinal solution of 
iodide of iron. Dose : twenty minims, three times a day, gradually increased. 

TiNCTURA Ferri CHLCUtini {Mftrkited Tincfure nf Iron). — 
Dose: ten to thirty minims. Powerful astringent and tonic. In 
lai-ge doses, everv few hours, in erysipelas. Externally in can- 
crum oris. Given in infusion of tansy, quassia, or in simple 
water; in all hemorrhages of a passive character; in tlic gastric 
hemorrhage of old drinkers, fifteen to twenty -droj) doses; in dis- 
charge of blood from the urethra, and in leucorrhea; as an astrin- 
gent in excessive sweating. As a.ntidotes to this mixture, if 
taken in })oisonou8 doses, give demulcents, mucilaginous drinks, 

5. — Tincture Ferri Cbloridi, - - - - 3iss. 

'* Opii, ------ 3 iss. 

Sulphate Quiniae, gfs. viiL 

Aquie, I vi. M. 

The tinct ferri chloridi has lately been brought forwai*d, witli 
the highest encomiums, as an internal agent in the treatment of 
ery8ii)elas, whether idioi)athic, traumatic, or the erysipelas of in- 
fants. It is necessary to bring the system rapidly imder its influ- 

Ferri Si'lpuas {Svljyhaie of Iron). — Astringent, tonic, em- 
menagogue. Uose : one to five grains. In debility of the ali- 
mentary canaJ, and ulceration of the colon, with constant pains, 
it acts as a tonic and astringent. To arrest exessive perspiration, 
give two gi-ains at bed time. It is beneficial in diseases attended 
with inunoderate di^chajges; useful in amenorrhea, occurring 
when there is neither marked plethora nor anaemia. Its external 
use is very varied, dej)ending on its astringent and tonic proper- 
ties. In old ulcers, in solution from one drachm to one ounce, 
in a pint of water. As a collyrium, five to ten grains to six 
ounces of rose watei*, in sub-acute inflammation of the eye. One 
grain to the ounce of water, as an injection in .prolai)SUS ani of 


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5B [ran and its Pi^eparoUUms, 

children : passed up the bowel, once or twice a day ; also to com- 
plete the cure of internal piles. 

The officinal preparations of the salt are numerous. 

Ij.—FeiTi Sulphas, - - r - - - 12 graias. 

Morphia Sulphas, 3 " 

Extract Gentian, q. s. 

Make twenty-four pills. 

I|.— -Pulv. Myrrh, , . - _ . - 3 ij. 

Soda3 Carbonas, 

Ferri Sulphas, ^ «tf. 3j- 

Syrup simple, . - . - - q. s. 

Make eighty pills. Dose : two to six, three times a day. 

ii. — Fcrri Sulphas, 

Gum Myrrh, - - - - * - aa. 3ij. 
Potassse Carb., 

Sapon. Purif., aa. 3 ss. M. 

Make forty pills. Dose: two, morning, noon and night, in suppression 
of the menses. 

Ferri ET Alumin.e Sclphas. — Dose: five to ten grains, in 
any aromatic water, or in molasses. A su[)erior astringent in the 
treatment of -chronic diarrhcea, dysentery and cholera morbus, 
and the colliquative diarrhoea and sweats of the consumptive. 
Applied externally, it is a powerful styptic, and may l>e used in 
epistaxis and in hemorrhage from leech bites. Also, as a gargle 
in relaxation of the uvula and fauces, and in the cvnanche of 

Kkrrocyaxide of Potassium. — 3ij. to f. 5j. water. Dose: 
for an adult, thirty to forty-five dropa Sedative, tonic, astrin- 
gent Dr. Eberle regarded this salt as advantageous to women in 
the change of life, and in chronic uterine hemorrhage with great 
uterine debility. Its astringent powers are most manifest in the 
colliquative sweats of chi-onic bronchitis and phthisis. 

MiSTURA Ferri Aromatica. — ^Tonic, in doses of one or two 
fluid ounces. 

MiSTURA Feuri CoMPOSiTA. — Dosc : One or two fluid ounces, 
three times a day, in debility of the digestive organs, especially 
when attended with derangement of the menstrual function. 
ITence it is used in chlorosis and hysterical affections. 


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Oubebs. 57 

C^u b e b 8. ' 


The plant which aflfords the officinal Cubebs id a native of Java ' 
(where it is called cumac), Nepaul (there called timmue and taiz- 
hul)j Sierra Leone, and the Isle of France. It belongs to the 
natural family Urtzceoe of De CandoUe and Piperacem of Lindley, 
and to Linnseus' class and order Diandric Trigynia. 

It is a, small climber, and produces clusters of small berrieS| 
scarcely so large as white pepper, which are the officinal part of 
the plant, and with which our readers are no doubt fieuiiiliar. 

Chemical Properties. — Three analysis of iOubebs have been 
made — one by Tromnsdorff, in 1811 ; a second by Vanquelin, in 
1820 ; and a third by Monheim, in 1835. The letter found, in 
one hundred parts — • 

Green VolatQe Oil, - - - . - - - 2.06 

YeUow VoUtile Oil, - - - * - - 1.00 

Cubebin, 4.06 

Balsamic Resin, •: 1.06 

Wax, -,--.... 8.00 

Chloride of Sodium, 1.00 

Extractive, 6.00 

Lignin, \ 66.00 

, Loss, * - - 16.06 

Total, 100.00 

Vanquelin describes two resinp — one green, liquid, acrid, and 
analogous, both in odor and taste, to balsam of copaiba; the 
other, brown, solid, acrid, and insoluble in ether. Ckxhebin is a 
crystallizable substance, obtained, according to NoUinberger, of 
the United States Naval Hospital, New York, by exhausting the 
Cubebs from which the oil has been distilled, by alcohol of sg. 
gr. 0.85 ; driving off the alcohol, setting aside the resinous mat- 
ter which remains, for several days, till it forms a mass of crys- 
tals. By dissolving again in hot alcohol, and filtering through 
animal charcoal, it m^y be obtained in beautiful white, needle- 
shaped crystals. It is very analogous to piperine, but differs 
from it in composition, as it contains no nitrogen. Cassola, a 
ITieapolitan chemist, says it is distinguished from the piperine by 


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58 Cubebs. 

the fine crimson color which it produces with sulphuric acid, and 
which remains unaltered twenty-four hours. 

Cubebs deteriorate by age, particulariy if in the powdered state, 
and become weaker in consequence of loss of their volatile oil- 
They are foxmd adulterated with pimento and species of the Piper 
family. Mr. Carney, in his report upon adulterations, speaks of a 
false berry used for this purpose, which is readily distinguished, 
as it is bi'lobedj while the Cubeb is a dngk-lobed berry. Fifteen 
per cent of it existed in one lot of Cubebs. The berry is inert 
and worthless, and is not possessed of any deleterious property. 
The name the committee were unable to ascertain. 

Dr. Ainslie, in his Materia M«dica of Hindostan, says that Cu- 
bebs were used by the Indian practitioners as a grateful stomachic, 
carminative, and seasoner; but there does not appear evidence that 
they were known to the ancients. The Arabians place them 
among their mudorrat {stimvlantia). The Mahometans not unfire- 
quently employed tliem }n cases of gonorrhoea and gleet Mr. 
Crawford, author of the History of the Indian Archipelago, was 
the first who wrote on theni. His communication appeared in the 
Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal for January, 1818, 
which was followed by a paper in the same journal by Dr. Adams, 
by Dr. JeflBreys, and others. Dr. Ainslie says : — " The German 
and other physicians on the Continent at the time that Murray 
wrote, (at Gottingen, in 1790,) do not appear to have been at all 
aware of those virtues which Cubebs have since been found to 
possess, and that that distinguished writer (Murray) thought they 
may prove serviceable in certain dyspeptic affections, and the 
vertigo consequent upon such complaints." 

The experience of medical men confirm their action on the 
human system to be stimxdant, possessing the property of arrest- 
rr^ excessive mucous discharges, especially from the urethra. 
Pareira says of Cubebs: — ** Taken in moderate doses, they stimu- 
late the stomach, augment the appetite, and promote the digestive 
process ; in large quantitia*^ or when the stomach is in an irritated 
or inflammatory condition, they cause nausea and many unplea- 
sant symptoms. They appear to exercise a specific influence over 
the Tirino-genital apparatus, act irequ^oitly as a diuretic, and at 
the same time deepen the color and cause a peculiar aromatic 
odor to the urine." 


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CtiMs. 59 

The principal use of Cubebs is in the treatment of gonorrhcjca. 
The same oon*siclenitions that apply to the use of copaiba ajc ap- , 
plicable to the use of Cubebs. They are usually given in as large 
(loses as the stomach can Ijear, in the early, stage of the (lis- 
case. Acconling to Pareira, experience has proved that in jjropor- 
tion to the length of time the «lisease has existed it is less amena- 
ble to the influence of this remedy. In some instances jui imme- 
diate stop is p\it to the progress of the disease ; and he does not 
tionsider that the presence of active inflanunation of the urethra 
as positively precluding their use, and has seldom seen them ag- 
gravate the symptoms; and, in considering the ill effects at- 
tributed, as swelled testicles, he has not known it to be more fre- 
quent than when they were not used. 

Dr. Jeffreys considered it not only a safe remedy, but in a gen-« 
crality of oases more useful aad expeditious than any which had 
been introduced into practice; that it possesses what may be 
justly called a specific in most constituticmfi, especially when 
used in the early and acute forms of the disease ; and, contrary to 
Sir Astley Cooper, "that such expediente are improper when 
much inflammation exists, or the patient is of an irritable habit,'' 
asserts *' that it is in the more inflammatory forms of the disease 
in which its efficacy is most certainly displayed." 

Each mode of treatment appears to. have had, and yet has, its 
advocates; and thei^ are not a few wha doubt its curative pow- 
ei-s. But the mass of evidence in its favo^ can leave no doubt 
upon this point The only question which we have to meet is 
the projxjr time of administration. There are physicians who ad- 
minister both Cubebs and copaiba in every stage of the disease. 
Dr. Boughton ^ve Cubebs in fifty cases. Ten were cured in 
from two to seven days, seventeen in from eight to fourteen days, 
eighteen in from fifteen to twenty one days, and one on the fifty- 
fifth day. In four only was no benefit obtained. 

In the chronic stage of gonorrhoea, Ricord gives Cubebs in com- 
bination with sesqui oxide of iron, with injections, four times a 
day, of solution of two grains of nitrate of silver to eight ounces 
of water ; and an an opiate in gonorrhoea, Dr. Berton recommends 
the following : — 

IJ.— Pulverized Cubebs, 2 ounces. 

Balsam of Copaiba, - - - - 2 " 


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60 Oubebs. 

Alum, 1 ounce. 

Extract Opii, 6 grains. 

Of this mixture, give one drachin, night and morning, in the 
pulp of a prune, increasing the dose to two drachms, morning dnd 

The Journal des Connoissances Medicdles recommends very high- 
ly the combination of Cubebs ancTalimi in the treatment of gonor- 
rhoea; adduces several cases illustrative of its efficacy, and re- 
marks that " it is more than probable that alum has not been used 
in cases of gonorrhoea as much, as it deserves to be ; that the salt 
is Tapidly absorbed into the system, and is eliminated in a great 
measure by the urine, as appears from numerous experiments." 

The formula is : — 

5. — Powdered Cubebs, 2 ounces. 

• Powdered Alum, \ oimce. 

Mix welL Divide into nine doses, of which one is to be taken every eight 

Dr. Deiters found Cubebs more effectual than any other remedy 
in curing the incontinence of urine common to children. This 
complaint may, he says, depend on atony of the bladder or the 
presence of intestinal worms. In the former case they act as 
a tonic, and in the latter as a valuable anthelmintic. Cubebs 
should be given in considerable doses — a few grains for infimts, 
and half a teaspoonfiil, two or three times a day, for children of 
somewhat more advanced age. Its effect is usually speedy and 
permanent. It may happen that the incontinence will return at 
periodical or irregular periods, but these recurrences will become 
less frequent, and eventually disappear altogether. He has, in 
some, cases, found it necessary to continue its use three to eight 
weeks, without observing any injurious effects. 

Dr. Deiters also states that he foimd it most eflSicacious in check- 
ing nocturnal emissions in cases of spermatorrhoea. 

In leucorrhoea and blenorrhoea they have been highly recom- 
mended by many practitioners. The following formula was sug- 
sjested by Eyan : — 

B. —Cubebs, pulv., 1 ounce. 

Ergot, " -1 " 

Aromatic, **. 2 scruples. 

Sugar, .1 drachm. 

Divide in eight parts. Give one, three or four times a day. 


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Cubebs. 61 

In abscess of the prostrate gland, twenty to thirty grains, three 
•times a day, have proved beneficial ; als6, in cysterrhoea and piles 
they have, in several cases, proved serviceable. 

In catarrhal affections of the membrane lining the i^rian piii^stiges ; 
in inflammation attended with increased discharge of the Schneide* 
rian membrane lining of the nose, and the sinuses communicating 
with it; in aphonia; in defective audition caused by catarrhal affec- 
tion of the eustiichian tube, Cubebs have been found exceedingly 
serviceable, either by chewing the whole berry or in the form of 
the following lozenge, called Spitta's lozenges : — 

5. — Powdered Cubebs, . - - . 2 drachms. 

Balsam Tolu, - - - - . - 6 grains. 
Mix, and add 

Extract Liquorice, 1 ounce. 

Syrup of Bklsam Peru, - - - 1 drachnL 

Gum Arabic, q. s. > 

Rub well together, and form lozenges of ten grains. 

Dr. Fosbroke commends their in cases of inflammation of 
the mucous membrane of the intestinal canal, conjoined wth the 
oxide of bismuth, as follows : — 

"5.— Powdered Cubebs, - - - - 2 drachms. 

Sub-Nitrate of Bismuth, - - i ** 

Mucilage of Oum Arabic, - - - J fl. ounce. 

Syrup, 6 fl. drachms. 

' Water, 6 fl. ounces. 

Dose : a tablespoonful four times a day. 

And in cases of chronic inflammation of the oesophagus, in union 
with carbonate of soda, as follows : — 

5. — Powdered Cubebs, - - - - 3 drachms. 
Carbonate of Soda, - - - ^ " 

Mucilage of Gum Arabic, - - - 6 fl. drachms. 

Mint Water, 6 fl. ounces.\ 

l>osc : tablespoonful every hour. 

At another time I shall consider further the uses of Cubebs 
and the formuhe for their convenient administration, and also the 
various formula) published for the preparation of a fluid extract — 
a form of preparation the most convenient of any now in use, 
and which should be so prepared as to represent all the medi- 
cinal properties of the article. A* 


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62 The Cinchona Alkaloid.^ and iheir Salts, 

The Cinchona Alkaloids and Their Salts. 

Q u I X I D I A . 

(From Parifih^s Practical Phannacy.) 

This name is now generally applied to an alkaloid which is isomeric witli 
quinia, but differs from it in turning polarized light to the right It occurs, 
in company with tlie other alkaloids, in many cinchona barks, particularly 
those imported from New Granada. \ 

It is obtained from its sulphate by decomposition with ammonia, and crys- 
tallizes in shining, colorless efflorescing crystals, which are readily reduced to 
a white powder ; they melt without decomposition, and, on cooling, concrete 
into a grayish-white crystalline mass. When ignited, they bum with the 
odor of kinole and the volatile oil of bitter almonds ; they have a less in- 
tensely bitter taste than quinia. This alkaloid is nearly insoluble in water, 
soluble in twelve parts of alcohol and 143 of ether, and its solution turns to a 
green color like quinia when successively treated with chlorine water and am- 
monia ; a solution of either alkaloid even in 700,000 parts of water, according 
to Herapath, shows a dispersion of h'ght with a bluish milky colbration. Qui- 
nidia, treated with tincture of iodine under the same circnmstances as quinia, 
yields crystals which appear garnet red by transmitted light, and bluish red 
in reflected light Quinidia is the only cinchona alkaloid yielding, with the 
solution of an iodide, a nearly insoluble precipitate, hydriodate of quinidia. 

Qfiinidke Sulphas is more soluble than sulphate Of quinia, and remains in 
the mother liquor after the quinia salt has been crystallized. When the 
cheaper barks above referred to are manipulated with, this salt is an import- 
ant product ; it is largely produced, and by some used as a substitute for qui- 
nia. .\s generally found in commerce, it contains cinchonidia, and comes in 
long, shining white crystals, interlaced, and resembling those of sulphate of 
quinia. It is soluble in 130 parts of cold water, freely soluble in alcohol, and 
almost insoluble in ether. It contains six equivalents of water of crystalliza- 

Cinc/wniu. — This is another unofficinal alkaloid usually accompanying qui- 
nia. Kuanuco bark contains almost exclusive cinchonia, which, when first 
isolated from this bark, was called huanucina, under the supposition of its 
being a distinct alkaloid. It may be obtained from this bark by a process 
similar to that for the preparation of quinia. It is in white needles, insoluble 
in alkalies, ether and cold water, but soluble in thirteen parts of boiling alco- 
hol ; chloroform dissolves 4.8 ; olive oil, one per cent of cinchonia. It is less 
bitter than quinia and quinidia, fuses at 330° to an amorphous mass, and at a 
higher temperature partly sublimes without decomposition; polarlized li^ht 
is deviated to the right 

Its salts are generally more soluble than the corresponding salts of qm'nia ; 
they are precipitated by the caustic alkalies and theu' carbonates ; and in not 
too diluted solutions the bicarbonates likewise cause a precipitate after the 


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The Gi)idio>ia Alkaloids and their Salts. 6S 

previous addition of tartaric acid. Under similar circumstances cinchonia 
docs not produce the reaction of quinia with chlorine and ferrocyanuret of 
potassium. The precipitate of ferrocyanide of potassium in cinchonia salts is 
insoluble in an excess of the precipitant^ but crystallizes from its hot solution ; 
its composition corresponds with the quinia salts. The cinchonia sulphate, if 
treated with iodine similarly to sulphate of quinia, yields a brick-red deposit 

CinchonuB Sulphas, — K cinchonia occurs in barks with quinia and quinidis, 
this salt remains behind in the piother liquor after the crystallization of the 
other sulphates. 

It crystallizes in white pearly oblique prisms, containing 2H0, soluble in 
fifty-four parts of cold water, in seven parts of alcohol, not in ether. On th6 
addition of sulphuric acid it passes into the very soluble acid sulphate. The 
other salts of cinchonia may be prepared like the corresponding quinia salt& 
The following have been occasionally used : — 

GinchonicB murias is in silky prisms, easily soluble in water and alcohoL 

Cinchonia hydroiadas crystallizes in needles. 

CinclionicB tannas is a yellowish powder, soluble in alcohol. 

07iinchoni<B Acetas. — If acetic acid is saturated with cinchonia, on evapora- 
tion granular or scaly crystals of the acetate are left, which are easily soluble 
in water. 

Cinchonidia often constitutes ^e greatest part of commercial quinidia ; as 
it contains no water of crystallization, it is not efflorescent in the air. 

Its principal peculiarities are: solubility in ether, deviation of polarized 
light to the left, and no reaction with chlorine water and ammonia. By Dr' 
Herapath's test, viz : treating with iodine like quinia, the resulting iodosul* 
phate of cinchonidia is so similar in appearance to the corresponding quinia 
salt, that it can only be distinguished from it by a little difference in the tint 
caused by transmitted light 

The base discovered by Wittstein, and called by him cinchonidia, is a mix* 
ture of various alkaloids, but principally of cinchonia and Pasteur^s cinchoni- 

Quinicia and Ginchcnieia, — The acid sulphates of quinia or cinchonia, if 
heated for three or four hours to about 250** or 266**, are converted into alka- 
loids, isomeric with the original bases, the former into quinicia, and the latter 
into dnchonicia, and but very little coloring matter ; the neutral salts suffer 
partial decomposition at that temperature after melting. Both are nearly in- 
soluble in water, soluble in alcohol, easily combine with carbonic acid, deplace 
ammonia from its salts, and deviate the polarized light a little to the right. 
The optical behavior of the different alkaloids, therefore, is as follows: — 

Quinia, considerably to left Cinchonia, considerably to right. 

Quinidia, " right Cinchonidia, " left. 

Quinicia, feebly right Cinchonicia, feebly right 

Chijioidina^ or Quinoidina, is a product of alteration of the cinchona alka- 
loids. Drying of the barks, or exposure of solution of alkaloids to the stin, 
and the influence of a high temperature, appear to favor this alteration. It Is 


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64 The Oinchona Alkaloids and their Salts, 

prepared by precipitating the mother liquor, from which the sulphates of the 
other alkaloids have been crystallized, by carbonate of soda, and extracting 
with alcohol. 

It is a reddish-brown, resin-like mass, entering into combination with acids 
like the unaltered alkaloids. The salts are resinous, uncrystallizable, very 
bitter. It is isomeric with quinia, and has, therefore, been also caUed amor- 
phous quinia. Pasteur supposes it to be uncrystallizable quinicia and cin- 

It has strong febrifuge properties, and is very efficient in doses double of 
that of the sulphate of quinia, either in pills or dissolved with a little sul- 
phuric acid. 

Precipitated Extract of BarJs is tiie same preparation as th^ above. It 
differs from the extractum calisayacum, referred to on page 180, by not con- 
taining the cr^stallizable alkaloids. 

Of the remarkable principles above described as existing in cinchona barks, 
dnchonia was the first discovered, having been isolated in an impure state as 
early as 1808, and fully described as an alkaloid by Pelletier and Caventon in 
1820. Quinidia was discovered soon after by the same chemists. Not until 
1838 was the existence of quinidia announced. In that year, Henry and De- 
londre announced its discovery, but afterwards abandoned the idea of its 
being a distinct principle ;, so that no further attention was bestowed upon it 
until, about the year 1844, the celebrated German chemist^ Winkler, investi- 
gated its properties, and conferred upon it the name quinidine, which, to cor- 
respond with our nomenclature, is changed to quinidia. Pasteur has since 
proved that quinidia, as it occurs in commerce, is generaUy composed chiefly 
of another alkaloid, to which he gave the name cinchonidia ; he likewise dis- 
covered the artificial isomeric alkaloids quinicia and cinchonicia. 

On page 407 wiU be fqund an account of other similar alkaloids, discovered 
in particular barks, and most of them not fully investigated. 

The former scarcity and high price of sulphate of quinia, occasioned in part 
by the restrictions placed upon the trade in genuine Calisaya bark, by the 
Bc^vian government, had the effect to direct ihe attention of physicians to 
other and similar remedial agents; but, .'notwithstanding the frequent an- 
nouncement of &vorable results from the trial of such, there seems a general 
disposition to withhold confidence from any but the products of that remark- 
able &mi]y of South American trees, whose history has been so long connect- 
ed with tiie cure of periodical diseases. The introduction into commerce of 
large quantities of cheap cinchona barks, from new sources, has been another 
result of the long-continued scarcity of the older and officinal kinds. Not- 
withstanding these have been regarded by many with jealousy, and doubts 
have been entertained of their therapeutic value, the study of their diemical 
history has shown that some of them are not less rich in alkaloids than the 
finest monopoly barks, and experiments in regard to the therapeutic value of 
their characteristic alkaloids have shovm a close resemblance in physiological 
effects to quinia itsel£ Some Bogota barks are now extensively employed for 


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Discussions on Diphtheria, 66 

the manaiactnre of quinia, the price of which has, in consequence thereof, 
considerably decreased; these barks, beside the other alkaloids, abound in 

Dr. Pepper, and other practitioners connected with hospital practice, have 
used sulphate of quinidia in the same or less doses than the quinia salt, and 
with equal success ; and its value and efficacy are confirmed by the experience 
of others in private practice. 

Sulphate of cinchonia, which had been generally overlooked, has also been 
mach used of tatter time as a substitute for the quinia salt ; and, although 
some physicians assert that larger doses of it are required, I am told by Dr. 
Conrad, the i^othecary of Pennsylvania Hospital, that in that institution the 
three cinchona alkaloids arc used indiscriminaitely, and in the same doses. 
Through Dr. R. P. Thomas, I am informed that, the cinchonia salt has been 
used with satisfaction as a substitute for that of quinia in the Philadelphia 
and Northern Dispensaries, in the Western Clinical Infirmary, and Philadel- 
phia Hospital, Blockley, where many intermittcnts are daily under treat- 

[to be cohtinued.] 

Discussions on Diphtheria. 


Prof. CoMEGYs introduced the subject of diphtheria for discussion, in which 
a large number of the members participated. 

Prof. C. stated that, within the last month or so, he had met with quite a 
number of cases of this disease in his practice. As met with by him, it was 
characterized by soreness of the throat, swelfing of the uvula and tonsils, with 
deep ash-cplored ulcerations on the latter — the ulcerations being more remark- 
able for their depth than the extent of surface they covered. In none of the 
cases was there any fever; indeed, he cotisidered the disease quite distin- 
guished for the little arterial excitement manifested in it. 

In many cases he had seen, the ulceration appeared to commence at first on 
one tonsil, and then to be communicated, as it were, to that of the opposite 
side by juxtaposition. In but few cases was the larynx afiected, and then but 
slightly ; in nearly all, however, the pharynx was more or less involved, and 
in a few instances the ulcerations were wholly confined to it. 

The disease, he said, was fi^uently very insidious in its progress. The- 
constitutional symptoms were oflen so very slight that he had known it Uy 
make very considerable progress before its invasion was suspected. In some 
cases, a little soreness of the throat, or slight difficulty in swallowing, was the 
only symptom complained of. He had now under treatment a young lady, 
some eigbteei^ years of age, who had had the disease several days before she 


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66 DiscffSfiions on Di/Jit/ierta. 

or hei* friendfi were aware of it. Previous to her a4;tack the mother and a lit- 
tie brother had been affected; the case of the former, however, was slight, 
yielding readily to common gargles. On examination he found the whole 
throat inflamed ; the uTula was swollen and dropsical, and at its extremity 
clubbed, and upon corresponding points of each of the tonsils there was a 
deep ash-colored ulceration. There were no cbnstitutional symptoms what- 

Previous to seeing her, she had been using for the slight soreness and diffi- 
culty she experience in swallowing, a chlorine wash that he had prescribed 
for her brother. The case representing rather a serious aspect, he made an 
immediate application of the solid nitrate of silver to the throat, cauterizing 
the ulcers fr«ely, and ordered a wash consisting of i strong solution of the 
same in water. Afterwards he substituted the hyposulphite of soda, as recom> 
mended to him by Dr. Heighway. His intemar treatment consisted in the ad- 
ministration of iron, beef tea, and wine whey. The throat symptoms are now 

At one time he collected some of the exudation from the tonsils and placed 
it under his microscope. He was, however, unable to discover anything but 
simple pus cells, in which were some fibres of vegetable matter, which he 
thought probably might have been detached from his handkerchief while 
cleaning the instrument. 

In some instances he had known this disease to terminate fatally, within 
twenty-four hours of its invasion, in slough. He related the case of a little 
' boy he had lately attended, who died of this complication within a few hours 
after his attack, and almost in the midst of his play. 

The Professor related several other cases he had met with, illustrative of 
the character of the disease, its insidious course, and often fatal termination 
when least expected. Among others, he mentioned the case of a young man 
affected with the disease, in which the whole soft textures of the moutli and 
throat became covered with a grayish-white exudation of a sphacelated ap- 
pearance. Indeed, so gangrenous in appearance were all the textures, that he 
and Dr. T. Wood, who was called in consultation, were inclined to 'think that 
gangrene had taken place. In a short time, however, this membrane became 
detached, disclosing the inflamed surface of the textures beneath. The pa- 
tient died. 

In his treatment He was in the habit of applying topically caustics freely to 
the throat, as the nitrate of silver in substance, or a strong solution of it in 
water. Sometimes, when the ulcerations were deep and extensive, he touched 
them with strong nitric acid, by means of a brush. In some cases he had 
employed, with considerable benefit, inhalations of tannic acid dissolved in 
sulphuric ether. This formula was : — 

1^ . — Tannic acid, \ f. 3 ij. 

Sulph. ether, f. 5 j. M. 

• \\ ith this a cloth was wetted and placed in the mouth, 
lie Ijased his internal treatment on general principles, always being careful 


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Discusswm oil DiphtJieria, 67 

to husband the strength of the patient When indicated, ho administered 
tonics and stimulants freely, as iron, bark, wine, &c., with nourishing diet 

Dr. Hkighwav said that Dr. Leidy had demonstrated, by means; of the mi- 
croscope, the identity of the exudation in diphtheria with that of the fungi of 
the yeast plant Sulphurous acid was peculiarly destructive to it On ac- 
count of its very soon decomposing when uacombined, it was used in the form 
of a salt as the hyposulphite of soda. Two drachms of tannin to a pint of 
glycerine, applied by means of a probang, had been used with the best 

Dr. \V. JuDKixs observed that he thought much injury was often done by 
caustics. He, for his part, never employed them. A gentle stimulant, in tlie 
form of a mild lotion, was all that was necessary in their topical treatment. 
His favorite formula was eight grains of the iodide of zinc to an ounce of 

The old maxim " nhi irritatioy ibi Jfuxns,'^ he believed was correct, and as 
caustics were undoubtedly irritants, their effects must be rather to excite in- 
flammation than to subdue it. He had learned from observation, that when 
an eschar was removed from a cauterized ulcer, there would be disclosed be- 
neath an ulcer larger than the first If, then, cauterization be the rule, it 
must be done again and again, and he could not see when it was to terminate. 

Dr. BoNNBK, Sr., following in some remarks, said that he could not agree 
with Dr. Judkins in his views of the effects of cauteries. He himseif did not 
consider them irritants, nor could he understaiMi how they could act as such. 
The action of nitrate of silver, one of the so-called cauteries, upon an ulcer, 
according to his experience, was not to irritate it or burn it, but, besides stimu- 
lating it to healthy action, to coagulate the pus and other secretions, so as to 
form a scab under which granulations might spring up. 

Further, he remarked, he believed that many of the cases of sore throat 
now prevailing were improperly called diphtheria ; that many of thtni, if not 
the majority, were nothing more than the ordinary affections produced by 
cold. ' He was rather inclined to think that the Evropean trij)s of some of 
the professional brethren had made them somewhat dissatisfied with such old 
names as quinsy. 

The Doctor related several cases in his practice of throat affection, one of 
them a woman that was attacked immediately after confinement that yielded 
to common astringent and stimulating gargles, whicli he thought probably 
many would have considered cases of diphtheria. . He hi mi-elf, however, could 
not see anything more peculiar in them than in the sore throats of old time». 

Prof. CoMKOVs said that he explained the beneficial action of cauteries upon 
ulcerations by their substituting an inflammation of theii- own in place of the 
diseased one. He did not think an increase of inflammation followed their 
use — rather a change in character. 

I>r. White reported several cases of the disease he bad met with. He 
treated them successfully with iron, chlorate of potash, and astringent gar- 
2;les. In several of them the external glands were much swollen ; in one case 


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68 Discussiofis on Diphtheria. 

particularly tho whole of the glands beneath the jaw were so much swollen as 
almost to prevent the lightest opening of the mouth. All external applica- 
tions that he employed in the form of liniments, tincture of iodine, poultice, 
&c., appeared to be of little or no benefit 

Prof. Mendeniiai.i. stated that in such cases ho had frequently derived con- 
siderable benefit from the application of the tincture of iodine and poultices ot 
slippery-elm bark. 

Prof. M. reported a case of croup that supervened upon an attack of diph- 
theria. The remedies usually employed in that disease were used— the patient 

Dr. Stevens stated that lie had recently received a letter from a, very intelli- 
gent physician near Pomeroy, Ohio, detailing the symptoms of sn epidemic 
prevailing in that vicinity, which, from the features described, was Undoubted- 
ly diphtheria. One marked- peculiarity of the epidemic described was a loss 
of strength and power of locomotion attendant upon a large proportion of the 
cases, after recovering from the acute symptoms. Dr. S. said that he had ob- 
served accounts of this same sequel to diphtheria related in the medical jour- 
nals of the day, and inquired if the gentlemen present had observed such re- 
sults in any of the cases which they had treated. 

From the Hew York Ttnua^ Jan. 6. 



The President, Dr. J. Watson, stated what was especially desired was the 
difierential diagnosis of croup in its varied forms, and called upon Dr. Doug- 
lass as having particular experience in those classes of diseases. 

Dr. Douglass stated that he divided a-oup into spasmodic inflammatory with 
false membrane, and diphtheritic, and proceeded to describe the peculiarities 
of the latter, which differed markedly from that of the other classes. Espe- 
cially there was a discharge from the nostrils of a profuse, somewhat colored 
secretion ; the countenance was flushed, very differently from the color in 
croupy pneumonia, but of a yellowish-red color. The sound of the cough 
was moist, and in croup sonorous and metallic The breathing is not difficulty 
as in croup, but there is an utter prostration of all the powers. The treat- 
ment of diphtheria was the opposite to that of croup. He thought it possible 
that large doses of calomel might be of utility in inflammatory croup, al- 
though he had never given it ; but the treatment of diphtheria should be sus- 
taining — quinine and iron — ^and as it was a blood disease, he considered calo- 
mel particularly inadmissible. He approved of topical applications to the 
throat, and if emetics were necessary, those should be given which were me- 
chanical, acting without prostration* 

Dr. Babker had seen this disease last year in Albany and Troy, but none 
in New York till this last Ml, He thought that it was now the general idea 
that it was a blood disease, with a local development affecting the throat and 


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Discussions on DiphHi^eria. 69 

nares gencrallj, and with an exudation of &lse membrane. He had seen it in 
especial localities, and iii that region there were also cases where the mem- 
brane was exuded on mucous surfaces other than the throat, and related a 
case of this character marked by great rectal and vesical tenesmus, overcome 
only by chloroform and injection of solution of nitrate of silver. Chlorate of 
potasssD and quinine in full doses was the treatment he had used, particularly 
in some cases seen with Dr. Jacob!. There was a tendency to a destruction 
of tissue, and debilitating emetics could not be well borne. He preferred the 
turpeth mineral, first recommended by Dr. Hubbard, of Maine, in 1840, which 
acted speedily and without prostration. 

Dr. Gardner resumed the discussion of diphtheritc, by saying that he had 
seen some cases of the disease ; and while he agreed with Drs. Douglass and 
Barker in the views they had expressed, thought they had omitted two dis- 
tinct features peculiar to diphtherite ; that it was not only epidemic, but emi- 
nently contagious, and that a disagreeable diagnostic smell always accompa- 
nied the flow from the nose. He thought that a vigorous tonic treatment and 
local application to the throat were demanded. The membranous exudation, 
he thought, differed from that of membranous croup by being less, strong and 
tenacious, and not ever, in his experience, running down so as to make casts 
of the bronchi. He trusted that Dr. Jacobi, who had just entered, and who 
had a large experience in this disease, would give his views. 

Dr. Jacobi thought that the main feature of the disease was the dissolutiqu 
of blood, while the membrane, he thought, was not different in any respect 
from that in croup. He had seen it thrown off in all shapes and thicknesses — 
even one-eighth of an inch thick — ^from the tonsils ; and although it was gen 
^rally limited to the tonsils and velum palate, he had seen it on every mucous 
membrane of the body. . Croup, he considered, to be merely the filling up of 
the air passages with fibrine, and did not thus differ from diphtherite. The . 
latter, however, is an epidemic disease, which he had never known croup to 
be, but sporadic. He thought no one had ever seen more than a few cases in 
a year, while in dispensary, private practice and cons^ltatioas, he must have 
seen between three hundred and four hundred cases within the last eight 
months. When the membrane descends into the trachea, he considered it to 
be croup. He sees no difference between the two diseases, except in the disso- 
lutbn of the blood. Tracheotomy in this disease is never successful 

Dr. Douglass inquired if he had ever found albuminaria, which the French 
state accompanied this disease. 

Dr. Jacobi — ^He had examined the secretion of the kidneys in about fifteen 
cases, and had found it only in about twenty-five per «cent, and in those only 
in the early stages of it. He had noticed the smell mentioned by Dr. Gard- 
ner in every case, but had never seen any such in croup, and considered this 
as important for diagnosis. He saw no utility in applying caustic to the 
membrane on which the membrane had exuded, and is of no value to the sur- 
face from which it has been thro\i'n offj but he touched the parts; around to 
prevent the inflammation from spreading. Tt took scriTal days for the mciu- 


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70 Viscufysiojis on Diphtheria. 

bi'anc to become detacTicd, and had never seen this hurried by the caustic ap- 
plication; besides, it does no injury upon the pharynx, never interfering with 
the respiration. 

The general treatment in slight cases, upon which he relics, is the clil'orate 
of potash, from a half to one drachm, in divided doses, per day, to a child 
from six months to four years old, and three drachms per day to those older. 
He thought that the treatment, though slight, is of the utmost importance, 
and should be continued for many weeks, and even months, with the addition 
of iron, (the muriatic tincture in preference,) as there is constant danger for a 
considerable period of the reappearance of the disease. 

In severe cases the chlorate of potash is too slow when used alone, and he 
is accustomed to combine with it, or oflener precede it, by a few large doses 
of quinine. He preferred the solution in water with an addition of add, be- 
cause he had found that some cases did very well when treated by aci^ alone . 
— generally the miu*iatic 

The severe cases of children, which came on very suddenly, arc very apt to 
l>e f^ital, from the overwhelming effect on the general system of the poison of 
the disease. It often reappears in children, after the lapse of three or four 
weeks even, and notwithstanding that the treatment has been kept up of qui- 
nine and Iron, conjoined to a nutritious diet — ^beef tea, &c — these cases gen- 
erally ended with convulsions of a mild sort, but yet marked, although diflPer- 
ing much from the convulsions attendant upon scarlatina. 

Where the running from the nose was very excessive and offensive, he had 
been in the habit of making injections of a solution of chlorate of potash, and 
oflener of chlorate of soda, as the latter will dissolve in four parts of water, 
while the former requires sixteen. He had also repeated the experiments of 
French investigators, and was convinced that the latter is a better solvent 
of plastic exudations. 

Dr. Barker thought he had misunderstood the last speaker in his patho- 
logical views, and inquired if he considered, as he had inferred, that croup and 
diphtheria were the saitae ? 

Br. Jaco»i replied — ^By no means. C^roup he considered a local disease, 
but diphthei-ia was a blood disease. The membrane, in each case, he had said 
was identical. 

Dr. Barker said that, therefore, there was no point of controversy between 
them. In croup, the local difficulty precedes the general disturbmice, while 
^he opposite is the caae with diphtheria. In the latter, too, death rarely oc- 
curs from obstruction of respiration, as is the case almost always with the for- 

The President was happy in having elicited this valuable discussion, because 
of the discrepancy of the statements of \\Titer8 abroad — some stating that otmp 
was contagious, while others ridicule this opinion. He drew the attention of 
the Academy to the writings of Guersant in the Dictionary of Medicine, and 
the contemporary productions of English writers, &c He thought that this 
subject was one of great importance, and it might be profitably continued. 


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Discussions on Diphtheria. 71 

Dr. Douglass inquired of Dr. Ja«obi respecting the distinction in the 
countenance in cases of croup and diphtheria — in the former being pale, and in 
the latter not exactly flushed, but suffused, of a yellowish red tint. 

Dr. Gardner had seen great swelling of the glands and sub-cellular tissue 
of the neck, and inquired of Dr. J. if he had noted abscesses in Tarious parts of 
the body, as in the kindred disease of scarlatina. 

Dr. Jacobi has noted the color of the fsice, and attributed it to the little dis- 
turbance in the respiration. Abscesses he had noted but a few times ; one he 
particularly remembered, which threatened the life of the patient 

On motion of Dr. Thomas, this subject was made the especial subject for dis- 
cussion at the next meeting^ 

Dr. Peaslee presented a new instrument for inhaling chloroform, and alter 
the reading of the names of those electa ion the various committeeS| the 
Academy adjourned. 

From the Xew Orltans Medical and Surgical Joumal^ January^ 18<>0. 

Mv Dear Doctor : — I have committed myself in a recent letter to you, in 
answer to your kind favor of August 26tb, in which you asked>ne to give 
you my views upon diptheria, membranous sore-throat, or angine coucnneuse, 
by promising to do so when drcnmstanoes would permit 

I assure you that I feel great diffidence in commencing this task at this 
epoch, when since two years this is the subject which has held, perhaps, the 
first place in medical discussion and observation among the highest modieal 
intelligences in the world. What I have to say will be strictly confined to my 
own personal views upon the subject This may seem to you presumptuous 
on my part, and following too closely the letter of your request, ignoring the 
spirit of it ; but, on the other hand, it would be equally absurd for me to 
compile a natural history of the disease firom documents written by able men 
during the past two years, which have been accessible to yourself and to 
other members of the medical profession in America and elsewhere. 
. So you will understand, my dear doctor, that I have no idea of giving a his- 
tory of the disease to a novice in medicine, but my own views upon certain 
capital points in the disease per se^ and in its relation to menbranous croup^ 
to a veteran in the corps (of which I am but a recruit), who knows both 
diseases better than myself, and will understand those views without descrip- 
tion of the diseases in question. I have, then, but ideas to of&r in outline, 
and will be brief. 

In the first place, I tell you, as well as I can in words, some of the diflfer- 
ences which exist, in ray opinion, between the two diseases, menbranous 
croup and angine couenneuse ; but some of them are only to be siezed by the 
high faculties of the mind — words can only hint at those points which the 


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72 Discussions on Diphtheria. 

reason alone can feel. In one word, it can be felt, but not expressed in its 
essence. ' 

Firstly, do you understand what I mean when I say that for me the same 
relative position exists between these two diseases as exists between the in- 
termittent fevers with which you are so conversant in your part of the coun- 
try and throughout the United States, and the Syrian and Roman forms of 
intermittent fevers V A difference in the intensity of the poison or ferment 
certainly, and most probably also in its nature, between the croup and diph- 
theria, and your congestive fever and intermittent, would be an exaggeration. 

In the second place — and this is less transcendental, if you will pass me 
the word, than my first proposition — the croup, uncomplicated, kills the pa- 
Kent in but one way — ^by suffocation. The angine couenneuse, unoompli- 
oated, may produce death in three ways : first, during the acute period of the 
disease, by suffocation; and after the disappearance of all membranous exu- 
dation in the larynx, even months after, by the effects of the poison or fer- 
ment exhibited in the progressive paralysis which almost always follows the 
recovery from the acute period of the disease, or by asthenia during an inter- 
mediate period. Of this peculiar difference between the two diseases, the con- 
secutive progress in paralysis, I will write more at length later, for to my 
mind it constitutes an essential point. 

In the third place, the croup is a disease which is almost exclusively con- 
fined to children, whereas the angine couenneuse attacks indiscriminately 
children, adolescents, and adults. Tou may say that this is a loose proposi- 
tion. True, it cannot be proved by words to difference the nature of the two 
diseases, but it seems to me that mental discrimination must give the fact an 
important place in instituting a parallel between them. 

I am about touching upon a ground, in my fourth proposition, which is so 
covered with eggs that I hardly dare cross it on tiptoe ! You will appreciate 
my he^tation, if you remember certain of our conversations together while 
you were in Paris, when I whisper in your ear that word which is to my 
mind what Mle is to the mind of the community at large — a scapegoat for the 
generality of Nature's medical mysteries, contagion. Knowing my sentiments 
fully upon this subject, you may be disposed to regard the few words I have 
to offer upon this point as more serious than you would if they came fh)m a 
contagious sectarian ; for you know that I don't believe that a medical s^Ut- 
rian can be a sound man, any more than I do that a religious sectarian can 
be a religious man. The croup occurs fi-equently sporadically, more frequent- 
ly as an epidemic, but I think a few are disposed seriously to consider that it 
is ever propagated by mediate contagion. Diphtheria rarely occurs as a spo- 
radic disease, almost invariably as an epidemic ; and now, my dear doctor, I 
shut my eyes and make my profession of belief: if there exists a medi&tely 
contagions disease on earth it is the angine couenneuse, and that the epidem- 
ics of this disease are or may be contagious epidemics. I admit this belief; by 
no means losing sight of atmospheric influences, which are greater, in mjr 
opinion, than all others in the development and propagation of the disease. 


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Discussions ati Diphtheria. 73 

Ihui simply to acknowledge that I belieye it to be endowed with a highly con. 
•tagious element. This is an opinion founded upon the direst observation of 
which I am capable, and by no means a theoretical conrenienoe. 

My fifth proposition regards the mode of invasion of the two diseases. 
. Membranous croup commences insidiously, and ordinarily several days elapse 
before the symptoms awaken serious apprehensions in the minds of those 
who surround the patient. The angine couenneuse, on the other hand, enters 
•appn the^eld with a certain conquering magistry, as a general rule, which 
leaves no time for parley. The first symptoms are ordinarily, with the ex- 
•ception of the soreness of the throat, those which announce an invasion of 
typhoid fever, general lassitude (the patient expresses it better than I can in 
classical professional language by informing you that he feels sick all over), to 
which) are added pains in the head, back and limbs, accompanied by a febrile 
.movement for the most part quite intense. The disease carries the typhoid 
4ype with it, if you will permit me the expression, throughout its entire'' 
<x>urse, and, if possible, this element is more marked -during the convalescence, 
which is always an afiair of several months, than during the acute period of 
the disease. In your letter to me, announcing your sad affliction for the 
death of your dear boy from thisi disease, you made a r^maric which proved to 
me again your high medical sagacity, for you had seen but two or three cases 
as yet in New Orleans from which to form your opinion. It was, that you 
considered it to be ** evidently as general and as mudi a blood poison as the 
New England typhus.*^ It is most certainly that, and it is more — it is deeper 
.And more deadly. 

With regard to the treatmoit of this terrible malady, my views are, to a 
-oertain extent, in accordance with those generally professed to-day. It is of 
an absolute necessity, in my opinion, to apply a mixed treatment> general and 
local, firom the commencement I would much sooner abandon the latter— surgi- 
cal treatment — as a means of prolonging life and giving a larger trial of general 
treatment excepted than the former. It is evidently a typhoid disease, and as 
guch must be treated from the start — it is a septic disease, and as such must 
be combatted at the earliest moment ; it is accompanied by local accidents, 
and they must be treated as they present themselves. First, then, I advise at 
my first visit an insufflation of a drachm of very dry powdered burnt alum, 
whether I find a commencement of the plastic deposit on the tonsils or in the 
<pharynx, or not — ^you will always find the fiMioes and tonsils inflamed, and 
ordinarily a commencement of the deposit in some locality in the throat 
Even if I find it already considerable, my treatment is the same. At the same 
visit I also advise a tepid bath, of an hours' duration at least, and more fre- 
quently of two hours, and a purge of citrate of magnesia (purgative lemon- 
ado), six or eight drachms in solution, and dose to be repeated every two 
hours until it operates. This is to prepare the patient for what is to follow, 
by cleaning the intestines of whatever load of matter they may contain, activ- 
ating the sections of the entire canal, and irritating the absorbents, if I may 
«o speak, to a more rapid action upon the general medication to follow. The 


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74 ' Discussions on Diphtheria. 

bath is of eminent servioe in revivifying the powers of that immense oi'gan, 
the skin, and activating its functions. I can't pretend to explain how, but 
you will see and feel it as clearly as myself. I prefer the alum as a topic most 
decidedly to nitrate of silver, as it forms no eschar to blind you at your next 
visit with regard to the exact state of things in the throat, and also because I 
have found it really more potent in its good influence as a local applicatioo. ^ 
The tongue is to be held down with a large spoon, and the alum blown in 
through a single glass tube, six or eight inches long, and one-fourth oC an 
inch in diameter, at the moment when the. presence of the spoon in the &uces 
causes the involuntary act of gagging on ^e part of the patient This insuf- 
flation I order to be continued every hour until my ^petum. Its frequency 
must always be determined, however, by the sagacity of the physician, the 
gravity of appearances taken into consideration. I rarely order it less ofloi 
tlian once in two hours. Having thus prepared my patient, I commence im- 
mediately upon my general treatment, whidi consists in the administratioD, 
every three hours, of ten grains of the chlorate of potash, and ten grains of 
the bichlorate, dissolved in some convenient vehicle, with the administration 
ordinarily with one-tenth of a grain of calomel in sugaf, dry, upon the 
tongue, every hour or every two hours, stopping and recommencing its id- 
ministration according to circumstances, which can only be explained or a|>- 
predated by the physician at the bedside. This is a proper moment to lay 
before your consideration a question which has been recently agitated in the 
medical world, viz : if in the simultaneous administration of calomel and the 
chlorate of potash, the effects of the latter do not counteract in a measure, or 
destroy entirely, the specific effects of the former? For my own part, I am 
prepared to say that although it may retard or prevent, for aught I know, th* 
specific effects on the salivary glands, I do not believe that it modifies, in any 
way, its effects upon the secretions. This opinion is based upon many, and 
some very recent observations. However, as we know nothing positively 
about the matter, I generally suspend the one and the other alternately for 
twenty-four or thirty-six hours at a time during the course of the disease, in 
order to profit, if possible, by the doubt I always remove with long forceps, 
or by scraping, or by any other means, violent or gentle, all accessible por- 
tions of the pseudo-membranous deposit, in order to allow the topics to act as 
directly as possible upon the secretory surfaces, and also to prevent as much 
as may be the accumulation of a thick, hard deposit, which would act as a 
serious mechanical obstruction. 


OxYTOxic. — ^The administration of the Indian hemp seems markedly and di- 
rectly to increase parturient action, and Dr. Churchill states that it possessea^ 
power similar to those of the ergot of rye in arresting hemorrhage, when de- 
pendent upon congested states of the impregnated uterus.-^J9rai£AiMK^« M§- 


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Verairum Viride and Chlorine in Yellow Fever. 75 

Veratrum Viride and Chlorine in Yellow Fever. 

[Our valued friend and confrere, Dr. E. D. Fenner, of the New Orleans 
School of Medicine, left for Europe on the 14th of May. Onboard the steamer 
which bore him hence, it will be seen that his mind still dwelt on home and 
its medical interests, and he has furnished the following letter to Dr. Brickell^ 
which will be read by all who know him : — ] 

Mr Dear Collbaoujk : — As wmtt practitioner may desire to try the new 
treatment for yellow fever which I brought to the notice of the profession in the 
October and November numbers of our Journal last year, I have concluded, 
before quitting the country, to leave you some plain directions for carrying 
out the same. 

I repeat what has been said before, that I think we have in the veratrum 
viride and chlorine mixture,, medicines which are fiiirly entitled to be eon- 
tidered remedies /or yellow fever. They will at least- fulfill the following in- 
dicatioDS, viz : eompleUly eerUrol fei>rile exeUement, and heep up the seere- 
Htme of the liffer, hidneye and shin. Now, these are not all the indications 
that are presented in yellow fever, but they certainly are the principal ones, 
and those to which our remedies are chiefly directed. If the febrile excite- 
ment be very moderate, the V. V. •will hardly be called for. 

My directions, in brief, are as follows : — 

At the commencement of the attack, order a hot mustard foot-bath, and 
evacuate the bowels with a mild cathartic, such as castor oil, citrate of mag- 
nesia, or Seidlitz powders. If the stomach be irritable, with bilious vomiting 
and a coated tongue, give a gentle emetic of ipecac, or salt and mustard. 

After this, if the fever be high, give five drops of the V. V. in a little water, 
every four hours, till the pulse be brought down to seventy, when the V. V. 
will be stopped, or the interval between the doses prolonged, so as to keep the 
. pulse at seventy. At the same time begin with the chlorine mixture, and 
give two tablespoonsful every four hours — ^thus V. V. at 2, chlorine at 6 ; V. 
T. at 8, chlorine at 10 o'clock, &c. If the fever be moderate from the first, 
the V. V. may be dispensed with, and the chlorine alone relied on, and given 
more frequently, say every second hour. These doses are for adults. Chil- 
dren, even sucking infants, bear the chlorine well, but the Y. Y. should be 
wetj eautiously given to them. 

The repetition of foot-baths, sinapisms, spongings, enemata, &c., must be 
left to the judgment of the practitioner. I have no doubt that quinine, in 
some way, would be a valuable adjunct to these remedies ; but will not direct 
it at present. 

The following is the chlorine mixture : — 

%, — Acid, hydrochloric, 

Aqua dtstallata,.. oa. | ii. 

Mix, and add 

Potass, chlorat., 3 ii- 


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76 Tincture of Capsicum for ChiUblaim and Toot/iac/ie. 

Let this be labelled and kept on hand. For use, prescribe as follows : — 

5 . — Chlorine mixture, 3 ii. 

Aqua distallaf, * o. j. M. 

S. Give two tablespoonsful every two or four hours (pro re mata). 

For drink, I like orange leaf tea, lemonade and barley water. Covering r 
generally one blanket. Do not rise up in bed after the first day, until fairly 

With these two remedies as my main dependence, in twenty-five cases of 
the bad epidemic last year I only lost two— one a lady, who was delivered at 
the critical stage of the fever ; the other a very delicate lady with no recuper- 
ative energy. 

Dr. W. E. Kennedy told me he treated fifteen cases with these remedies^ 
and lost but one. 

Dr. C. Beard treated eight cases, and lost none. 

Dr. S. Choppin treated eight cases, and lost none. 

Other physicians told me they had tried these remedies, with happy effects. 
I hope others will try them, if yellow fever should again appear in any of our 
cities or villages. — Soutlhem Medical Journal. 

Tincture of Capsicum for Chilblains and Toothache. 

By Dr. A. Tarnbidi, 

My plan of treatment is simply to saturate a piece of sponge or flannel with 
the concentrated tincture* of capsicum, and to rub well over the seat of the 
chilblains, until such times as a strong tingling and electrical (?) feeling is 

This medicine possesses an extraordinary power in removing congestion by 
its action upon the nerves and circulation. 

This application ought ^to be continued daily until the disease is removed. 
Relief will be experienced on the very first application, and frequently there 
will be a total removal of the disease after the second or third. This, ^f 
course, depends upon the severity of the case. This embrocation when 
rubbed never produces excoriation, if the skin is not broken. 

The manner of using it for toothache is by putting a drop or two of the 
. tincture on cotton, and applying it to the part afiected, the relief will be im- 
mediate. The following is the formula : — 

IJ . — Tinctura capsici concentrata. 

Capsici baccarum, | iv. 

SpirituB vini rect, | xij. 

Macera per dies septem et cola. 

It may also be made with advantage by displacement. — Medical Gazette^ 


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Editorial 77 



Eighth Annual Meeting, held in Boston September, 1859. — We have just 
received this volume, containing over four hundred pages of closely printed 
matter. The style, general appearance, and execution of the work reflects 
much credit upon the Committee having this duty in charge. 

As very truthfully stated in the prefatory note, the amount of matter it con- 
tains, if printed like the reports of many Associations, it would make a volume 
of 1,000 pages. 

There is scarcely a report or essay in the entire volume which is not of 
such a practical character as to make it valuable as well as interesting to every 
member of the medical profession — subjects upon which they should be well 
informed ; and we are quite sure they cannot do so at less co9t than the Com- 
mittee oflTer this work, in handsome library style. 

The reports of the Committees 
On the Progress of Pharmacy, 
On Weights and Measures, 
On the Revision of the Pharmacopoeia, and 
On Home Adulterations, . 
are very full and valuable ; that on weights and measures, upon which niucfjr 
discussion has occurred, is very full, aiid will amply repay a perusal. 

Among the special and volunteer reports on scientific subjects and essays 
arc many valuable scientific papers, evincing much interest on the part of 
apothecaries in the general objects and aims of the Association. To these- 
we shall refer more particularly at another time. 

Those w»hing to procure the work can address the President, S. M. Col- 
cord, or Charles T. Carney, Boston, inclosing one dollar for the hook and! 
twenty 'fire cents for postage, who will forward the same by mail. 

Scarlatina. — In reply to several letters inquiring what preparation of am- 
monia was used by Mr. Witt, we state, that the article in BraithiomMs Retro- 
spect, vol. 38, page 17, is not clear. We should infer that the sesqui carbon- 
ate was used, as Dr. Rogers, in the London Lancet^ of the reprint of June 
last, refers to that article as recommende(i by Mr. Witt, and states that his 
experience does not agree with Mr. Witt. The hydro-chlorate has also been 
tried in cases of scarlatina, with varied success, depending upon a variety of 

Dr. McGugin, of Iowa, in referring to the use of ammonia in this disease^ 
says that instead of it he has used, in an epidemic of scarlatina, during the^ 
present winter, chlorate of potassa, in combination witli veratrum viride ; it 
was of the anginose variety, and every case was controlled in a few days. lie 
gave the veratrum with the solution of chlorate, each in doses appropriate to 
the age of the patient, using the salt as a gargle. 

Dr, BostH'ick mentions a number of cases attended with high fever, and 


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78 Miiorial 

pulse 120 to 140; some of them delirious ou his first attendance. He 
treated all with veratrum and tonics, also applied sinapisms to the throat 
In some attended with cough and excessive secretion of mucous, he vomited 
the patient by one or two additional drops, with great relief. 

In several cases of this disease, which the writer has treated within a few 
weeks, all successfully, without witnessing one unfavorable sequence, he haa 
relied mainly upon veratrurfi, quinine, citrate of iron, brandy or whuikey^ 
•nitrate of silvery and chlorate of potasaa. 

In one patient the disease was ushered in by alarming symptoms — great ex- 
haustion of the rital energies, constant nausea and frequent vomiting, occa- 
:sional lipothymy and spasms of the muscular system, with difficult re8pir»> 
tion; pulse scarcely perceptible. Stimulants were immediately given in 
liberal doses — quinine, in two-grain doses, every three hours ; citrate of iron, 
in two»-grain doses : intermediate each dose of qtfinine ; whiskey was given 
'Gvery thirty minutes, and the patient allowed the free use of ice. At first, to 
secure a free movemc^it of the bowels, and keep up the renal secretions, ex- 
tract of colohicum was given, in half-gntin doses, every two hours, and oon- 
tinued until tke object for which it was given was fully accomplished, and 
then discontinued entirely. No other cathartic medicine was given during the 
disease, the bowels, if necessary, being moved by enemas. Solution of nitrate 
of silver in crystals, ten grains to the ounce, was applied to the throat, night 
and morning, for four or five days ; after which gargles of tannin and chlorate 
of potash, Ac., were used. Inhalations of ether and tannic acid were used 
the first few days, with much i»elicf 

It was necessary to continue the quinine, iron and whiskey, giving at 
proper inter>'als iodide of potassium during the first ten days, after which dis- 
continued the iron &nd potussa, and continued the quinine, in one-grain doses, 
once in four hours, and whiskey every hour. This was kept up until the fif- 
teenth day, and then^gradually discontinued. Allowed the patient all the 
nourishment that the stomach would retain. I ought to have stated that 
during the first eight or ten days of the attack the patient was quite uncon- 
scious. A course of treatment less stimulating, or by abandoning eariy the 
quinine an^ iron, I am well satisfied would have been death to the patient. 
The case is peculiarly interesting, as it required for so long a time the fre- 
quent doses of stimulants and ton\ps. 

The pulse on the second day was 120, when veratrum was given, two to 
four drops, every three to four hours, to reduce and keep the pulse between 
eighty and eighty-five, with the desired eflFect. 

Brs. Babbington and Hughes, after long experience, were convinced that 
when the brain symptoms, which are so generally fatal, supervene daring tke 
convalescence of scarlet fever, there is no remedy more efficacious than col- 

As the brain symptoms ariae from the retention of urates in the blokod, it 
occurred to me that, by giving it in the eariy stages of the disease, to prevent 
the supervention of urema, the unpleasant sequences are avoided. 


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Editorial 79 

Prof. Bennett, of Bdinburgh, thus reoites his experience in the use of col- 
ehicum : — 

*^ This was a very severe case of scarlatina. The angina was intense, occa^ 
•ionally* rendering deglutition impossible. There was delirium on Uie third 
daj, alternating at night with coma, which was oft^i profound. The worst 
result was apprehended. It rec^irred to me that the head symptoms in this, 
as in several cases of typhus, might probably depend not so much upon in- 
flammation of the brain, as is generally supposed, as upon the absorption of 
and poisoning by urea, an idea that appeared to me supported by the dimin- 
ished quantity of the renal excretion, as well as its freedom from all deposit 
Bemembering the allied virtues of colchicum in increasiDg the •liminati<m of 
this excretion, I ordered it, in combination with diuretics, and the result was 
remarkable ; for, on the next day, not only had the fever diminished, but the 
urine was increased in amount^ and loaded with urates, to an extent and in 
form I had never previously seen. It naay be argued that the fever had ter- 
minated by a natural crisis on the seventh day ; but^ cannot help thinking 
that in this case nature was assistdl by the o(^hicum and diuretics. At all 
events, this medicine seems to me worthy of more extensive trial in scarlatina, 
accompanied by dimunition of urine and head symptoms." J. B.' 

Hydroctanate of Iron in Epilepsy. — ^We have received the following 
letter from Dr. Bailey, of Iowa, which we publish with pleasure, as it re. 
lates to the recovery of a case oi long standing, and one regarded as 
hopeless. Dr. Bailey is a retired physician, and one of the most substantial 
men of that State, having held several important offices under the Greneral 
Government) and now represents his district in the Senate of Iowa. It is 
now fourteen months since his son has had a paroxysm : — 

Vkksom, Iowa, January. 

J/lsMr«. Editors : — Observing in jour excellent Journal many Inquif^es in relation to Uie snec^ In 
the nse of the hydrocyanate of iron, I hare to state that in the hands of Prof. D. L. McGughi, of Keo- 
kuk, in this State, not less distinguished at homo as a philanthropist than throughout the country as 
an eminent physician, I deem it a duty I owe to suffering humanity to ^ve a statement of a case in 
my own family — an only ton — in which he has effected an entire cure, by the use of that medicine, in 
Ihat terrible of all diseases, epilepsy, after a standing of more than seven years. My son, for the 
above length of time, had convulsions, at Intervals of fh>m three weeks to two months, with such 
■eyerity as materially to impair his memory. In fact, I had but little hope that he could be saved 
from the ordinary consequence of that disease — loss of reason. 

£very remedy was employed that medical skill could suggest for more than six years, without suc- 
cess ; but finally, after laborious and patient research by the Professor, the hydrocyanate of iron was 
dlitained, (I believe at your hands.) About four weeks after he gave it to my son, he had a. 
▼ery light paroxysm of the disease, and shice that time, now fonrteen months, he lias not had the 
, sdghtesi symptom ; is now as well as he was at any time prior to ths first attack, and Is performing 
the duties of postmaster at this place, beside acUng as clerk hi a store. 

I hope that the Professor may deem it his duty to the profession, and to humanity, to give a detailed 
■lalement of this case to the medical public, that others may be faidaoed to make trial of the remedy ; 
and it Is for this ohJect and purpose, viz : to urge medical men to a trial of this drug, that I now report 
this ease, and trust that In ewry case it may prove as fortunate as in my own fsmily. I cannot close 
this communication witliout saying that no one can properly appreciate the deep sense of obligatiMi 
my family feels to the Professor for his instrumentality In effecting this remarkable cure, unless it be a 
parent, a sister, or a brother to a patient slmlUrly afliicted. In fact, a house of gloom and mourning 
has been happily changed to one of Joy and happlnesB. , 

I am proud that medical sdenoe can fUmish such trophies of its power to heal, and In this instance 


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80 Editmnal 

I have clio»en to expretts a double gratification, as a medical man — thoogfa retired tnsm Uie active da- 
ties of tlie profesdon— and the Jox of a parent, In the recorery of a son wtiom I <»ce mourned m 
being.beyond the reach of remedy and the power of the beat medic^ sldlL 
** Most respectftiUy^ yours, Ac, GEO. a BAILKY. 

T ANNATE OF BcsMUTH. — ^The Bulletin de VAcademU de Medicine contains m 
communication of Dr. Cap to the Academy of Medicine of Paris, in which he 
calls their attention to a new product, tam^te of bismuth, for chronic diar- 
rhoea, &c. The idea was suggested bj the analogous and raluable properties 
of both — ^the one a pure astringent ; the other possessing tonic properties, 
and a highly soothing influence upon irritated mucous surfaces, or when in a 
state of chronic inflammation, has been found highly valuable in dyspepsia, 
chronic gastrites, heartburn, diarrhoea, &c. A consideration of the medidd 
properties of both readily suggest the value the combination may possess ; it 
is stated to be without taste, and plea,santly administered 

Several cases of diarrhoea are stated in which the disease yielded with doses 
of two to four grammes, and twelve other cases where it was administered 
by other physicians in like doses. Cure was generally effected in two 
dayB. We shall give a full translation Sf this article, and whatever else may 
be published in the foreign journals, as we cannot but regard this as of equal, 
if not more value than other combinations, either of tannin or bismuth. 

Diphtheria. — ^We devote more space to the discussions in the New York 
and Cincinnati Academies of Medicine upon this epidemic than we usually 
give to a single subject, because our numerous correspondents have requested 
the latest information concerning its treatment With a view of fully meet- 
ing this inquiry, we also publish the letter of Dr. Bigelow, of Paris, to Pro£ 
Warren Stone, of the University of Louisiana, published in the January num- 
ber of the New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, with the &)llowing 
note from Dr. Stone : — 

Bb. Dowlkb : I>ew Sir — ^The accompanying communication, on the subtjecl of (Uphtheria, froa 
Dr. Bigelow, of Paris, was kindly furnished at ray request When In Parb, a year ago, I had some 
conyersation with the Doctor on the subject, and finding the disease in our dty on my return, I wrote 
to Dr. Bigelow, and requested as a favor his experience in this destructive malady. No better anr 
thority could be appealed to ; for he is an American, and received an American practical educa t ion, 
and then resorted to Paris to perfect himself, where be has settled in taSl practice and intimate reU- 
llon with the leading members of the profession. I trust you will find It a valuable cSontribution. 

Yours, very truly, WARREN STONK, M. D. 

Braithwaitb's Retrospect of Practical Mbdicine and Surgery. — ^The 
volume for January is just out, and may be had by addressing W. A. Town- 
send & Co., 46 Widker street, New York, and inclosing one dollar. It gives 
a condensed, well-written digest of most of the medical periodicals of Europe 
and America, and is one of the most valuable publications of the day. It has 
been in existence nearly a quarter of a century, and in a physician's library, 
as a work of reference, it may b3 said there are few superior to it. 

Fluid Extracts. — We are obliged to omit a communication considering the 
relative value of these preparations, with tinctures, &c., whiib we shall give 
in next number, as well as several other articles unavoidah' 7 deferred. 


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Materia Medica, Pliarmacy, Chemistry, &c. 

VoLIL] MABCH, 1860. [Ho. S. 

Indigenous Tonics. 



Wk propose to treat of our indigenous vegetable tonics under 
the following heads, viz : — 
I. Simple or pure bitters. 
II. Bitter tonics, combining demulcent properties. 

III. Bitter tonics, with stimulant and diaphoretic properties. 

IV. Bitter tonics, with alterative properties. 

V. Bitter tonics, with laxative and deobstruent properties. 
VI. Bitter tonics, with sedative properties. 




{Pentandrw-—Digynia—Xatnral Ordti^—Gefitiana, ^.) 

The natural order Gentianacete embraces several of our moB< 
valuable simple bitters, such as the American centaury, American 
Colombo, gentian, the buck-bean, &e. All the plants belonging 
to it are smooth herbs, with a colorless, bitter juice; opposite 
and sessile, entire and simple leaves ; regular flowers, solitary 
or cymose, with the stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla, 
• which is monopetalous, with persistent calyx ; the stamens in- 


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82 Lee on Indigeiwus Tonics. 

' serted on its tube. Of the nine genera belonging to it, in the 
Northern and Middle States, all have valuable bitter tonic proper- 
ties. Species belonging to this genus are very widely dissemin- 
ated over the globe, and are everywhere employed as stomachic 
and bitter tonics. The bitter principle resides in the roots in some 
genera, and in the stalks and leaves of others. Griffith states 
that they may be employed indifferently. 

The genus Gentiana includes more than one hundred and fifty 
species, the greater part of which are found in temperate and cold 
dimates, of which about twelve species are common to the united 
States — «11 endowed with similar sensible properties. Of these^ 
the quinqueflora, crinita, and saponaria {catesbaei — Walter) are best 
known, and more generally employed Analysis shows that their 
organic constituents are nearly identical. The G. lutea (yellow 
gentian), which is often found in hilly lands in this State and New 
Jersey, has doubtless been introduced from abroad. The G^ 
saponaria (soapwort gentian) is a very beautiful plant, ixom 
twelve to eighteen inches high, with large, bright blue flowers^ 
which appear in September and October; it is found from Brit- 
ish America to the Carolinas, and is one of our most reliable spe- 
cies. The G. crinita (blue-fiinged gentian) is also one of our 
most useful and interesting native plants ; it is common in cool^ 
low grounds, from Canada to Georgia. The stem is about one 
foot high, round and smooth. The G, qainquejlora (five-floWered 
gentian) is confined chiefly to our Western States. Three of our 
native species are annual, the others perennial. The sensible 
properties of the roots of all our native species are so similar to 
those of the officinal foreign species {G. lutea) as scarcely to be 
distinguished from it This genus presents the singular anomaly, 
that while some of the species have five stamens and a five-deft 
corolla, others have but four stamens and a four-cleft corolla, and 
others still a different number. Considerable confusion exists in 
regard to the names of the different species of gentian. For ex* 
ample, the G. catesbaei of Elliot and Bigelow, and which was first 
figured and described by Catesby, is the G, puberula of Michaux, 
Torrey and Gray ; while the G. saponaria of the latter is the G. 
catesbaei of Walter. So, also, the (?. alba of Muhl. and Gray is 
the ochroleuca of Sims, Darlington, &c. It may be well to recol- 
lect that the stem of the G. saponaria is smooth, while that of 


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Lee on Indigenous Tonics. 88 

the 0. puherula {catesbaeC) is rough. 

Chemical Composition and Sensible Properties, — Your recent 
analysis of the root of the G. cateshaei of Bigelow gives, of— 

Organic Matters, 94«00 

Inorganic " - - . . 6.00 

Total, 100.00 

Gum, 8.220 

Albumen, 2.338 

Staidi, 1.988 

Eztnu^ye, 3.019 

Bitter Principle, 11.746 

Sugar, 8.156 

Coloring Matter, 14.088 

Resins, • . . . 4.0OO 

Bird Lime, 1.206 

Soluble Salts, . - .^ - - - - 1.094 

Insoluble Salts, 4.70a ^ 

Lignin, 49.447 

Total, 100.000 

It thus appears that the principal organic constituents are; 
gum, albumen, starch, bitter prindple, sugar, coloring matter and 
resin. The sugar is of the crystallizable kind. The foreign spe- 
cies yields a ccmcrete oil, and a crystalline substance, geiitisiny 
whidx is described by some writers as gentisic acid. This is not 
the active principle, however, as was supposed bv Henri and 
Caventou ; for when free from impurities the crystals possess no- 
bitterness, are colorless, feebly soluble in water, alcohol and ether,, 
and very feebly acid in relation to vegetable colors and bases^ 
Christison supposes that the active principle has not been isolated,, 
but it evidently resides in the bitter extractive matter. Every 
species of gentian readily imparts its bitterness to water, cold or 
hot, to alcohol, diluted spirit, wine and sulphuric ether. The root 
has at first a mucilaginous and sweetish taste, which is speedily 
succeeded by an intense bitter. That water is a good solvent i& 
proved by the &ct that the infrudon is as bitter as the tincture.. 
No astringency is found in any of the species. What has been 
called gentidnin seems to be a compound of the bitter principle^ 
geniianitCj and gentisin the crystalline and tasteless substance, a& 


I Digitiz 

tized by Google 

84 Lee on Indyenous Tbnics. 

pointed out by Tromsdorff and Leconte.* 

Neither the salts of iron, nor the nitrate of silver, throw down 
precipitates in the infusion ; the acetate of lead and the decoc- 
tion of yellow cinchona bark, however, cause copious precipi- 
tates. Acids greatly diminish the bitterness of gentian, while 
alkalies increase the bitterness. Owing to the starch and sugar 
the infusion soon ferments and spoils. 

Therapeutical Properties and Uses. — Gentian has been employed 
in medicine from a very remote antiquity, deriving its name, as 
is supposed, from Gentius, king of Ulyria, who lived 167 years 
before the Christian era. It formed a part of the celebrated anti- 
dote of Mithridates, which was believed to protect the person 
taking it against all poisons whatever. But most of its imputed 
virtues were fabulous, such as its efficacy against poisons, the 
bites of the mad dog and venomous serpents, and its powers as an 
attenuant, deobstruent and diuretic. 

Our native species of gentian possess similar properties to the 
foreign {G. liitea), which is in general use. In some parts of our 
country, particularly the Southern States, the blue gentian is very 
extensively substituted for the foreign article. It goes under the 
name of Sampson^s snake-root^ and is used in pneumonia with 
tvphoid symptoms, and dyspepsia, and also as a stomachic tonic 
There is do doubt that its medicinal virtues are fully equal to 
those of the European gentian. As a pure and simple bitter, 
gontian ranks next to quassia in its power of exciting the appe- 
tite and invigorating the powers of iJigestion. Given in health, 
it quickens the drculation and increases the temperature of the 

* A few yean ago a substance was Imported under Ibe naoM of gentianin^ which was said to be 
the actire principle of the gentian root of commerce. It wim slightly soluble In cold water, but 
readily dlssolred in bolUng water ; was yellow, InodorotMi and potvessed in a high degree the aromatis 
bitter taste of gentian. It was of a dark browQ color, and was no donbt a Tery impure ejrtraet, con- 
taining sugar, gum, coloring matter, and the bitter principle. Dr. Carpenter, of Philadelphia, recom- 
mends the following process for the porpose of obtaining the pore bitter principle, which he also calls 
gentianins ."—Digest the powder of gentian \fk oold ether, by which a strong green tincture is ob- 
tained ; filter and pour into an open vecvel, and. If snflieiently concentrated, a yellow crystalline mass 
will be deposited. Treat this with alcohol, filter and expoMd to heat, the yellow eiystaUlne substance 
appeam, assuming at the close of the evaporation a solid mass, extremely bitter ; treat this agahs 
with alcohol, evaporate to dryness, wash the residniui In water, adding a litUc calcined and well- 
washed magnesia, boil and evaporate in a water bath, and the bitter prindple remains partly finee 
and partly in a state of combination with magnesia, to which it imparts a yellow color. This b then 
to be boiled iu ether and eraporatcd, and the bitter principle Is L^lated and comparatlrely pure. 
A tincture may be made by adding five grains of this extract to an ounce of alcohol, and b a perfeci 
substitute for the officinal tincture of the root ; a ttyntp also can l>e prepared by adding sixteen 
grains of It to one pound simple syrap. 

Digitized by 


Lee on Indigenous Tonics. 85 

body. In morbid conditions, to which it is adapted, as dyspepsia 
and other gastric affections, attended with torpor and debility, 
unaccompanied by irritation or inflammation, or inordinate sus- 
ceptibility, it proves of eminent service, especially in combination 
with carbonate of ammonia. As a general tonic, also, in cases of 
feebleness and debility of the whole system, especially of the 
muscles, not dependent on organic disease, it is very beneficial. 
In intermittents, also, of a moderate grade, gentian, in combina- 
tion with small quantities of tannin, will arrest the paroxysms, 
with considerable certainty. Cullen states that he never found it 
to &il in such cases, when combined with an equal quantity of 
galls and tormentil. We have used it with great advantage in 
some cases of atonic gout where there was considerable general 
debility, unattended with fever or gastro-intestinal irritation : also 
in hysteria and chronic menorrhagia under similar circumstances. 
Like all other bitter tonics, however, it will oppress and disturb 
the stomach in doses too large, causing nausea and vomiting, and 
acting as a cathartic by irritating the mucous membrane of the 
bowels. But in suitable doses, no such effects will follow. In 
amenorrhoea and chlorosis, it forms a very admirable remedy ioi 
combination with iron, especially in those chronic cases attended 
with symptoms of anaemia and debility of the digestive organs. 
In scrofulous affections, also, it is used with much benefit, espe- 
cially in connection with chalybeate preparations or Lugol's solu- 
tion of iodine. In prescribing it, however, as in all other caseSy 
the name of the disease is of less importance than the general 
condition of the system, particularly of the digestive organs. In 
verminous affections it has long been celebrated, both as a pro- 
phylactic and a positive antidote. From the feet that quassia and 
Colombo have been found to exert a specific effect on the cerebro- 
spinal system, and to possess narcotic properties; it has been sur- 
mised that gentian^ also might be found to have similar qualities. 
The experiments of Majendie* and Hartl,t however, to decide 
this point, must be regarded as unsatisfectory, inasmuch as the 
narcotic principle, if it exist, may be, and probably is, of a vola- 
tile nature, and the preparations they used were made with boll- 

* FomraL, p. 818, Sme. edit. 

t Wbk. d. AnnelB. u. QIfte,bd. U., 8. 80a 


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86 Lee on Indigenous Tonics, 

ing water. Now, it has been satisfactorily ascertained that the 
distilled water of gentian produces speedy intoxication, as well as 
violent nausea ; and various writei-s, as Buckner, speak of the 
narcotic eflFect produced by gentian root, when no foreign sub- 
stance could be detected in it. Pareira remarks that *' facts sup- 
port the opinion of Haller that gentian is not so innocuous as is 
supposed."* There is, however, no satisfactory evidence that any 
species of gentian is endowed with sufficient narcotic power as to 
interfere with its proper use as a tonic, or to render it in any 
marked degree injurious as a toxic agent. We believe that the 
poisonous effects mentioned by some writers, as in the Phil Trans- 
actions for 1748, were caused probably by the roots of some other 
plants which accidentally got mixed with those of the gentian. 

In regard to the question whether gentian can be used for a 
long time without injurious effects, by exhausting the vital ener- 
gies, the law holds good, as it does in regard to all tonic agents, 
that its protracted use is not without more or less hazard. 
Though Prof Tully states that this is not true of mere and pure 
tonics, yet our observation leads to a different conclusion. Of 
course, much will depend on the quantity used. But that any 
tonic whatever can be given, not only with impunity, but with 
benefit, for twelve and even twenty years, as stated hy this 
author, is opposed to known physiological laws, as well as estab- 
lished general experience. There may be exceptional cases, as in 
persons of a strumous habit, who laborTiabitually under debility of 
the digestive organs, where the constitution may need and be bene- 
fited by the moderate and habitual use of both tonics and stimu- 
lants, and especially where the temperament is phlegmatic. Thus 
tiie infusion of the hop is taken habitually by many in the form 
of malt liquors, and apparently without injur}^ ; this plant tend- 
ing to diminish the injurious effects 6f such drinks, not only by 
counteracting the indirect debility which they might otlierwise 
occasion, but rendering them, when taken in moderation, accept- 
able to the stomach and promoters of digestion. Nothing, how- 
ever, can be more hazardous than the constant habit of taking 
stomachic bitters, such as Stoughton's and other compounds, into 
which gentian largely enters, to promote a healthy appetite. The 

* Mat. Med., toL H, p. CM. 

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Lee on Indigenous Tonics. 87 

(5ustom of inftising bitter herbs in vinous drinks* as remarked by 
Paris, is very ancient and universal, and*the jpocufem absinthuttum 
appears to have been regarded in remote ages as a wholesome 
beverage, the wormwood being supposed to act as an antidote to 
drunkenness. The Swiss peasant, says this writer, cheers himself 
amid the frigid solitude of his glaciers with a spirit distilled from 
gentian, the extreme bitterness of which is relished with a glee 
which is quite unintelligible to a more cultivated taste, and per- 
haps less acceptable to a stomach accustomed to more nutritive 
and digestible aliments. Whoever should infer fix)m such in- 
stances that bitters are necessary in the ordinary state of health, 
or that they can habitually be used with safety, would draw a 
very erroneous conclusion. Granting that bitter extractive is 
essential to healthy digestion in herbiverous animals, acting as a 
natural stimulus to their organs, it by no means follows that it is 
equally necessary for the human subject. It is a well-known 
fisujt, and one which has an important bearing upon this subjcct| 
that tlie habitual use of the celebrated Portland powder in cases 
of gout almost invariably led to a fatal result in the course of 
two years. ' This was composed of equal quantities of the pow- 
dered roots of gentian, birth wort^ germander, ground pine, and 
lesser centaury.* 

* No modem writer lias written with more judgment and discrimination on tonics than Dr. Colleil. 
His Uieoretical riews may not always be in accordance with sound pathology, but his statement of 
facts is always to be depended on. lie remarks that *' bitters actually destroy the tone of the stook- 
ach. I dare not determine/* he continues, ** whether the loss of tone mentioned is produced merelly 
by the repetition of t^eir tonic operation or by a narcotic quality which has been sus